Aerobatics is the practice of flying maneuvers involving aircraft altitudes that are not used in normal flight. Aerobatics are performed in airplanes and gliders for training, entertainment, some helicopters, such as the MBB Bo 105, are capable of limited aerobatic maneuvers. An example of a fully aerobatic helicopter, capable of performing loops, the term is sometimes referred to as acrobatics, especially when translated. Most aerobatic maneuvers involve rotation of the aircraft about its longitudinal axis or lateral axis, other maneuvers, such as a spin, displace the aircraft about its vertical axis. Maneuvers are often combined to form a complete sequence for entertainment or competition. Aerobatic flying requires a set of piloting skills and exposes the aircraft to greater structural stress than for normal flight. In some countries, the pilot must wear a parachute when performing aerobatics, aerobatic training enhances a pilots ability to recover from unusual flight conditions, and thus is an element of many flight safety training programs for pilots.
While many pilots fly aerobatics for recreation, some choose to fly in aerobatic competitions, in the early days of flying, some pilots used their aircraft as part of a flying circus to entertain. Among the earliest innovators in aerobatics the Frenchman Euclids name is foremost, maneuvers were flown for artistic reasons or to draw gasps from onlookers. In due course some of these maneuvers were found to allow aircraft to gain tactical advantage during combat or dogfights between fighter aircraft. Aerobatic aircraft fall into two categories—specialist aerobatic, and aerobatic capable, specialist designs such as the Pitts Special, the Extra 200 and 300, and the Sukhoi Su-26M and Sukhoi Su-29 aim for ultimate aerobatic performance. This comes at the expense of general use such as touring. Flight formation aerobatics are flown by teams of up to sixteen aircraft, some are state funded to reflect pride in the armed forces while others are commercially sponsored. Coloured smoke trails may be emitted to emphasise the patterns flown and/or the colours of a national flag, usually each team will use aircraft similar to one another finished in a special and dramatic colour scheme, thus emphasising their entertainment function.
Teams often fly V-formations — they will not fly directly behind another aircraft because of danger from wake vortices or engine exhaust, aircraft will always fly slightly below the aircraft in front, if they have to follow in line. Aerobatic maneuvers flown in an aircraft are limited in scope as they cannot take advantage of the gyroscopic forces that a propeller driven aircraft can exploit. Jet-powered aircraft tend to fly faster, which increases the size of the figures. Jet aerobatic teams often fly in formations, which restricts the maneuvers that can be safely flown
Red Bull Air Race World Championship
Pilots fly individually against the clock and have to complete tight turns through a slalom course consisting of pylons, known as Air Gates. The races are mainly over water near cities, but are held at airfields or natural wonders. They are accompanied by a program of show flights. Races are usually flown on weekends with the first day for qualification knockout finals the day after, the events attract large crowds and are broadcast, both live and taped, in many nations. At each venue, the top eight places earn World Championship points, the air racer with the most points at the end of the Championship becomes Red Bull Air Race World Champion. After a three-year hiatus for safety improvements and reorganisation, the Air Race resumed in 2014, There are eight stops planned between February and November. The Red Bull Air Race Word Championship is broadcast live and globally on Red Bull TV, the Red Bull Air Race was conceived in 2001 in the Red Bull sports think-tank which has been responsible for creating a range of new sports events across the world.
The aim was to develop a new race that would challenge the ability of the worlds best pilots, creating a race in the sky that was not simply about speed. The answer was to build a specially designed obstacle course which the pilots would navigate at high speeds, development of the prototypes of what are now known as the Air Gates began in 2002 and renowned Hungarian pilot Péter Besenyei successfully completed the first test flight through them. After two years in planning and development, the first official Red Bull Air Race was ready to take off in Zeltweg, a second was staged the same year near Budapest in Hungary. In 2004, three races took place in Kemble and Reno, the series was expanded in 2005 to become the Red Bull Air Race World Series. Ten pilots competed in seven races around the world – Mike Mangold was crowned the champion with Péter Besenyei and Kirby Chambliss in second, Eight races took place in 2006 with 11 pilots competing. Kirby Chambliss was crowned the champion for the Series second season, in 2007 the calendar was extended to include ten races with the first race on South American soil taking place in Rio de Janeiro.
Mike Mangold reclaimed the title of Red Bull Air Race World Champion 2007,12 pilots took part in 2008 in eight races around the globe and Austrian pilot Hannes Arch became the first European to win the championship. The largest number of pilots so far took part in six races in 2009,15 pilots from 12 different countries competed for the world championship title, this time with Brit Paul Bonhomme coming out on top, after coming so close the previous two years. In the 2010 series, during training runs prior to the race, Brazilian pilot, rescuers were on site within seconds and Kindlemann was rushed to Royal Perth Hospital where it was determined that he had suffered no serious injury. As of 2014, it is the crash in the history of the Red Bull Air Race. The 2011 series of races worldwide was cancelled, the decision was taken by Red Bull on 27 July 2010 to allow for a headquarters restructure as well as the implementation of new safety measures
The Aresti Catalog is the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale standards document enumerating the aerobatic manoeuvers permitted in aerobatic competition. The catalog broadly classifies manoeuvers into numbered families, in Aresti notation, solid lines represent upright or positive-g manoeuvers and dashed lines represent inverted or negative-g manoeuvers, these are sometimes depicted in red. Thick dot represents the beginning of the manoeuver, while a short line represents the end. Stalled wing manoeuvers such as spins and snap rolls are represented by triangles, arrows represent rolling manoeuvers with numbers representing the extent and number of segments of the roll. The catalog assigns each manoeuver a unique identifier, called a catalog number, when a basic figure is combined with one or more rolling elements, the resultant figure K is the sum of all component Ks. During an aerobatics competition, judges grade the execution of each manoeuver with a value between 10 and 0, each figures grades are multiplied by its K and summed to yield a total raw score for the flight.
Notational systems for aerobatic manoeuvers have been used since the 1920s, the first system accepted worldwide was published by French aviator François dHuc Dressler in 1955 and 1956. It was used for international competitions through 1962, josé Arestis development of a notation for aerobatic figures began while serving as an instructor in the Jerez Pilot Training School in the 1940s. By the end of 1961 Aresti published a dictionary of some 3,000 aerobatic manoeuvers, employed throughout Spain, the Spanish Aero Club urged its adoption internationally. Though the catalog had grown at one time to some 15,000 manoeuvers, following Arestis death, a court fight ensued between his heirs and FAI, which once provided a free catalog online. The catalog is now available in printed form for a fee from Aresti System S. L. Software is available to design and display aerobatic sequences using Aresti notation, aerobatic maneuver An article explaining Aresti notation
A falling leaf is an aerobatic maneuver in which an aircraft performs a wings-level stall which begins to induce a spin. This spin is countered with the rudder, which begins a spin in the direction that must be countered with rudder. A falling leaf is a controlled stall performed in a fixed-wing aircraft, the maneuver is performed by purposely stalling the airplane and carefully using the rudder to try to hold the aircraft on a steady course. The falling leaf consists of a constant rotation about the yaw axis while continually changing the direction and this is opposed to a flat spin, where the aircraft constantly rotates around its yaw axis in only one direction, similar to a Frisbee. The falling leaf is sometimes described as walking the aircraft while stalled. The maneuver is performed mostly with the rudder, trimming with the elevator. The rotation may be self-induced, called autorotation, or, in maneuvers like the falling leaf, the incipient spin begins when the aircraft first starts to rotate around the yaw axis.
The rotation causes one wing to move faster than the other, as the aircraft rolls it slips sideways. If the spin is not stopped, the plane continue to roll and slip until it is in an out-of-control. However, if rudder is used to stop the incipient spin before it becomes a full spin, in this case the incipient spin will begin in the opposite direction, so it must be stopped again, and the process is repeated throughout the maneuver. The falling leaf is used as a training maneuver, teaching the pilot to control the plane during a stall. It is generally performed from a low-speed, level stall, to avoid the buffeting, departure from the normal flightpath and it is used in aerobatic competitions and shows as a demonstration maneuver. As the speed drops, the pilot holds the plane as level as possible in both the direction and the lateral direction. When the stall speed is reached, the plane will lose lift, due to the low speed and high angle of attack, the aircraft loses its boundary layer, making the control surfaces barely responsive to pilot inputs.
Therefore, the controls are usually pushed to their maximum limit to get the plane to respond, as the aircraft stalls, the nose will begin to drop. At this point the pilot applies full or nearly full elevator, while holding the ailerons neutral, the pilot applies full rudder in one direction, to induce a spin. When the spin begins, the pilot reverses the rudder direction, the aircraft will roll during the spin and will drop to the side in a slip before the rudder has a chance to take authority over the plane. As the rudder stops the spin, the wings will level, at this time, the pilot reverses the rudder, and this is repeated until the pilot decides to disengage from the maneuver
Aerobatic maneuvers are flight paths putting aircraft in unusual attitudes, in air shows, dogfights or competition aerobatics. Aerobatics can be performed by an aircraft or in formation with several others. Nearly all aircraft are capable of performing aerobatics maneuvers of some kind, aerobatics consist of five basic maneuvers, loops, rolls and hammerheads. Most aerobatic figures are composites of these basic maneuvers with rolls superimposed, the pilot will be inverted at the top of the loop. A loop can be performed by going inverted and making the same maneuver and it can be visualized as making a loop of ribbon, hence the name it is given. A roll is simply rotating the plane about its roll axis and it can be done in increments of 360 degrees. A spin is more complex, involving intentionally stalling a single wing, causing the plane to descend spiraling around its yaw axis in a corkscrew motion. A Hammerhead is performed by pulling the aircraft up until its pointing straight up and he uses the rudder to rotate the aircraft around its yaw axis until it has turned 180deg and is pointing straight down, facing the direction he came from.
The aircraft gains speed, and he continues back exactly the way he came and it is known as a tailslide, from the yawing turn, which is different from the typical method of turning an aircraft in the pitch axis. Most of these can be entered either erect or inverted, flown backwards or have extra rolls added, where appropriate, the Aresti Catalog symbols have been included. Not all the figures are figures, and so some do not have diagrams to accompany the description. Reading the diagrams, a figure begins at the solid circle. Inverted flight is depicted by dashed red lines, the small arrow indicates a rolling maneuver. Dive, extreme nose down attitude, resulting in an increase in airspeed and descent rate. Lazy eight, 1/4 looping up, wingover, 1/2 looping down+up, wingover, 1/4 looping down Lomcovak, family of autorotational, in all varierties, the aircraft appears to tumble out of control. For example, one involves the aircraft tumbling nose over tail and wingtip over wingtip in a negative-g. Introduced by Czechoslovaks such as Ladislav Bezák, and others, pugachevs Cobra, the nose of the aircraft is pulled up suddenly.
The aircraft pitches up to 90–120° angle of attack, barrel roll, a combination of a loop and a roll
International Miniature Aerobatic Club
International Miniature Aerobatic Club is a non-profit organization devoted to flying scale aerobatic model aircraft. IMAC is the governing body responsible for hosting precision aerobatic contests with hundreds of pilots across the United States. The organization was founded in 1974 with 97 chartered members, for safety reasons, IMAC competitions are hosted only at Academy of Model Aeronautics or Model Aeronautics Association of Canada sanctioned flying clubs. IMAC contests are segregated into five levels with an optional sixth class at some events. In addition to programs, a pilot is given unknown programs the day of the competition that can only be attempted once. If a contestant wins five contests in a season, they are required to advance to the higher class at the beginning of the new season. Open to all pilots with a monoplane or biplane aircraft, aircraft at this level do not require a model pilot or dashboard. Unknown programs are limited to one full roll on any line and one roll on any 45 degree line.
Unknown programs cannot contain combination roll elements, unknown programs cannot exceed 1½ rolls on combination or single roll elements, excluding spins. Unknown programs are limited to a roll with any looping maneuvers. Unknown programs cannot exceed 2 rolls on combination or single roll elements, unknown programs are limited to 1½ rolls with any looping maneuvers. Unknown programs cannot exceed 2 rolls on combination or single roll elements, unknown programs are limited to 2½ rolls for downline, and 3 rolls for up line, combination roll elements. Requires pilot to compete in one of the five classes to be eligible. Separate awards offered from main competition, pilots are judge on a combination of Technical Merit, Artistic Impression, and Positioning. Sequences within each class are described using Aresti notation and this provides a standard method of documenting aerobatic maneuvers permitted within each class level for both pilots and judges. Pilots are judged on the quality and precision of their flying skills, each year, an official IMAC committee reviews the flying sequences within each class to makes adjustments as well as to offer new challenges for pilots.
Contestant judging is used to score participating pilots and assign a ranking within each class. Those achieving the highest scores in their class are rewarded with trophies, contest events are regionalized by states and provinces
Kirby Chambliss is an American commercial pilot and a renowned world champion in aerobatics. Chambliss was born in Corpus Christi, United States, as a youngster, he wanted to be a pilot. His father was a skydiver, and he loved the steep spiral in the sky the pilot put the plane into when racing the skydivers back to the ground, during his high school years, he fueled aircraft to earn money. By December 1975 at the age of 16, Chambliss debuted in solo flying after formal flight training, in the beginning, he earned his living as a certified flight instructor and as a night freight pilot. His job as a jet pilot enabled him in 1985 to take aerobatic flight training. Winning top honors in his very first contest, Chambliss worked the way up to the elite unlimited level, in 1997, he became member and captain of the US Aerobatic Team. He won five U. S. national championships and 13 medals at the world championships and he holds the title 2000 Mens Freestyle World Champion, and has logged over 27000 flying hours.
In 2013, Chambliss lost power performing a high Alpha pass at the Illopango El Salvador Airshow, Chambliss exited his aircraft with minor injuries after a forced landing on a rocky embankment. Chambliss enjoys performing in traditional airshows throughout the year when he is not training or competing, since 2003, he takes part at the international aerobatic competition Red Bull Air Race World Series as a member of the Red Bull Team along with his team mate Hungarian Péter Besenyei. The champion of 2004, Chambliss finished the 2006 Series as the champion again with four wins of eight rounds on his Zivko Edge 540 aircraft, to stay in shape for enormous g-forces and exact timing, he runs four miles five days a week. He lives with his wife and fellow pilot and their daughter Karly Nicole at the Flying Crown Ranch, Arizona, USA. Legend, CAN, Cancelled DNP, Did not participate DNS, Did not show DQ, Disqualified NC, Not classified Red Bull Air Race World Series official website Team Chambliss official website
A whifferdill turn refers to any number of fancy aerobatic maneuvers performed in an aerial flight show or while flying aggressively. It is a turn with both horizontal and vertical components, usually performed at the end of one maneuver in preparation for the next. As the plane is climbing the pilot makes a turn reversal, aviators often use the term as slang for any multi-axis movement or comical / interesting / unusual movement. The whifferdill is an aerial warfare maneuver that is used to reverse course in a dogfight with very little loss of energy/airspeed. It is a fundamental maneuver used in air shows, in astronautics, a whifferdill is a maneuver used during orbital rendezvous when the target is on a different orbital plane from the piloted vehicle. Due to the nature of orbits, the target will seem to make a helical motion relative to vehicle as the orbit progresses, a wifferdill maneuver is used to quickly realign the orbital plane of the vehicle with the target and stay near the targets orbital position or mean anomaly.
Due to the time and positional requirements, the maneuver uses a significant amount of fuel. Http, //www. limalima. com/airshow. htm illustrates the Whifferdill in use in an aerobatic routine
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, and the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2016, Adelaide had a resident population of 1,326,354 million. South Australia, with a total of 1, the demonym Adelaidean is used in reference to the city and its residents. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, and 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, Colonel William Light, one of Adelaides founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area originally inhabited by the Kaurna people. Lights design set out Adelaide in a layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares. Early Adelaide was shaped by prosperity and wealth—until the Second World War, it was Australias third-largest city and it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties.
It has been known as the City of Churches since the mid-19th century, as South Australias seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street. Today, Adelaide is noted for its festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts. It ranks highly in terms of liveability, being listed in the Top 10 of The Economist Intelligence Units Worlds Most Liveable Cities index in 2010,2011,2012 and 2015. It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011,2012 and 2013, prior to its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language was almost completely destroyed within a few decades of the European settlement of South Australia in 1836, extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both language and culture.
South Australia was officially proclaimed as a new British colony on 28 December 1836, the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light. Adelaide was established as a colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution. Wakefields idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen
In modern aerobatics, an Immelmann turn is an aerobatic maneuver that results in level flight in the opposite direction at a higher altitude. In World War I aerial combat, an Immelmann turn was a maneuver used after an attack on aircraft to reposition the attacking aircraft for another attack. After making a diving attack on an enemy, the attacker would climb back up past the enemy aircraft. This put his aircraft facing down at the aircraft, making another high-speed diving pass possible. This is a maneuver to perform properly, as it involves precise control of the aircraft at low speed. With practice and proper use of all of the fighters controls, in modern aerobatics, this maneuver, if executed pre-stall with a non-zero turning radius at the top of the climb, is known as a wingover. If the rudder turn is executed right at the initiation of the stall, the resulting yaw occurs around a point within the aircrafts wingspan, in modern aerobatics, an Immelmann turn is an aerobatic maneuver. Essentially, the aerobatic Immelmann comprises an ascending half-loop followed by a half-roll and it is the exact opposite of a Split S, which involves a half-roll followed by a half-loop, resulting in level flight in the exact opposite direction at a lower altitude.
The aerobatic Immelman turn derives its name from a different maneuver altogether, to successfully execute the aerobatic Immelmann turn, the pilot accelerates to sufficient airspeed to perform a loop in the aircraft. The pilot pulls the aircraft into a climb, and continues to back on the controls as the aircraft climbs. Rudder and ailerons must be used to keep the half-loop straight when viewed from the ground, as the aircraft passes over the point at which the climb was commenced, it should be inverted and a half loop will have been executed. Sufficient airspeed must be maintained to recover without losing altitude, as a result, the aircraft is now at a higher altitude and has changed course 180 degrees. Not all aircraft are capable of this maneuver, due to insufficient engine power, in fact, few early aircraft had sufficiently precise roll control to have performed this maneuver properly. Chandelle The Scissors Cuban Eight The Immelman Turn Wheeler, Allan H, Building Aeroplanes for Those Magnificent Men, Foulis,1963