The Oakland Raiders are a professional American football franchise based in Oakland, California. The Raiders compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's American Football Conference West division. Founded on January 30, 1960, they played their first regular season game on September 11, 1960, as a charter member of the American Football League which merged with the NFL in 1970; the Raiders' off-field fortunes have varied over the years. The team's first three years of operation were marred by poor on-field performance, financial difficulties, spotty attendance. In 1963, the Raiders' fortunes improved with the introduction of head coach Al Davis. In 1967, after several years of improvement, the Raiders reached the postseason for the first time; the team would go on to win its first AFL Championship that year. Since 1963, the team has won 15 division titles, four AFC Championships, one AFL Championship, three Super Bowl Championships. At the end of the NFL's 2018 season, the Raiders boasted a lifetime regular season record of 466 wins, 423 losses, 11 ties.
The team departed Oakland to play in Los Angeles from the 1982 season until the 1994 season before returning to Oakland at the start of the 1995 season. Al Davis owned the team from 1972 until his death in 2011. Control of the franchise was given to Al's son Mark Davis. On March 27, 2017, NFL team owners voted nearly unanimously to approve the Raiders' application to relocate from Oakland to Las Vegas, Nevada, in a 31–1 vote at the annual league meetings in Phoenix, Arizona; the Raiders plan to remain in the Bay Area through 2019, relocate to Las Vegas in 2020, pending the completion of the team's planned new stadium. The Raiders are known for distinctive team culture; the Raiders have 14 former members. They have played at Kezar Stadium in San Francisco, Candlestick Park in San Francisco, Frank Youell Field in Oakland, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum in Los Angeles, the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum in Oakland; the Oakland Raiders were going to be called the "Oakland Señors" after a name-the-team contest had that name finish first, but after being the target of local jokes, the name was changed to the Raiders before the 1960 season began.
Having enjoyed a successful collegiate coaching career at Navy during the 1950s, San Francisco native Eddie Erdelatz was hired as the Raiders' first head coach. On February 9, 1960, after rejecting offers from the NFL's Washington Redskins and the AFL's Los Angeles Chargers, Erdelatz accepted the Raiders' head coaching position. In January 1960, the Raiders were established in Oakland, because of NFL interference with the original eighth franchise owner, were the last team of eight in the new American Football League to select players, thus relegated to the remaining talent available; the 1960 Raiders 42-man roster included 28 rookies and only 14 veterans. Among the Raiders rookies were future Pro Football Hall of Fame inductee center Jim Otto, a future Raiders head coach, quarterback Tom Flores. In their debut year under Erdelatz the Raiders finished with a 6–8 record. Ownership conflicts prevented the team from signing. On September 18, 1961, Erdelatz was dismissed after the Raiders were outscored 77–46 in the first two games of the season.
On September 24, 1961, after the dismissal of Erdelatz, management named Los Angeles native and offensive line coach Marty Feldman as the Raiders head coach. The team finished the 1961 season with a 2–12 record. Feldman began the 1962 season as Raiders head coach but was fired on October 16, 1962 after an 0–5 start. From October 16 through December, the Raiders were coached by Oklahoma native and former assistant coach Red Conkright. Under Conkright, the Raiders went 1–8, finishing the season with 1–13 record. Following the 1962 season the Raiders appointed Conkright to an interim mentor position as they looked for a new head coach. After the 1962 season, Raiders managing general partner F. Wayne Valley hired Al Davis as Raiders head coach and general manager. At 33, he was the youngest person in professional football history to hold the positions. Davis began to implement what he termed the "vertical game", an aggressive offensive strategy inspired by the offense developed by Chargers head coach Sid Gillman.
Under Davis the Raiders improved to 10–4 and he was named the AFL's Coach of the Year in 1963. Though the team slipped to 5–7–2 in 1964, they rebounded to an 8–5–1 record in 1965; the famous silver and black Raider uniform debuted at the regular season opening game on September 8, 1963. Prior to this, the team wore a combination of black and white with gold trim on the pants and oversized numerals. In April 1966, Davis left the Raiders after being named AFL Commissioner, promoting assistant coach John Rauch to head coach. Two months the league announced its merger with the NFL; the leagues would retain separate regular seasons until 1970. With the merger, the position of commissioner was no longer needed, Davis entered into discussions with Valley about returning to the Raiders. On July 25, 1966, Davis returned as part-owner of the team, he purchased a 10% interest in the team for $18,000, became the team's third general partner — the partner in charge of football operations. Under Rauch, the Raiders matched their 1965 season's 8–5–1 record in 1966 but missed the pl
Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King is an American former World No. 1 professional tennis player. King won 39 Grand Slam titles: 12 in singles, 16 in women's doubles, 11 in mixed doubles, she won the singles title at the inaugural WTA Tour Championships. She represented the United States in the Federation Cup and the Wightman Cup, she was a member of the victorious United States team in seven Federation Cups and nine Wightman Cups. For three years, she was the United States' captain in the Federation Cup. King has long been a pioneer for equality and social justice. In 1973, at age 29, she won the "Battle of the Sexes" tennis match against the 55-year-old Bobby Riggs, she was the founder of the Women's Tennis Association and the Women's Sports Foundation. She was instrumental in persuading cigarette brand Virginia Slims to sponsor women's tennis in the 1970s and went on to serve on the board of their parent company Philip Morris in the 2000s. Regarded by many in the sport as one of the greatest tennis players of all time, King was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1987.
The Fed Cup Award of Excellence was bestowed on her in 2010. In 1972, she was the joint winner, with John Wooden, of the Sports Illustrated Sportsman of the Year award and was one of the Time Persons of the Year in 1975, she has received the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Sunday Times Sportswoman of the Year lifetime achievement award. She was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1990, in 2006, the USTA National Tennis Center in New York City was renamed the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center. In 2018, she won the BBC Sports Personality of the Year Lifetime Achievement Award. Billie Jean Moffitt was born in Long Beach, into a conservative Methodist family, the daughter of Betty, a housewife, Bill Moffitt, a firefighter, her family was athletic. Her younger brother, Randy Moffitt, became a Major League Baseball pitcher, pitching for 12 years in the major leagues for the San Francisco Giants, Houston Astros, Toronto Blue Jays, she excelled at baseball and softball as a child, playing shortstop at 10 years old on a team with girls 4–5 years older than her.
The team went on to win the Long Beach softball championship. She switched from softball to tennis at age 11, because her parents suggested she should find a more ladylike sport, she saved her own money – $8 – to buy her first racket. She learned tennis on the many free public courts in Long Beach, taking advantage of the free lessons tennis professional Clyde Walker offered at those courts. One of the city's tennis facilities has subsequently been named the Billie Jean Moffitt King Tennis Center; as a kid playing in her first tennis tournaments, she was hindered by her aggressive playing style. Bob Martin, sportswriter for the Long Beach, Press-Telegram wrote about her success in a weekly tennis column, she attended Long Beach Polytechnic High School. After graduating, she attended Los Angeles, she did not graduate. While attending Cal State, she met Larry King in a library; the pair became engaged while still in school when Billie Jean was 20 and Larry 19 years old and married on September 17, 1965 in Long Beach.
King's triumph at the French Open in 1972 made her only the fifth woman in tennis history to win the singles titles at all four Grand Slam events, a "career Grand Slam." She won a career Grand Slam in mixed doubles. In women's doubles, only the Australian Open eluded her. King won a record 20 career titles at Wimbledon – six in singles, 10 in women's doubles, four in mixed doubles. King played 51 Grand Slam singles events from 1959 through 1983, reaching at least the semifinals in 27 and at least the quarterfinals in 40 of her attempts. King was the runner-up in six Grand Slam singles events. An indicator of her mental toughness in Grand Slam singles tournaments was her 11–2 career record in deuce third sets, i.e. third sets that were tied 5–5 before being resolved. King won 129 singles titles, 78 of which were WTA titles, her career prize money totaled US$1,966,487. In Federation Cup finals, she was on the winning United States team seven times, in 1963, 1966, 1967, 1976 through 1979, her career win–loss record was 52–4.
She doubles. In Wightman Cup competition, her career win -- loss record was 22 -- 4; the United States won the cup ten of the 11 years. In singles, King was 6–1 against Ann Haydon-Jones, 4–0 against Virginia Wade, 1–1 against Christine Truman Janes; as King began competing in 1959, she began working with new coaches including Frank Brennan and Alice Marble, who had won 18 Grand Slam titles as a player herself. She made her Grand Slam debut at the 1959 U. S. Championships at age 15, she lost in the first round. She began playing at local and international tennis championships. Sports Illustrated claimed her as "one of the most promising youngsters on the West Coast." She won her first tournament the next year in Philadelphia at the 1960 Philadelphia and District Grass Court Championships. At her second attempt at the U. S. Championships, King made it to the third round. In 1960, she reached the final of the National Girl's 18 and Under Championships, losing to Karen Hantze Susmen, her national tennis ranking improved from number 19 in 1959 to number 4 1960.
Despite the success, Marble terminated her professional relationship with King because for reasons stemming from King's ambi
Mariel Margaret Hamm-Garciaparra is an American retired professional soccer player, two-time Olympic gold medalist, two-time FIFA Women's World Cup champion. Hailed as a soccer icon, she played as a forward for the United States women's national soccer team from 1987–2004. Hamm was the face of the Women's United Soccer Association, the first professional women's soccer league in the United States, where she played for the Washington Freedom from 2001–2003, she played college soccer for the North Carolina Tar Heels women's soccer team and helped the team win four consecutive NCAA Division I Women's Soccer Championship titles. During her tenure with the national team, Hamm competed in four FIFA Women's World Cup tournaments: the inaugural 1991 in China, 1995 in Sweden, 1999 and 2003 in the United States, she led the team at three Olympic Games, including: 1996 in Atlanta, 2000 in Sydney, 2004 in Athens. She completed her international career having played in 42 matches and scored 14 goals at these 7 international tournaments.
Hamm held the record for most international goals scored—by a woman or man—until 2013 and remains in third place behind former teammate Abby Wambach and Canadian striker Christine Sinclair as of 2017. She ranks third in the history of the U. S. national team for international caps and first for career assists. Twice named FIFA World Player of the Year in 2001 and 2002, Hamm and her teammate Michelle Akers were hailed by Pelé as two of FIFA's 125 greatest living players when he included them in the FIFA 100 to celebrate the organization's 100th anniversary. Hamm was named U. S. Soccer Female Athlete of the Year five years in a row and won three ESPY awards including Soccer Player of the Year and Female Athlete of the Year; the Women's Sports Foundation named her Sportswoman of the Year in 1997 and 1999. She was inducted into the National Soccer Hall of Fame, Alabama Sports Hall of Fame, Texas Sports Hall of Fame and was the first woman inducted into the World Football Hall of Fame. A co-owner of Los Angeles FC, Hamm is a global ambassador for FC Barcelona and is on the board of directors of Serie A club A.
S. Roma. Author of Go For the Goal: A Champion's Guide to Winning in Soccer and Life, Hamm has been featured in several films and television shows, including the HBO documentary, Dare to Dream: The Story of the U. S. Women's Soccer Team. Born in Selma, Mia was the fourth of six children of Bill and Stephanie Hamm, she wore corrective shoes as a toddler after being born with a club foot. Hamm spent her childhood on various United States Air Force bases around the world with her family. While living in Florence, Hamm first played soccer, hugely popular there. At age five living in Wichita Falls, Hamm joined her first soccer team, her father coached her newly adopted brother, 8-year-old Garrett. Hamm played sports from a young age and excelled as a football player on the boys' team at junior high school; as a high school freshman and sophomore, she played soccer for Notre Dame Catholic High School in Wichita Falls. She played at the 1987 U. S. Olympic Festival, the youngest player to play for the United States women's national soccer team.
As a new player, she started as a forward but did not score a goal during her first year on the team. Hamm spent a year at Lake Braddock Secondary School in Burke and helped the Lake Braddock soccer team win the 1989 state championships. From 1989 to 1993, Hamm attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where she helped the Tar Heels win four NCAA Division I Women's Soccer Championships in five years, she red-shirted the 1991 season to focus on preparation for the inaugural 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup in China. North Carolina lost one game of the 95, she earned All-American honors, was named the Atlantic Coast Conference Player of the Year for three consecutive years, was named ACC Female Athlete of the Year in 1993 and 1994. She graduated from North Carolina in 1994 with the ACC records for goals and total points. In 2003, she and Michael Jordan were named the ACC's Greatest Athletes of the conference's first fifty years. Hamm was a member of the United States women's national college team that won a silver medal, being defeated by China in the final, at the 1993 Summer Universiade in Buffalo, New York.
Hamm made her debut for the United States women's national soccer team in 1987 at the age of 15 — just two years after the team played its first international match. She was the youngest person to play for the team, she scored her first goal during her 17th appearance. She competed in four FIFA Women's World Cup tournaments: the inaugural 1991 in China, 1995 in Sweden, 1999 and 2003 in the United States, she led the team at three Olympic Games, including: 1996 in Atlanta, 2000 in Sydney, 2004 in Athens. In total, she played 42 scored 14 goals in international tournaments. Hamm held the record for most international goals scored—by a woman or man—until 2013 and remains in third place as of 2017, she ranks third in the history of the U. S. national team for international caps and first for career assists. In 1991, Hamm was named to the roster for the inaugural FIFA Women's World Cup in China under North Carolina coach Anson Dorrance. At 19 years old, she was still the youngest player on the team. During the team's first match of the tournament, Hamm scored the game-winning goal in the 62nd minute, leading the U.
S. to a 3–2 win over Sweden. She scored once in their second group stage match when they defeated Brazil 5–0; the U. S. squad finished first in Group B
Donald John Trump is the 45th and current president of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a television personality. Trump was born and raised in the New York City borough of Queens and received an economics degree from the Wharton School, he was appointed president of his family's real estate business in 1971, renamed it The Trump Organization, expanded it from Queens and Brooklyn into Manhattan. The company built or renovated skyscrapers, hotels and golf courses. Trump started various side ventures, including licensing his name for real estate and consumer products, he managed the company until his 2017 inauguration. He co-authored several books, including The Art of the Deal, he owned the Miss Universe and Miss USA beauty pageants from 1996 to 2015, he produced and hosted The Apprentice, a reality television show, from 2003 to 2015. Forbes estimates his net worth to be $3.1 billion. Trump entered the 2016 presidential race as a Republican and defeated sixteen opponents in the primaries.
His campaign received extensive free media coverage. Commentators described his political positions as populist and nationalist. Trump has made many misleading statements during his campaign and presidency; the statements have been documented by fact-checkers, the media have described the phenomenon as unprecedented in American politics. Trump was elected president in a surprise victory over Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton, he became the oldest and wealthiest person to assume the presidency, the first without prior military or government service, the fifth to have won the election despite having lost the popular vote. His election and policies have sparked numerous protests. Many of his comments and actions have been perceived as racially charged or racist. During his presidency, Trump ordered a travel ban on citizens from several Muslim-majority countries, citing security concerns, he enacted a tax cut package for individuals and businesses, which rescinded the individual health insurance mandate and allowed oil drilling in the Arctic Refuge.
He repealed the Dodd-Frank Act that had imposed stricter constraints on banks in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis. He has pursued his America First agenda in foreign policy, withdrawing the U. S. from the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade negotiations, the Paris Agreement on climate change, the Iran nuclear deal. He recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, imposed import tariffs on various goods, triggering a trade war with China, negotiated with North Korea seeking denuclearization, he nominated two justices to the Supreme Court: Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh. The Justice Department investigated links between the Trump campaign and the Russian government regarding its election interference; when Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey, in charge of the investigation, Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein appointed Robert Mueller as special counsel to proceed with the probe. The Special Counsel investigation led to guilty pleas by five Trump associates to criminal charges including lying to investigators, campaign finance violations, tax fraud.
Trump denied accusations of collusion and obstruction of justice, calling the investigation a politically motivated "witch hunt". Attorney General William Barr wrote that the special counsel's final report did not find that Trump or his campaign had "conspired or coordinated" with Russia during the 2016 election, but did not reach a conclusion regarding obstruction of justice, neither implicating him regarding obstruction of justice nor exonerating him. Donald John Trump was born on June 14, 1946, at the Jamaica Hospital in the borough of Queens, New York City, his parents were Frederick Christ Trump, a real estate developer, Mary Anne MacLeod. Trump grew up in the Jamaica Estates neighborhood of Queens, attended the Kew-Forest School from kindergarten through seventh grade. At age 13, he was enrolled in the New York Military Academy, a private boarding school, after his parents discovered that he had made frequent trips into Manhattan without their permission. In 1964, Trump enrolled at Fordham University.
After two years, he transferred to the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. While at Wharton, he worked at Elizabeth Trump & Son, he graduated in May 1968 with a B. S. in economics. When Trump was in college from 1964 to 1968, he obtained four student draft deferments. In 1966, he was deemed fit for military service based upon a medical examination and in July 1968, a local draft board classified him as eligible to serve. In October 1968, he was given a medical deferment that he attributed to spurs in the heels of both feet, which resulted in a 1-Y classification: "Unqualified for duty except in the case of a national emergency." In the December 1969 draft lottery, Trump's birthday, June 14, received a high number that would have given him a low probability to be called to military service without the 1-Y. In 1972, he was reclassified as 4-F. In 1973 and 1976, The New York Times reported that Trump had graduated first in his class at Wharton. However, a 1984 Times profile of Trump noted.
In 1988, New York magazine reported Trump conceding, "Okay, maybe not'first,' as myth has it, but he had'the highest grades possible.'" Michael Cohen, Trump's former attorney, testified to the House Oversight Committee in February 2019 that Trump "directed me to threaten his high school, his colleges and the College Board to never release his grades or SAT scores." Days after Trump stated in 2011, "I heard [Barack O
Plano is a city in the U. S. state of Texas, located twenty miles north of downtown Dallas. The city of Plano is a part of the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area. Plano lies within Collin County, but includes a small portion that extends into Denton County; the city's population was estimated at 286,143 in 2017, making it the ninth most populous city in the state of Texas and the 69th most populous in the United States. The city is a hub for many corporate headquarters. Plano was considered to be the safest city in the nation by Forbes in 2011. European settlers came to the area near present-day Plano in the early 1840s. Facilities such as a sawmill, a gristmill, a store soon brought more people to the area. A mail service was established, after rejecting several names for the nascent town, residents suggested the name Plano, as a reference to the local terrain and devoid of any trees; the name was accepted by the post office. In 1872, the completion of the Houston and Central Texas Railway helped the city to grow, it was incorporated in 1873.
By 1874, the population had grown to more than 500. In 1881, a fire raged through the business district; the town was rebuilt and business again flourished through the 1880s. In 1881, the city assumed responsibility for what would become Plano Independent School District, ending the days of it being served only by private schools. At first, the population of Plano grew reaching 1,304 in 1900, rising to 3,695 in 1960. By 1970, Plano began to feel some of the boom its neighbors had experienced after World War II. A series of public works projects and a change in taxes that removed the farming community from the town helped increase the overall population. In 1970, the population reached 17,872, by 1980, it had exploded to 72,000. Sewers and street development kept pace with this massive increase because of Plano's flat topography, grid layout, planning initiatives. During the 1980s, many large corporations moved their headquarters to the city, including J. C. Penney and Frito-Lay, which encouraged further growth.
By 1990, the population reached 128,713. In 1994, the city was recognized as an All-America City. By 2000, the population grew to 222,030. Plano is surrounded by other municipalities and therefore cannot expand in area, there is little undeveloped land remaining within the city limits. However, as of July 2012, one large tract of land was being developed: Turnpike Commons at the intersection of Renner Road and the George Bush Turnpike; the development is expected to feature apartments, medical facilities, restaurants, a Race Trac gas station, a hotel. There was an epidemic of heroin abuse among young people in the 1990s; the Plano authorities created an anti-drug campaign with the name "Operation Rockfest."In 2013, Plano received top-scoring nationally in a livability index according to an algorithm created by AreaVibes.com, a Toronto-based company specializing in such data. AreaVibes ranked Plano at the top of the list of U. S. cities with populations between 100,000 and 10,000,000. Another chart, "Best Places to Live in 2013" has Plano ranked number 1.
In September 2017, a mass shooting occurred. According to the United States Census Bureau, Plano has a total area of 71.6 square miles. Plano is about 17 miles from Downtown Dallas. Plano is in the humid subtropical climate zone; the highest recorded temperature was 118 °F in 1936. On average, the coolest month is January and the warmest is July; the lowest recorded temperature was -7 °F in 1930. The maximum average precipitation occurs in May; as of the census of 2010, Plano had 259,841 people, 99,131 households and 69,464 families, up from 80,875 households and 60,575 families in the 2000 census. The population density was 3,629.1 people per square mile. There were 103,672 housing units at an average density of 1,448.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 66.9% White, 7.6% Black, 0.36% Native American, 16.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.86% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino made up 14.7% of the population As of 2009 western Plano has a higher concentration of Asians, while eastern Plano has a higher concentration of Hispanics and Latinos.
Of the 99,131 households, 35.8% had children under the age of 18. Married couples accounted for 56.7%. 24.4% of all households were individuals, 5.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61, the average family size was 3.15. Data indicates that 28.7% of Plano's population was under the age of 18, 7.0% was 18 to 24, 36.5% was 25 to 44, 22.9% was 45 to 64, 4.9% was 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.2 males. According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $84,492, the median income for a family is $101,616. About 3.0% of families and 4.3% of the population live below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over. In 2007, Plano had the highest median income of a city with a popu
Texas A&M University
Texas A&M University is a public research university in College Station, United States. Since 1948, it has been the founding member of the Texas A&M University System; the Texas A&M system endowment is among the 10 largest endowments in the nation. As of 2017, Texas A&M's student body is the largest in Texas and the second largest in the United States. Texas A&M's designation as a land and space grant institution–the only university in Texas to hold all three designations–reflects a range of research with ongoing projects funded by organizations such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the Office of Naval Research. In 2001, Texas A&M was inducted as a member of the Association of American Universities; the school's students, alumni—over 450,000 strong—and sports teams are known as Aggies. The Texas A&M Aggies athletes compete in 18 varsity sports as a member of the Southeastern Conference; the first public institution of higher education in Texas, the school opened on October 4, 1876, as the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas under the provisions of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts.
The college taught no classes in agriculture, instead concentrating on classical studies, languages and applied mathematics. After four years, students could attain degrees in scientific agriculture and mechanical engineering, language and literature. Under the leadership of President James Earl Rudder in the 1960s, A. M. C. Desegregated, became coeducational, dropped the requirement for participation in the Corps of Cadets. To reflect the institution's expanded roles and academic offerings, the Texas Legislature renamed the school to Texas A&M University in 1963; the letters "A&M," A. M. C. Short for "Agricultural and Mechanical College," are retained as a link to the university's tradition; the main campus is one of the largest in the United States, spanning 5,200 acres, is home to the George Bush Presidential Library. About one-fifth of the student body lives on campus. Texas A&M has more than 1,000 recognized student organizations. Many students observe the traditions, which govern daily life, as well as special occasions, including sports events.
Working with various A&M-related agencies, the school has a direct presence in each of the 254 counties in Texas. The university offers degrees in more than 150 courses of study through ten colleges and houses 18 research institutes; as a Senior Military College, Texas A&M is one of six American public universities with a full-time, volunteer Corps of Cadets who study alongside civilian undergraduate students. The U. S. Congress laid the groundwork for the establishment of A. M. C. in 1862 with the adoption of the Morrill Act. The act auctioned land grants of public lands to establish endowments for colleges where the "leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and mechanical arts... to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life". In 1871, the Texas Legislature used these funds to establish the state's first public institution of higher education, the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas known as Texas A.
M. C. Brazos County donated 2,416 acres near Bryan, for the school's campus. A detailed listing and backgrounds of all of the University's presidents can be found on the Brazos County Texas Genealogical Association's site Enrollment began on October 2, 1876. Six students enrolled on the first day, classes began on October 4, 1876, with six faculty members. During the first semester, enrollment increased to 48 students, by the end of the spring 1877 semester, 106 students had enrolled. Admission was limited to white males, all students were required to participate in the Corps of Cadets and receive military training. Although traditional Texas A&M University Corps of Cadets "campusologies" indicate 40 students began classes on October 4, 1876, the exact number of students enrolled on that day is unknown. Enrollment climbed to 258 students before declining to 108 students in 1883, the year the University of Texas opened in Austin, Texas. Although envisioned and annotated in the Texas Constitution as a branch of the University of Texas, Texas A.
M. C. had a separate Board of Directors from the University of Texas from the first day of classes and was never enveloped into the University of Texas System. In the late 1880s, many Texas residents saw no need for two colleges in Texas and clamored for an end of Texas A. M. C. In 1891, Texas A. M. C. was saved from potential closure by its new president Lawrence Sullivan Ross, former governor of Texas, well-respected Confederate Brigadier General. Ross made many improvements to the school and enrollment doubled to 467 cadets as parents sent their sons to Texas A. M. C. "to learn to be like Ross". During his tenure, many enduring Aggie traditions were born, including the creation of the first Aggie Ring. After his death in 1898, a statue was erected in front of what is now Academic Plaza to honor Ross and his achievements in the history of the school. In 2017, the status of this statue was in doubt after other schools removed statues of former Confederate officers. In contrast, the Texas A&M Chancellor and President announced the Sul Ross statue would remain as Ross's statue's place of honor was not based upon his service in the Confederate Army.
Under pressure from the legislature, in 1911 the school began allowing women to attend classes during the summer semester. At the same time, A. M. C. began expanding its academic pursuits with the establishment o
Charlie Engle (marathoner)
Charlie Engle, is an ultramarathon runner and author. Charlie Engle was born on September 1962, to mother Rebecca Ranson and father Richard Engle, his parents were students at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. In eighth grade, Engle ran his first mile in under five minutes for the first time. After living in California for a time, he moved to Southern Pines, North Carolina with his father and stepmother in 1976 and began attending Pinecrest High School. Engle enrolled in UNC but soon began to have problems with alcohol and cocaine, which caused him to falter in his academics. During Engle's junior year his father, living in Seattle, Washington came to pick Engle up after a concerned call from one of Engle's fraternity members. Removed from UNC, Engle started to spiral, bouncing from job to job as he battled his addiction to drugs and alcohol. Years in July 1992 while Engle was working in Wichita, one of his cocaine binges ended with his car being shot at with a spray of bullets. Engle began attending a local Alcoholics Anonymous meeting that day and overcame his addiction.
He mentions that day as helping motivate him, stating to Runner's World: "That was my lowest low. The day when I woke up." Engle started running marathons in 1989. His first was the Big Sur marathon and he ran in several more marathons, including the Boston Marathon, before getting sober. Engle entered his first ultra-marathon by accident in Brisbane, Australia, in 1996, thinking he was entering shorter-distance event, he still managed to win the men's division and began entering endurance competitions around the world. After seeing an Eco-Challenge on the Discovery Channel, Engle registered to participate in one of the events, he described himself as a "documentary filmmaker" despite having limited experience in the hopes that the statement would be self-fulfilling. When Engle was accepted into the Borneo Eco-Challenge he was asked by CBS about having him shoot footage of the event for the series 48 Hours, which ended up using eleven minutes of footage that Engle shot. Following the Borneo challenge, Engle went on several weeks to complete the annual Ironman Triathlon in Hawaii.
His camerawork for 48 Hours helped Engle get a job as part of the camera crew for Extreme Makeover: Home Edition and he became a producer for the show. During his time with the show, Engle continued doing work in car dent repair and continued competing in endurance events; the contacts he had developed in the entertainment industry from working on Extreme Makeover helped Engle get director James Moll to film a documentary of the Sahara expedition. Engle published a memoir, Running Man, in 2016. In 2010, Engle was convicted of 12 counts of mortgage fraud, served 16 months in federal prison in Beckley, West Virginia before being released to a halfway house. 2015 Racing the Planet, Ecuador. Winner of age division and fourth top-five finish in this racing series. 2016 Icebreaker Run Led a 6-person running team across the United States. As a team, the runners ran 24 hours a day for 24 straight days to raise awareness for mental health and addiction services. Official website