The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions and led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict; the wars are categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition, the Fourth, the Fifth, the Sixth, the Seventh. Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France in 1799, had inherited a chaotic republic. In 1805, Austria and Russia waged war against France. In response, Napoleon defeated the allied Russo-Austrian army at Austerlitz in December 1805, considered his greatest victory. At sea, the British defeated the joint Franco-Spanish navy in the Battle of Trafalgar on October 1805; this victory prevented the invasion of Britain itself. Concerned about the increasing French power, Prussia led the creation of the Fourth Coalition with Russia and Sweden, the resumption of war in October 1806.
Napoleon defeated the Prussians in Jena and the Russians in Friedland, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. The peace failed, though, as war broke out in 1809, when the badly prepared Fifth Coalition, led by Austria, was defeated in Wagram. Hoping to isolate Britain economically, Napoleon launched an invasion of Portugal, the only remaining British ally in continental Europe. After occupying Lisbon in November 1807, with the bulk of French troops present in Spain, Napoleon seized the opportunity to turn against his former ally, depose the reigning Spanish Bourbon family and declare his brother King of Spain in 1808 as Joseph I; the Spanish and Portuguese revolted with British support, after six years of fighting, expelled the French from Iberia in 1814. Concurrently, unwilling to bear economic consequences of reduced trade violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon to launch a massive invasion of Russia in 1812; the resulting campaign ended with the dissolution and disastrous withdrawal of the French Grande Armée.
Encouraged by the defeat, Prussia and Russia formed the Sixth Coalition and began a new campaign against France, decisively defeating Napoleon at Leipzig in October 1813 after several inconclusive engagements. The Allies invaded France from the East, while the Peninsular War spilled over southwestern French territory. Coalition troops captured Paris at the end of March 1814 and forced Napoleon to abdicate in early April, he was exiled to the island of Elba, the Bourbons were restored to power. However, Napoleon escaped in February 1815, reassumed control of France; the Allies responded with the Seventh Coalition, defeating Napoleon permanently at Waterloo in June 1815 and exiling him to St Helena where he died six years later. The Congress of Vienna redrew the borders of Europe, brought a lasting peace to the continent; the wars had profound consequences on global history, including the spread of nationalism and liberalism, the rise of the British Empire as the world's foremost power, the appearance of independence movements in Latin America and subsequent collapse of the Spanish Empire, the fundamental reorganisation of German and Italian territories into larger states, the establishment of radically new methods of conducting warfare.
Napoleon seized power in 1799. There are a number of opinions on the date to use as the formal beginning of the Napoleonic Wars; the Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, the first of the Coalition Wars against the First French Republic after Napoleon's accession as leader of France. Britain ended the Treaty of Amiens and declared war on France in May 1803. Among the reasons were Napoleon's changes to the international system in Western Europe in Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleon's assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs though King George III was an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. For its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers; the British enforced a naval blockade of France to starve it of resources.
Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, sought to eliminate Britain's Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him. The so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France; the British responded by capturing the Danish fleet, breaking up the league, secured dominance over the seas, allowing it to continue its strategy. Napoleon won the War of the Third Coalition at Austerlitz, forcing the Austrian Empire out of the war and formally dissolving the Holy Roman Empire. Within months, Prussia declared war; this war ended disastrously for Prussia and occupied within 19 days of the beginning of the campaign. Napoleon subsequently defeated the Russian Empire at Friedland, creating powerful client states in Eastern Europe and ending the fourth coalition. Concurrently, the refusal of Portugal to commit to the Con
Philip IV of Spain
Philip IV of Spain was King of Spain and Portugal as Philip III. He ascended the thrones in 1621 and reigned in Spain until his death and in Portugal until 1640. Philip is remembered for his patronage of the arts, including such artists as Diego Velázquez, his rule over Spain during the Thirty Years' War. On the eve of his death in 1665, the Spanish Empire had reached 12.2 million square kilometers in area but in other respects was in decline, a process to which Philip contributed with his inability to achieve successful domestic and military reform. Philip IV was born in Royal Palace of Valladolid, was the eldest son of Philip III and his wife, Margaret of Austria. In 1615, at the age of 10, Philip was married to 13-year-old Elisabeth of France, although the relationship does not appear to have been close. Philip had seven children by Elisabeth, with only one being a son, Balthasar Charles, who died at the age of sixteen in 1646; the death of his son shocked the king, who appears to have been a good father by the standards of the day.
Elisabeth was able to conspire with other Spanish nobles to remove Olivares from the court in 1643, for a brief period she held considerable influence over Philip. Philip remarried following the deaths of both Elisabeth and his only legitimate heir, his choice of his second wife, Maria Anna known as Mariana, Philip's niece and the daughter of the Emperor Ferdinand, was guided by politics and Philip's desire to strengthen the relationship with Habsburg Austria. Maria Anna bore him five children, but only two survived to adulthood, a daughter Margarita Teresa, born in 1651, the future Charles II of Spain in 1661 — but the latter was sickly and considered in frequent danger of dying, making the line of inheritance uncertain. Perceptions of Philip's personality have altered over time. Victorian authors were inclined to portray him as a weak individual, delegating excessively to his ministers, ruling over a debauched Baroque court. Victorian historians attributed the early death of Baltasar to debauchery, encouraged by the gentlemen entrusted by the king with his education.
The doctors who treated the Prince at that time in fact diagnosed smallpox, although modern scholars attribute his death to appendicitis. Historians' estimation of Philip improved in the 20th century, with comparisons between Philip and his father being positive — some noting that he possessed much more energy, both mental and physical, than his diffident father. Philip was idealised by his contemporaries as the model of Baroque kingship. Outwardly he maintained a bearing of rigid solemnity. Philip had a strong sense of his'royal dignity', but was extensively coached by Olivares in how to resemble the Baroque model of a sovereign, which would form a key political tool for Philip throughout his reign. Philip was a fine horseman, a keen hunter and a devotee of bull-fighting, all central parts of royal public life at court during the period. Philip appears to have had a lighter persona; when he was younger, he was said to have a keen sense of humour and a'great sense of fun'. He attended'academies' in Madrid throughout his reign — these were lighthearted literary salons, aiming to analyse contemporary literature and poetry with a humorous touch.
A keen theatre-goer, he was sometimes criticised by contemporaries for his love of these'frivolous' entertainments. Others have captured his private personality as'naturally kind and affable'; those close to him claimed he was academically competent, with a good grasp of Latin and geography, could speak French and Italian well. Like many of his contemporaries, including Olivares, he had a keen interest in astrology, his handwritten translation of Francesco Guicciardini's texts on political history still exists. Although interpretations of Philip's role in government have improved in recent years, Diego Velázquez's contemporary description of Philip's key weakness — that'he mistrusts himself, defers to others too much' — remains relevant. Although Philip's Catholic beliefs no longer attract criticism from English language writers, Philip is still felt to have been'unduly pious' in his personal life. Notably, from the 1640s onwards he sought the advice of a noted cloistered abbess, Sor María de Ágreda, exchanging many letters with her.
This did not stop Philip's becoming known for his numerous affairs with actresses. By the end of the reign, with the health of Carlos José in doubt, there was a real possibility of Juan José's making a claim on the throne, which added to the instability of the regency years. During the reign of Philip's father, Philip III, the royal court had been dominated by the Sandoval noble family, most strikingly by the Duke of Lerma, Philip III's principal favorite and chief minister for all of his reign. Philip IV came to power as the influence of the Sandovals was being undermined by a new noble coalition, led by Don Baltasar de Zúñiga. De
Crucifixion of Jesus
The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most between AD 30 and 33. Jesus' crucifixion is described in the four canonical gospels, referred to in the New Testament epistles, attested to by other ancient sources, is established as a historical event confirmed by non-Christian sources, although there is no consensus among historians on the exact details. According to the canonical gospels, Jesus was arrested and tried by the Sanhedrin, sentenced by Pontius Pilate to be scourged, crucified by the Romans. Jesus was stripped of his clothing and offered wine mixed with myrrh or gall to drink after saying I am thirsty, he was hung between two convicted thieves and, according to the Gospel of Mark, died some six hours later. During this time, the soldiers affixed a sign to the top of the cross stating "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews" which, according to the Gospel of John, was written in three languages, they divided his garments among themselves and cast lots for his seamless robe, according to the Gospel of John.
According to the Gospel of John after Jesus' death, one soldier pierced his side with a spear to be certain that he had died blood and water gushed from the wound. The Bible describes seven statements that Jesus made while he was on the cross, as well as several supernatural events that occurred. Collectively referred to as the Passion, Jesus' suffering and redemptive death by crucifixion are the central aspects of Christian theology concerning the doctrines of salvation and atonement; the baptism of Jesus and his crucifixion are considered to be two certain facts about Jesus. James Dunn states that these "two facts in the life of Jesus command universal assent" and "rank so high on the'almost impossible to doubt or deny' scale of historical facts" that they are the starting points for the study of the historical Jesus. Bart Ehrman states that the crucifixion of Jesus on the orders of Pontius Pilate is the most certain element about him. John Dominic Crossan states that the crucifixion of Jesus is as certain as any historical fact can be.
Eddy and Boyd state that it is now "firmly established" that there is non-Christian confirmation of the crucifixion of Jesus. Craig Blomberg states that most scholars in the third quest for the historical Jesus consider the crucifixion indisputable. Christopher M. Tuckett states that, although the exact reasons for the death of Jesus are hard to determine, one of the indisputable facts about him is that he was crucified. While scholars agree on the historicity of the crucifixion, they differ on the reason and context for it. For example, both E. P. Sanders and Paula Fredriksen support the historicity of the crucifixion but contend that Jesus did not foretell his own crucifixion and that his prediction of the crucifixion is a "church creation". Geza Vermes views the crucifixion as a historical event but provides his own explanation and background for it. John P. Meier views the crucifixion of Jesus as historical fact and states that, based on the criterion of embarrassment, Christians would not have invented the painful death of their leader.
Meier states that a number of other criteria, e.g. the criterion of multiple attestation and the criterion of coherence help establish the crucifixion of Jesus as a historical event. Although all ancient sources relating to crucifixion are literary, the 1968 archeological discovery just northeast of Jerusalem of the body of a crucified man dated to the 1st century provided good confirmatory evidence that crucifixions occurred during the Roman period according to the manner in which the crucifixion of Jesus is described in the gospels; the crucified man was identified as Yehohanan ben Hagkol and died about 70 AD, around the time of the Jewish revolt against Rome. The analyses at the Hadassah Medical School estimated. Another relevant archaeological find, which dates to the 1st century AD, is an unidentified heel bone with a spike discovered in a Jerusalem gravesite, now held by the Israel Antiquities Authority and displayed in the Israel Museum; the earliest detailed accounts of the death of Jesus are contained in the four canonical gospels.
There are other, more implicit references in the New Testament epistles. In the synoptic gospels, Jesus predicts his death in three separate places. All four Gospels conclude with an extended narrative of Jesus' arrest, initial trial at the Sanhedrin and final trial at Pilate's court, where Jesus is flogged, condemned to death, is led to the place of crucifixion carrying his cross before Roman soldiers induce Simon of Cyrene to carry it, Jesus is crucified and resurrected from the dead, his death is described as other books of the New Testament. In each Gospel these five events in the life of Jesus are treated with more intense detail than any other portion of that Gospel's narrative. Scholars note that the reader receives an hour-by-hour account of what is happening. After arriving at Golgotha, Jesus was offered wine mixed with gall to drink. Matthew's and Mark's Gospels record, he was crucified and hung between two convicted thieves. According to some translations of the original Greek, the thieves may have been bandits or Jewish rebels.
According to Mark's Gospel, he endured the torment of crucifixion for some six hours from the third hour, at 9 am, until his death at the ninth hour, corresponding to about 3 pm. The soldiers affixed a sign above his head stating "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews" which, according to the Gospel of John, was in three languages, divided his garments and cast l
St. Michael (Raphael)
St. Michael is an oil painting by Italian artist Raphael. Called the Little St. Michael to distinguish it from a larger treatment of the same theme, St. Michael Vanquishing Satan, it is housed in the Louvre in Paris; the work depicts the Archangel Michael in combat with the demons of Hell, while the damned suffer behind him. Along with St. George, it represents the first of Raphael's works on martial subjects. An early work of the artist, the painting was executed for Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, in 1504 or 1505 on the back of a draughtboard commissioned to express appreciation to Louis XII of France for conferring the Order of Saint Michael on Francesco Maria I della Rovere, Guidobaldo's nephew and heir. Whatever the impetus for its creation, by 1548 it hung in the collection at the Palace of Fontainebleau. In 2006's Early Work of Raphael, Julia Cartwright suggests it may betray the influence of Timoteo Viti in the gold tinting to the green wings of Michael, while the sinners in the background suggest that Raphael may have consulted an illustrated volume of Dante's Inferno.
The punishments depicted reflect Dante's treatment of thieves. A little more than a decade after completing the little St. Michael, Raphael was commissioned to revisit the theme, producing St. Michael Vanquishing Satan for Pope Leo X in 1518. Media related to Saint Michael with the Dragon by Raffaello Sanzio at Wikimedia Commons
Christ Carrying the Cross
Christ Carrying the Cross on his way to his crucifixion is an episode included in all four Gospels, a common subject in art in the fourteen Stations of the Cross, sets of which are now found in all Catholic churches. However, the subject occurs in many other contexts, including single works and cycles of the Life of Christ or the Passion of Christ. Alternative names include the Procession to Calvary, Road to Calvary and Way to Calvary, Calvary or Golgotha being the site of the crucifixion outside Jerusalem; the actual route taken is defined by tradition as the Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem, although the specific path of this route has varied over the centuries and continues to be the subject of debate. The episode is mentioned, without much detail, in all the canonical Gospels: Matthew 27:31–33, Mark 15:20–22, Luke 23:26–32 and John 19:16–18. Only John says Jesus carried his cross, all but John include Simon of Cyrene, recruited by the soldiers from the crowd to carry or help carry the cross. Modern scholars, following descriptions of criminals carrying crossbars by Plautus and Plutarch take the Gospel description as meaning Jesus Simon, carried only a heavy patibulum, the crossbar, to a pole, permanently driven into the ground at Golgotha.
However, in Christian imagery Jesus, Simon, carry the complete cross—both patibulum and stipes. Only Luke mentions the "women of Jerusalem", who were in patristic writings and Christian art taken to include the Three Marys and the Virgin Mary; this meeting was located at the city gates, as in the painting illustrated, typical in following Luke and showing Jesus turning his head to speak to them. The other episodes were elaborations, with the Veil of Veronica appearing from the 13th century, the falls of Christ three, first found in the Late Middle Ages. Luke mentions that the two thieves were in the group walking out to Golgotha, but does not say that they had to carry their crosses, though they may be identifiable among the walking figures, their crosses are rarely anywhere to be seen in depictions of the group; some works, like Raphael's Il Spasimo, Bruegel's Vienna Procession, the London Jacopo Bassano, have the thieves' two crosses set up at the place of execution in the distant background.
Of relevance is Matthew 16:24, with which St Francis of Assisi began his first Rule of 1221: "Then Jesus said to his disciples, “Whoever wants to be my disciple must deny themselves and take up their cross and follow me". St Francis used to be led with a cord around his neck as a penitential exercise, the cord being a detail added to many depictions of the episode from two Old Testament passages; these are Isaiah 53:7: "He was oppressed and afflicted. In medieval typology, Isaac carrying wood up the mountain for his sacrifice is the most common parallel for the episode, shown as a complementary scene; the elaborated traditional account of the episode is demonstrated in the Stations of the Cross, where it is divided into a number of incidents, which between them account for most sculptural depictions: Pilate sentences Christ Jesus is given His cross Jesus falls the first time Jesus meets His Mother Simon of Cyrene carries the cross Veronica wipes the face of Jesus Jesus falls the second time Jesus meets the daughters of Jerusalem Jesus falls the third timeTen through fourteen cover the rest of the Passion.
It is one of the Sorrowful Mysteries of the Rosary, the meeting with Mary the fourth of the Seven Sorrows of the Virgin. The procession is still re-enacted in a number of annual Good Friday processions in Catholic countries, some of which include actors playing the leading persons and a cross. On the Via Dolorosa such events occur all year round; until around 1100, Simon of Cyrene was more shown carrying the cross than Jesus, from this time the number of other figures included in the scene increases. In Byzantine depictions, Jesus walks with his hands bound, a soldier leading him holding the rope, as Simon carries the cross. In some early depictions and Simon carry the cross together. In the Middle Ages influenced by Passion plays, a large crowd of figures may surround Jesus, displaying a great variety of feelings, from contempt to grief; this development culminates in the large landscape of Pieter Bruegel the Elder's Procession to Calvary. Although in early and Eastern depictions the cross is not always represented as a heavy burden, may be held free of the ground by either Simon or Jesus, by the Middle Ages the cross is always difficult to carry, the base is dragged along the ground, in line with the increased emphasis in the period of emphasizing the sufferings of the Passion.
From this period Jesus wears his Crown of Thorns, which he did not earlier. An early example of a type of devotional image showing Jesus alone is a small panel by Barna da Siena of 1330-1350 in the Frick Collection; these continued through the Renaissance and Baroque period, with a "close-up" half length composition first appearing in Northern Italy around 1490. Somewhat in contrast to most andachtsbilder, the suffering of Christ is less graphically depicted in these than in larger scenes where he is mobbed by a hostile crowd; as triptychs became popular, the scene oft
Trapani is a city and comune on the west coast of Sicily in Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Trapani. Founded by Elymians, the city is still an important fishing port and the main gateway to the nearby Egadi Islands. Drepana was founded by the Elymians to serve as the port of the nearby city of Eryx, which overlooks it from Monte Erice; the city sits on a low-lying promontory jutting out into the Mediterranean Sea. It was named Drépanon from the Greek word for "sickle", because of the curving shape of its harbour. Carthage seized control of the city in 260 BC, subsequently making it an important naval base, but ceded it to Rome in 241 BC following the Battle of the Aegates in the First Punic War. Two ancient legends relate supposed mythical origins for the city. In the first legend, Trapani stemmed from the sickle which fell from the hands of the goddess Demeter while she was seeking for her daughter Persephone, kidnapped by Hades; the second myth features Kronos, who eviscerated his father Ouranos, god of the sky, with a sickle which, falling into the sea, created the city.
In ancient times, Saturn was the patron god of Trapani. Today, Saturn's statue stands in a piazza in the centre of the city. After its Roman, Ostrogoth and Arab conquests, Trapani was taken by the Normans of Roger I in 1077, flourishing under their dominations and having a role in the Crusades as one of the most important ports in the Mediterranean Sea. In the 17th century, the city decayed due to revolts and famines, but in the following century, it grew from 16,000 to 30,000 inhabitants; the city was badly damaged during World War II, when it was subjected to intense Allied bombardments. It has grown since the end of the war, sprawling out to the foot of Monte San Giuliano. Tourism has grown in recent years due to the city's proximity to popular destinations such as Erice and the Egadi Islands; the comune of Trapani consists of two discontiguous parts separated by the comune of Paceco. The northern part includes much of some rural area; the comune does not include the north-eastern suburbs of the urban area, such as Casa Santa, which are part of the comune of Erice.
The comune of Trapani has a population of 70,000, less than the 80,000 of Marsala, the most populous comune in the province. The entire urban area of Trapani, including those parts in the comune of Erice, has over 90,000 residents. Much of Trapani's economy still depends on the sea. Fishing and canning are the main local industries, with fishermen using the mattanza technique to catch tuna. Coral is an important export, along with salt and marsala wine; the nearby coast is lined with numerous salt-pans. These saltpans were formed by the evaporation of seawater and are situated majestically along the coast road between Trapani and Marsala; the city is an important ferry port, with links to the Egadi Islands, Pantelleria and Tunisia. It has its own airport, the Trapani-Birgi Airport. Much of the old city of Trapani dates from the medieval or early modern periods. Many of the city's historic buildings are designed in the Baroque style. Notable monuments include: The Church of Sant'Agostino, with the splendid rose-window The Church of Santa Maria di Gesù The magnificent Basilica-Sanctuary of Maria Santissima Annunziata built in 1315–1332 and rebuilt in 1760.
It houses a marble statue of the Madonna of Trapani, which might be the work of Nino Pisano, with the museum Agostino Pepoli. Fontana di Tritone The Baroque Palazzo della Giudecca or Casa Ciambra; the Cathedral. It includes. Church of Maria SS. Dell'Intria, another notable example of Sicilian Baroque. Church of Badia Nuova, a small Baroque church. Castello di Terra, a ruined 12th-century castle. Ligny Tower, a 17th-century watchtower housing an archaeological museum. Monte Erice is a cable car ride from the city and aside from the cobbled streets and medieval castle, there are views of Tunisia and Africa from up there on clear days. Several beaches run along the coast of Trapani, the best of which are at Marausa about 9 km south of the city; the city is renowned for its Easter related Holy Week activities and traditions, culminating between Good Friday and Holy Saturday in the Processione dei Misteri di Trapani, colloquially the Misteri di Trapani, a day-long passion procession organized and sponsored by the city's guilds, featuring twenty floats of wood and glue sculptures from the 17th and 18th centuries, of individual scenes of the events of the Passion.
The Misteri are among the oldest continuously running religious events in Europe, having been played every Good Friday since before the Easter of 1612. Running for at least 16 continuous hours, but well beyond the 24 hours, they are the longest religious festival in Sicily and in Italy. Important to the cult of the Madonna of Trapani; the city gives its name to a variety of pesto – pesto alla trapenese – made using almonds instead of the traditional pine nuts in Ligurian
St. Sebastian (Raphael)
St. Sebastian is a painting by the Italian High Renaissance artist Raphael, c. 1501-1502. Part of his early works, it is housed in the Accademia Carrara of Bergamo, Italy