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Christ the Redeemer (statue)

Christ the Redeemer is an Art Deco statue of Jesus Christ in Rio de Janeiro, created by French sculptor Paul Landowski and built by Brazilian engineer Heitor da Silva Costa, in collaboration with French engineer Albert Caquot. Romanian sculptor Gheorghe Leonida fashioned the face. Constructed between 1922 and 1931, the statue is 30 metres high, excluding its 8-metre pedestal; the arms stretch 28 metres wide. The statue weighs 635 metric tons, is located at the peak of the 700-metre Corcovado mountain in the Tijuca Forest National Park overlooking the city of Rio de Janeiro. A symbol of Christianity across the world, the statue has become a cultural icon of both Rio de Janeiro and Brazil, is listed as one of the New7Wonders of the World, it is made of reinforced soapstone. Vincentian priest Pedro Maria Boss first suggested placing a Christian monument on Mount Corcovado in the mid 1850s to honor Princess Isabel, regent of Brazil and the daughter of Emperor Pedro II, but the project was not approved.

In 1889 the country became a republic, due to the separation of church and state, the proposed statue was dismissed. The Catholic Circle of Rio made a second proposal for a landmark statue on the mountain in 1920; the group organized an event called Semana do Monumento to attract donations and collect signatures to support the building of the statue. The organization was motivated by; the donations came from Brazilian Catholics. The designs considered for the "Statue of the Christ" included a representation of the Christian cross, a statue of Jesus with a globe in his hands, a pedestal symbolizing the world; the statue of Christ the Redeemer with open arms, a symbol of peace, was chosen. Local engineer Heitor da Silva Costa designed the statue. French sculptor Paul Landowski created the work. In 1922, Landowski commissioned fellow Parisian Romanian sculptor Gheorghe Leonida, who studied sculpture at the Fine Arts Conservatory in Bucharest and in Italy. A group of engineers and technicians studied Landowski's submissions and felt building the structure of reinforced concrete instead of steel was more suitable for the cross-shaped statue.

The concrete making up the base was supplied from Sweden. The outer layers are soapstone, ease of use. Construction took nine years, from 1922 to 1931 and cost the equivalent of US$250,000 and the monument opened on October 12, 1931. During the opening ceremony, the statue was to be lit by a battery of floodlights turned on remotely by Italian shortwave radio inventor Guglielmo Marconi, stationed 9,200 kilometres away in Rome but because of bad weather, the lights were activated on-site. In October 2006, on the 75th anniversary of the statue's completion, Archbishop of Rio, Cardinal Eusebio Oscar Scheid, consecrated a chapel, named after Brazil's patron saint—Our Lady of the Apparition, under the statue, allowing Catholics to hold baptisms and weddings there. Lightning struck the statue during a violent thunderstorm on February 10, 2008, causing some damage to the fingers and eyebrows; the Rio de Janeiro state government initiated a restoration effort to replace some of the outer soapstone layers and repair the lightning rods on the statue.

Lightning damaged it again, on January 2014, dislodging a finger on the right hand. In 2010, a massive restoration of the statue began. Work included cleaning, replacing the mortar and soapstone on the exterior, restoring iron in the internal structure, waterproofing the monument. Vandals attacked the statue during renovation. Mayor Eduardo Paes called the act "a crime against the nation"; the culprits apologized and presented themselves to the police. In reference to Brazil striker Ronaldo's usual goal celebration of both arms outstretched, the Pirelli tyre company ran a 1998 commercial in which he replaced the statue while in an Inter Milan strip; the commercial was controversial with the Catholic Church. In 1990, several organizations, including the Archdiocese of Rio de Janeiro, media company Grupo Globo, oil company Shell do Brasil, environmental regulator IBAMA, National Institute of Historic and Artistic Heritage, the city government of Rio de Janeiro entered an agreement to conduct restoration work.

More work on the statue and its environs was conducted in 2003 and early 2010. In 2003, a set of escalators and elevators were installed to facilitate access to the platform surrounding the statue; the four-month restoration in 2010 focused on the statue itself. The statue's internal structure was renovated and its soapstone mosaic covering was restored by removing a crust of fungi and other microorganisms and repairing small cracks; the lightning rods located in the statue's head and arms were repaired, new lighting fixtures were installed at the foot of the statue. The restoration involved one hundred people and used more than 60,000 pieces of stone taken from the same quarry as the original statue. During the unveiling of the restored statue, it was illuminated with green-and-yellow lighting in support of the Brazil national football team playing in the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Maintenance work needs to be conducted periodically due to the strong winds and erosion to which the statue is exposed, as well as lightning strikes.

The original pale stone is no longer available in sufficient quantity, replacement stones are darker in hue. Christ the Redeemer in Rio Verde, Goiás, Brazil Christ in the Mount in Pitangui, Minas Gerais

Frontiers and Ghettos

Frontiers and Ghettos: State Violence in Serbia and Israel is a sociological book written by James Ron, Harold E. Stassen Chair in International Affairs at the University of Minnesota. Inspired by his time as a member of the Israel Defense Forces, as a research consultant for Human Rights Watch, as a research consultant for the International Red Cross, Ron asks: "what explains why states use different kinds of violence in some cases and not others?" For Ron, institutional distinctions and international norms are key to explaining diverse repertoires of state violence against similar victims. In Frontiers and Ghettos, James Ron argues that states use different methods and degrees of coercion against perceived national enemies as a result of variation in institutional contexts; when a targeted group is ghettoized, they are to become victims of severe, police-style repression but not ethnic cleansing or murder. Contrarily, when a targeted group exists on a frontier, they are more to become victims of cleansing and death instead of repression.

This is because in ghettos, states have unrivaled control but are bound by international and domestic legal and moral obligations to its inhabitants. Along frontiers, states have less control as well as weaker moral obligations. According to Ron, the more that a state controls a given territory, the more it feels a “bureaucratic and political sense of responsibility” for the fate of those within it; this sense of responsibility leads states to choose less overtly violent modes of repression in ghettos as compared to when states target populations exist on the periphery. James Ron examines five cases of ethnic violence and ethnic policing in two States and Israel, over similar periods of time; the cases are as follows: Serbian ethnic cleansing on the Bosnian frontier from 1992-1993. Serbian ethnic policing against non-serbs in the Sandzak and Vojvodina from 1992-1993. Serbian switch from ethnic policing in Kosovo from 1990-1997 to ethnic cleansing in 1998-1999. Israeli repression of Palestinians during The First Intifada in the West Bank and Gaza in 1988.

Israeli destruction of PLO Palestinian refugees during the 1982 Lebanon War. Ron uses field interviews, newspaper reports and academic publications to illustrate the importance of institutional context for explaining repertoires of state violence, he argues that Serbia engaged in ethnic cleansing in Bosnia because in 1992, Bosnia became a frontier. On the other hand, Israel policed Palestinians in 1988 because Palestine at the time was a ghetto though the threat posed by Palestinians during the 1988 uprising was greater; the more states controlled territories and peoples, the less their security forces were to ethnically cleanse perceived national enemies. Frontiers and Ghettos was favorably received by many sociologists and political scientists as well as human rights organizations working on issues related to state violence. For example, the historian L. Carl Brown, writing for Foreign Affairs magazine, wrote that the book offered "a well-documented study of Ron's chosen examples and a sophisticated framework for understanding other such situations."

Sociologist Anthony Obserschall compliments Ron for his "engaging and promising" hypothesis as well as his "fascinating" use of detail that make the footnotes as pleasurable to read as the main text." However, Obserschall critiques Ron on several grounds. For example, he argues that the ethnic policing versus cleansing distinction is too crude for legal and normative evaluations of state violence, the frontier concept is applied inconsistently for the comparisons Ron wishes to make. In the former critique, Obserschall notes how 750 Palestinians were killed during The First Intifada, 13,000 were wounded, hundreds lost their homes, thousands were arrested and detained. In the latter critique, Obserschall writes that the Lebanese frontier and Bosnian frontier are not as comparable as Ron makes them out to be. Bosniaks in Bosnia were unarmed and defenseless whereas Palestinian paramilitaries in South Lebanon were armed and engaged in cross-border military actions against Israelis. Political Scientist Darius Rejali writes that Ron argues "persuasively" why it is important to study not just why violence is done, but how.

He adds, " "study of the practice shows that international norms are far more robust than political scientists imagine". Author's personal site Book homepage at University of California Press Foreign Affairs magazine, Review of Frontiers and Ghettos

Tatiana Kononenko

Tatiana Kononenko is a Ukrainian chess player who holds the title of Woman Grandmaster and International Master. From 1995 to 1997 Tatiana Kononenko participated in European Youth Chess Championships and twice won silver medals: in 1995 in Żagań and 1996 in Tapolca. In 1998 in Kiev she won silver medal in Ukrainian Youth Chess Championship in age category U20. In 2001 in Kramatorsk Tatiana Kononenko won silver medal in Ukrainian Women's Chess Championship. In 2002 in Antalya she won silver medal in European Women's Blitz chess Championship. Won multiple international women's chess tournaments: Elisaveta Bykova memorial in Vladimir, Benasque, Almería. In 2000s Tatiana Kononenko participated in Women's World Chess Championship by knock-out system: In Women's World Chess Championship 2001 in the first round lost to Svetlana Petrenko, In Women's World Chess Championship 2006 in the first round lost to Iweta Radziewicz. Tatiana Kononenko played for Ukraine in the European Team Chess Championship: In 1999, at first reserve board in the 3rd European Team Chess Championship in Batumi.

In 1997, she was awarded the FIDE International Women Master title and received the FIDE International Women Grandmaster title a year later. In 2006, Tatiana Kononenko awarded the FIDE International Master title. Tatiana Kononenko player profile and games at Chessgames.com Tatiana Kononenko chess games at 365Chess.com