Nine Publishing is a media company in Australia and New Zealand, with investments in newspaper, magazines and digital properties. The company was founded by John Fairfax, who purchased The Sydney Morning Herald in 1841; the Fairfax family retained control of the business until late in the 20th century. The company owned regional and other major Australian newspapers, including The Age, Australian Financial Review and Canberra Times, majority stakes in property business Domain Group and the Macquarie Radio Network, joint ventures in streaming service Stan and online publisher HuffPost Australia; the group's last chairman was Nick Falloon and the chief executive officer was Greg Hywood. On 26 July 2018, Fairfax Media and Nine Entertainment Co. announced it had agreed on terms for a merger between the two companies to become Australia's largest media company. Shareholders in Nine Entertainment Co. took a 51% of the combined entity and Fairfax shareholders own 49%. Fairfax Media was delisted from the Australian Securities Exchange in December 2018.
John Fairfax purchased The Sydney Morning Herald in 1841. Several generations of the Fairfax family continued to control the company. Fairfax Media was founded by the Fairfax family as John Fairfax and Sons to become John Fairfax Holdings; the Fairfax family lost control of the company in December 1990. It was renamed from John Fairfax Holdings to Fairfax Media in 2007; the Australian Financial Review was founded in 1951. In that decade, Fairfax started two television stations, ATN and QTQ. Fairfax began expanding in the 1960s, among others, The Age, The Newcastle Herald and the Illawarra Mercury. In 1979, Rupert Murdoch attempted to take over rival The Weekly Times. Due to the costs of defending the takeover, Fairfax sold its television properties, including the Seven Network. In 1988, Fairfax sold its magazines to Australian Consolidated Press, discontinued its Sydney afternoon tabloid The Sun, transferring some of its content and the sponsorship of the City to Surf to its new Sunday tabloid The Sun-Herald which replaced the broadsheet Sunday Herald.
In 1987, Warwick Fairfax aged 26, controversially bought out his family's holdings in the company by borrowing heavily. He took it over. By 1993, the company was re-listed on the Australian Securities Exchange and the two biggest shareholders of John Fairfax Holdings were the Canadian newspaper magnate Conrad Black and his Hollinger Group with 25%, the Australian media mogul, Kerry Packer and his publicly listed company and Broadcasting Limited with 15%. Due to Australian government concerns over media consolidation that limited any single foreign shareholder holding more than 25% interest in national and metropolitan newspapers, after intense lobbying for the right to increase his stake, Black conceded defeat in 1996, selling his holding to the New Zealand corporate "raider" Brierley Investments, subject to the same restrictions. In 2003, Fairfax acquired many of New Zealand's highest-profile newspapers when it bought the publishing assets of that country's Independent Newspapers Limited, whose cornerstone shareholder was News Corp Australia.
In July 2005, Fairfax acquired the RSVP dating site for A$38 million. In August 2005, Fairfax's general classifieds site created in March 2004, Cracker.com.au exceeded 500,000 unique visitors a month. In December 2005, Fairfax acquired Stayz Pty Ltd for A$12.7 million. This investment proved to be successful as Stayz was sold on 27 November 2013, for $220 million, far exceeding its estimated net debt of $154 million. In August 2005, Fairfax ended its 16-month search for a new chief executive officer with David Kirk, a former Rugby Union World Cup winning captain of the New Zealand All Blacks being appointed to replace departing CEO Fred Hilmer. David Kirk got the job ahead of Fairfax COO Brian Evans and Doug Flynn, who took the top job at UK Pest control company Rentokil after negotiations with Fairfax broke off. In March 2006, Fairfax acquired New Zealand auction website Trademe.co.nz for NZ$700 million. On 4 March 2006, it was announced that Fairfax would purchase The Border Mail newspaper in Albury-Wodonga for A$162 million.
In October 2006, speculation began to grow that the company would be bought out and split up after the passage of changes to Australian media laws. Rival media company News Corp Australia purchased a 7.5 per cent stake in the company at this time, with the stated aim of keeping Fairfax in one piece. On 7 December 2006, John Fairfax Holdings and Rural Press announced the beginning of their merger proceedings. Once merged, the new entity formed a publishing company worth A$9 billion and resulted in regaining control of The Canberra Times, through John B. Fairfax of Rural Press, saw the return of the Fairfax family to the company board; the company gained a number of other regional newspapers, radio stations and websites. On 12 January 2007, John Fairfax Holdings changed its name to Fairfax Media. On 7 March 2007, Fairfax Media announced a new website for Brisbane, called the Brisbane Times; the website employed 14 journalists and was an attempt by Fairfax to break into the South East Queensland market.
On 20 March 2007 Fairfax Media launched a new business website, BusinessDay.com.au that aggregated feeds from the other news vehicles in the Fairfax stable as well as "from the world's most respected news sources". It featured breaking news updated "eve
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
Away with Words
Away with Words is a 1999 auteur trilingual film by Christopher Doyle co-scripted by Doyle and Tony Rayns and starring Tadanobu Asano, Kevin Sherlock and Mavis Xu. The film, shot in a jazzy, free-wheeling style and featuring Doyle's signature hyper-kinetic, oversaturated photography and eccentric humor, focuses on a trip of Asano's character to Hong Kong and his encounters with off-beat personalities populating the metropolitan landscape. Another narrative thread relies on flashbacks into Asano's character's childhood in Okinawa; the protagonist suffers from overbearing excesses of his memory, mnemonic associations and synesthesia. The emerging human attachments provide an emotional center and a source of serenity to offset the rampage of the protagonist's mind and tame the lavish disarray of urban imagery; the film credits Luria for inspiration. Many aspects of Asano's character are directly borrowed from Luria's real life case study of Solomon Shereshevskii, The Mind of a Mnemonist; the film was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1999 Cannes Film Festival.
Tadanobu Asano - Asano Takashi Kevin Sherlock - Kevin Mavis Xu - Susie Takanori Kubo - Asano Takashi Christa Hughes - Christa Georgina Dobson - Georgina IMDb
Christopher Doyle known as Dù Kěfēng or Dou Ho-Fung is an Australian-Hong Kong cinematographer. He has worked on over fifty Chinese-language films, being best known for his collaborations with Wong Kar-Wai in Chungking Express, Happy Together, In the Mood for Love and 2046. Doyle is known for other films such as Temptress Moon, Hero and Psycho, he has won awards at the Cannes Film Festival and Venice Film Festival, as well as AFI Award for cinematography, the Golden Horse awards, Hong Kong Film Award. Doyle was born in Sydney, Australia in 1952, he left his native country on a Norwegian merchant ship at the age of eighteen. While living in other countries, he took on several odd jobs, such as an oil driller in India, a cow herder in Israel, a doctor of Chinese medicine in Thailand. In the late seventies, Doyle took an interest in Chinese culture, received the Chinese name Dù Kěfēng, which translates to “like the wind.” Following his time as a language student in Taiwan, he started working professionally as a photographer.
A couple of years he became a cinematographer, working with director Edward Yang in the 1983 film That Day, on the Beach. Doyle has worked on over fifty Chinese-language films, he is best known for his collaborations with Wong Kar-Wai in Chungking Express, Happy Together, In the Mood for Love and 2046. He has collaborated with other Chinese filmmakers on projects including Temptress Moon and Dumplings, he has made more than twenty films in various other languages, working as director of photography on Gus Van Sant's remake of Psycho, Liberty Heights, Last Life in the Universe, Rabbit-Proof Fence, Paranoid Park, The Limits of Control, amongst others. He wrote and directed Warsaw Dark, Away with Words starring Asano Tadanobu, Hong Kong Trilogy: Preschooled Preoccupied Preposterous, an experimental portrait of three generations of Hong Kong people, he most co-directed The White Girl with Jenny Suen. On May 26, 2017 Doyle was honored during the 70th Cannes Festival with the “Pierre Angénieux ExcelLens in Cinematography” award, in tribute to his successful and influential career.
The ceremony was co-hosted by filmmaker Olivier Assayas, actress Juliette Binoche, director Jenny Suen, among others. Among Doyle's sixty awards and thirty nominations are the Technical Grand Prize at the Cannes Film Festival for In the Mood for Love, as well as the Osella d’Oro for Best Cinematography for Ashes of Time at the Venice International Film Festival. Away with Words Izolator aka "Warsaw Dark" Hong Kong Trilogy: Preschooled Preoccupied Preposterous The White Girl, co-directed with Jenny Suen Home / Movie Paris, je t'aime – segment "Porte de Choisy" Dumbass on YouTube – musicvideo with lyrics by Ai Weiwei, music by Zuoxiao Zuzhou Angel Talk – Behind the scenes photo book covering Fallen Angels – ISBN 978-4-7952-8069-4 Backlit by the Moon – Japanese photography monograph – ISBN 978-4-947648-39-6 Photographs of Tamaki Ogawa – Japanese photography monograph – ISBN 978-4-947599-45-2 Doyle on Doyle – Japanese photography monograph – ISBN 4-9900557-1-3 Buenos Aires – Behind the scenes photo book covering Happy Together – ISBN 978-4-7952-8066-3 Don't Cry for Me, Argentina – Photographic journal account of filming Happy Together – ISBN 962-8114-24-7 A Cloud in Trousers – Gallery exhibition monograph – ISBN 978-1-889195-33-9 There Is a Crack in Everything – Photography monograph R34g38b25 – Behind the scenes photo book covering Hero – ISBN 978-962-86177-0-8 Talking White - Behind-the-scenes photobook covering The White Girl Cinema of Hong Kong Christopher Doyle Official Site Christopher Doyle on IMDb “The Legend of Drunken Master,” Dennis Lim of The Village Voice interviews Christopher Doyle, 6 August 2004.
‘If you call me, you know what you’re in for,’ The Guardian's Steve Rose interviews Christopher Doyle, 7 January 2005. Part 1, Part 2 and Part 3, interview with Christopher Doyle in three parts by Andreas Pousette, February 2005. ‘His eyes have seen the glory...’ The Guardian's Gaby Wood interviews Christopher Doyle, 17 July 2005. Video: Christopher Doyle talks about Hong Kong for CNN and Nokia’s feature series “The Scene.” Text of CNN interview with Christopher Doyle
The Sydney Morning Herald
The Sydney Morning Herald is a daily compact newspaper owned by Nine in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Founded in 1831 as the Sydney Herald, the SMH is the oldest continuously published newspaper in Australia and a national online news brand; the print version of the newspaper is published six days a week. The Sydney Morning Herald includes a variety including the magazines Good Weekend. There are a variety of lift-outs, some of them co-branded with online classified advertising sites: The Guide on Monday Good Food and Domain on Tuesday Money on Wednesday Drive, Shortlist on Friday News Review, Domain, Drive and MyCareer on SaturdayAs of February 2016, average week-day print circulation of the paper was 104,000; the editor is Lisa Davies. Former editors include Darren Goodsir, Judith Whelan, Sean Aylmer, Peter Fray, Meryl Constance, Amanda Wilson, William Curnow, Andrew Garran, Frederick William Ward, Charles Brunsdon Fletcher, Colin Bingham, Max Prisk, John Alexander, Paul McGeough, Alan Revell and Alan Oakley.
The February 2016 average circulation of the paper was 104,000. In December 2013, the Audit Bureau of Circulations's audit on newspaper circulation states a monthly average of 132,000 copies were sold, Monday to Friday, 228,000 copies on Saturday, both having declined 16% in 12 months. According to Roy Morgan Research Readership Surveys, in the twelve months to March 2011, the paper was read 766,000 times on Monday to Friday, read 1,014,000 times on Saturdays; the newspaper's website smh.com.au was rated by third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb as the 17th and 32nd most visited website in Australia as of July 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the fifth most visited news website in Australia and as the 42nd newspaper's website globally, attracting more than 15 million visitors per month, it is available nationally except in the Northern Territory. Limited copies of the newspaper are available at newsagents in New Zealand and at the High Commission of Australia, London. In 1831 three employees of the now-defunct Sydney Gazette, Ward Stephens, Frederick Stokes and William McGarvie, founded The Sydney Herald.
In 1931 a Centenary Supplement was published. The original four-page weekly had a print run of 750. In 1840, the newspaper began to publish daily. In 1841, an Englishman named John Fairfax purchased the operation, renaming it The Sydney Morning Herald the following year. Fairfax, whose family were to control the newspaper for 150 years, based his editorial policies "upon principles of candour and honour. We have no wish to mislead. During the decade 1890, Donald Murray worked there; the SMH was late to the trend of printing news rather than just advertising on the front page, doing so from 15 April 1944. Of the country's metropolitan dailies, only The West Australian was in making the switch. In 1949, the newspaper launched The Sunday Herald. Four years this was merged with the newly acquired Sun newspaper to create The Sun-Herald, which continues to this day. In 1995, the company launched the newspaper's web edition smh.com.au. The site has since grown to include interactive and multimedia features beyond the content in the print edition.
Around the same time, the organisation moved from Jones Street to new offices at Darling Park and built a new printing press at Chullora, in the city's west. The SMH has since moved with other Sydney Fairfax divisions to a building at Darling Island. In May 2007, Fairfax Media announced it would be moving from a broadsheet format to the smaller compact or tabloid-size, in the footsteps of The Times, for both The Sydney Morning Herald and The Age. Fairfax Media dumped these plans in the year. However, in June 2012, Fairfax Media again announced it planned to shift both broadsheet newspapers to tabloid size, in March 2013. Fairfax announced it would cut staff across the entire group by 1,900 over three years and erect paywalls around the papers' websites; the subscription type is to be a freemium model, limiting readers to a number of free stories per month, with a payment required for further access. The announcement was part of an overall "digital first" strategy of digital or on-line content over printed delivery, to "increase sharing of editorial content", to assist the management's wish for "full integration of its online and mobile platforms".
In July 2013 it was announced that the SMH's news director, Darren Goodsir, would become Editor-in-Chief, replacing Sean Aylmer. On 22 February 2014, the final Saturday edition was produced in broadsheet format with this too converted to compact format on 1 March 2014, ahead of the decommissioning of the printing plant at Chullora in June 2014. According to Irial Glynn, the newspaper's editorial stance is centrist, it is seen as the most centrist among the three major Australian non-tabloids. In 2004, the newspaper's editorial page stated: "market libertarianism and social liberalism" were the two "broad themes" that guided the Herald's editorial stance. During the 1999 referendum on whether Australia should become a republic, the Herald supported a "yes" vote; the newspaper did not endorse the Labor Party for federal office in the first six decades of Federation, but did endorse the party in 1961, 1984, 1987. During the 2004 Australian federal election, the Herald annou
Vaucluse, New South Wales
Vaucluse is an eastern suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located 8 kilometres north-east of the Sydney central business district, in the local government areas of Waverley Council and the Municipality of Woollahra. Vaucluse is located on the South Head peninsula, just south of The Gap with Sydney Harbour on the west and the Tasman Sea to the east; the Sydney Harbour side of the suburb commands views across the harbour to the Sydney Harbour Bridge. The adjacent suburbs are Dover Heights to the south. Vaucluse is a residential suburb. For many years it was the most affluent suburb in Sydney and, in terms of houses and properties, it is still in the top five most expensive suburbs. Tahiti, a Hawaiian-style residence in tropical gardens above Hermit Bay, set Australian residential record when it sold to a trio of South Africans for more than $29 million in September 2007; the Australian residential record was overtaken by Leon Kamenev, the founder of Menulog, purchasing 4 waterfront properties on prestigious Coolong Road for a combined $80 million in April 2016.
The vast majority of extensively high-worth properties in Vaucluse are located on the Western side of New South Head Rd towards the harbour, with less expensive housing and property being found closer East of New South Head Rd, around South Head Cemetery. Before European settlement, the area where Vaucluse is now located was inhabited by the Birrabirragal aboriginal clan, who belonged to the coastal Dharug language group; the first European activity in the area took place not long after settlement, when a makeshift signalling station was set up on the ridge overlooking the ocean. Its role was to signal the colony. Pilots based at Camp Cove, Watsons Bay, could meet the ship and guide it through the harbour. A formal signal station was established in 1790, serviced by a bridle trail that became Old South Head Road in 1811. Macquarie Lighthouse was constructed on the ridge, a little south of the signal station, in 1816, having been designed by Francis Greenway, the first notable architect in the colony.
Residential use of the area developed. The original Vaucluse House, from which the area derived its name, was built by Sir Henry Browne Hayes, transported to New South Wales for kidnapping the granddaughter of a wealthy Irish banker; when he arrived, in 1802, he was allowed to buy land from that, granted to Thomas Laycock in 1793 and Robert Cardell in 1795. The house was acquired by Captain John Piper in 1822. Sir Henry Browne Hayes, an avid admirer of the 14th-century poet Petrarch, named the house after Petrarch's poem about the famous Fontaine de Vaucluse near the town L'Isle-sur-la-Sorgue in the Department of Vaucluse in southern France. In 1827, the small but charming cottage was bought by William Charles Wentworth and explorer and one of the men who had crossed the Blue Mountains in 1813. Many structural changes and additions were made while he lived there until 1853; the building is in the 1830s Gothic style and sits on 27 acres of gardens. It still is listed on the Register of the National Estate.
In the early 1840s, the present signal station was built by Mortimer Lewis. It has continued to be used up to the present day for controlling shipping in and out of the harbour. In the same decade, more residential development occurred with the construction of Greycliffe House at Shark Beach by a son-in-law of William Charles Wentworth, it was a large, sandstone house in the "Victorian Rustic Gothic" style, attributed to the architect John Hilly. A succession of prominent Sydney identities leased the house during the 19th century, it was gutted by fire in the 1890s but restored. It is now used as the visitor centre for the Sydney Harbour National Park. Another substantial residential development was the construction, in 1854-56, of Carrara on the harbour foreshores. Carrara was designed by John Hilly for the first Lord Mayor of Sydney; the house featured verandahs with Doric columns and was situated to take advantage of the harbour views. Its name was changed to Strickland House in 1915, when it was turned into a convalescent home for women.
By 1871, the colony was experiencing the "Russian scare" that prevailed at the time, as a result of which fortifications were built at Steel Point, just a little north-west of Carrara. Cannon emplacements, powder magazine and embrasures, plus a store and barrack rooms, were constructed at this strategic point overlooking the harbour; the buildings were made of sandstone found at the site and still survive today. Not long afterwards, Mortimer Lewis was designing a tomb for the Wentworth family. William Charles Wentworth died in England in 1872 and his remains were interred in the Victorian Gothic mausoleum, constructed in Chapel Road, Vaucluse. Made of sandstone, the building featured a stained glass window in the west end and a clerestory window above the door. Around about the same time, Edward Mason Hunt was busy designing a Victorian Gothic mansion south of Carrara; this two-storey sandstone home incorporated a much smaller home built at that site by Alexander Dick, circa 1840. The new mansion, known as The Hermitage, featured multiple gables, a castellated tower and prominent fretwork.
It was restored by Emil Sodersten. It was bought in 1964 by the Woolworths company. Just a little east of The Hermitage, St Michael's Church of England went up in 1877, after being designed by Edmund
Australian National University
The Australian National University is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. Its main campus in Acton encompasses seven teaching and research colleges, in addition to several national academies and institutes. Founded in 1946, it is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. A postgraduate research university, ANU commenced undergraduate teaching in 1960 when it integrated the Canberra University College, established in 1929 as a campus of the University of Melbourne. ANU employs 3,753 staff; the university's endowment stood at A$1.13 billion in 2012. ANU is regarded as one of the world's leading research universities, it is ranked 1st in Australia and the whole of Oceania, 24th in the world by the 2019 QS World University Rankings, 49th in the world by the 2019 Times Higher Education. ANU was named the world's 7th most international university in a 2017 study by Times Higher Education. In the 2017 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, an annual ranking of university graduates' employability, ANU was ranked 21st in the world.
ANU is ranked 100th in the CWTS Leiden ranking. The university is well known for its programmes in the arts and social sciences, ranks among the best in the world for a number of disciplines including politics and international relations, social policy, geography. ANU counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni; the university has educated two prime ministers, 30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of government departments of Australia. The latest releases of ANU's scholarly publications are held through ANU Press online. Calls for the establishment of a national university in Australia began as early as 1900. After the location of the nation's capital, was determined in 1908, land was set aside for the university at the foot of Black Mountain in the city designs by Walter Burley Griffin. Planning for the university was disrupted by World War II but resumed with the creation of the Department of Post-War Reconstruction in 1942 leading to the passage of the Australian National University Act 1946 by the Chifley Government on 1 August 1946.
A group of eminent Australian scholars returned from overseas to join the university, including Sir Howard Florey, Sir Mark Oliphant, Sir Keith Hancock and Sir Raymond Firth. Economist Sir Douglas Copland was appointed as ANU's first Vice-Chancellor and former Prime Minister Stanley Bruce served as the first Chancellor. ANU was organised into four centres—the Research Schools of Physical Sciences, Social Sciences and Pacific Studies and the John Curtin School of Medical Research; the first residents' hall, University House, was opened in 1954 for faculty members and postgraduate students. Mount Stromlo Observatory, established by the federal government in 1924, became part of ANU in 1957; the first locations of the ANU Library, the Menzies and Chifley buildings, opened in 1963. The Australian Forestry School, located in Canberra since 1927, was amalgamated by ANU in 1965. Canberra University College was the first institution of higher education in the national capital, having been established in 1929 and enrolling its first undergraduate pupils in 1930.
Its founding was led by Sir Robert Garran, one of the drafters of the Australian Constitution and the first Solicitor-General of Australia. CUC was affiliated with the University of Melbourne and its degrees were granted by that university. Academic leaders at CUC included historian Manning Clark, political scientist Finlay Crisp, poet A. D. Hope and economist Heinz Arndt. In 1960, CUC was integrated into ANU as the School of General Studies with faculties in arts, economics and science. Faculties in Oriental studies and engineering were introduced later. Bruce Hall, the first residential college for undergraduates, opened in 1961; the Canberra School of Music and the Canberra School of Art combined in 1988 to form the Canberra Institute of the Arts, amalgamated with the university as the ANU Institute of the Arts in 1992. ANU established its Medical School in 2002, after obtaining federal government approval in 2000. On 18 January 2003, the Canberra bushfires destroyed the Mount Stromlo Observatory.
ANU astronomers now conduct research from the Siding Spring Observatory, which contains 10 telescopes including the Anglo-Australian Telescope. In February 2013, financial entrepreneur and ANU graduate Graham Tuckwell made the largest university donation in Australian history by giving $50 million to fund an undergraduate scholarship program at ANU. ANU is well known for its history of student activism and, in recent years, its fossil fuel divestment campaign, one of the longest-running and most successful in the country; the decision of the ANU Council to divest from two fossil fuel companies in 2014 was criticised by ministers in the Abbott government, but defended by Vice Chancellor Ian Young, who noted:On divestment, it is clear we were in the right and played a national and international leadership role. E seem to have played a major role in a movement; as of 2014 ANU still had investments in major fossil fuel companies. A survey conducted by the Australian Human Rights Commission in 2017 found that the ANU had the second highest incidence of sexual assault and sexual harassment.
3.5 per cent of respondents from the ANU re