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Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies

Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies is a music reference book by American music journalist and essayist Robert Christgau. It was first published in October 1981 by Fields; the book compiles 3,000 of Christgau's capsule album reviews, most of which were written for his "Consumer Guide" column in The Village Voice throughout the 1970s. The entries feature annotated details about each record's release and cover a variety of genres related to rock music. Many of the older reviews were rewritten for the guide to reflect his changed perspective and matured stylistic approach, informed by an interest in the aesthetic and political dimensions of popular music, a belief that it could be consumed intelligently, a desire to communicate his ideas to readers in an entertaining and compact way; the guide was critically well received, earning praise for its extensive discography, Christgau's judgment, his colorful writing. Reviewers noted his opinionated tastes, analytical commentary, pithy language, critical quips.

A staple of rock-era reference works, Christgau's Record Guide became popular in libraries as a source for popular music studies and as an authoritative guide for fellow critics, record collectors, music shops. It appeared on several expert lists of the best popular music literature. Christgau's Record Guide has been reprinted several times in book form and on Christgau's website in its entirety. Two more "Consumer Guide" collections have been published, compiling his capsule reviews from the 1980s and the 1990s, respectively. In 1969, Robert Christgau began reviewing contemporary album releases in his "Consumer Guide" column, published more-or-less monthly in The Village Voice – an alternative weekly newspaper local to New York City – and for brief periods in Newsday and Creem magazine during the 1970s, his method was to select about 20 albums to review in capsule format, averaging 50 words each, to assign each album a letter grade rating on a scale from A-plus to E-minus. The column was a product of The Village Voice's deal with Christgau – allotting him one 2,500-word piece per month – and his desire to provide prospective buyers with ratings of albums, including those that did not receive significant radio airplay.

Some of Christgau's early columns were reprinted in his first book, Any Old Way You Choose It, a 1973 anthology of essays published in the Voice and Newsday. Among the most revered and influential of the earliest rock critics, Christgau wrote the "Consumer Guide" with a conviction that popular music could be consumed intelligently and discussed in a manner similar to books in literary criticism, his opinions and enthusiasms for music were informed by left-leaning politics, principles of humanism and secularism, an interest in finding new understandings of the aesthetic and political dimensions in popular culture's intersection with the avant-garde. As a journalist, he wanted to convey his findings confidently and in a way that would entertain and provoke his readership; as such, his writing took on a densely compressed style featuring insulting language, personal asides, highbrow allusions meant to engage readers with an extensive knowledge of culture and music history, including popular music's canon and the metanarratives of specific musicians.

Over the course of the 1970s, Christgau broadened The Village Voice's readership nationally with his writing and editorial leadership, transforming the newspaper into a premier venue for popular music criticism at a time when the field began to peak in cultural influence. His own reputation developed as the field's leading American writer, with a cult following of the "Consumer Guide" column. In the late 1970s, Christgau conceived of a book that would collect reviews from his columns through that decade, he began to pitch Christgau's Record Guide to publishers in early 1979 and received a publishing deal shortly thereafter. He soon realized that the proposed book would not adequately represent the decade unless he revised and expanded his existing columns, he believed his existing body of reviews overlooked important musical artists and would comprise less than two-thirds of the needed material for the book. In July of that year, he took a vacation from The Village Voice and left New York for Maine with his wife, fellow writer Carola Dibbell, to work on the book.

They brought with them a stereo system and numerous LP records. As Christgau recalled in his memoir Going Into the City, "I had hundreds of records to find out about, hundreds to find, hundreds to re-review, hundreds to touch up."Christgau continued working on the book after his return to New York. He was aided by access to the record library of his neighbor, fellow journalist Vince Aletti, who owned all of James Brown's scarcely catalogued Polydor LPs from the 1970s. Beginning with Brown, Christgau re-examined the discographies of major artists in a chronological manner to curtail a sense of hindsight in the writing. "When possible", he said, "I piled on the changer artists I felt like hearing that day in a ploy intended to scare up the excited little feeling in the pit of my stomach without which I am loath to give any album an A." The work intensified in 1980. Recounting in his memoir, he said he worked 14 hours daily while "in book mode", which "was so grueling that for most of 1980 I was aware of the music of the moment, the only such hiatus in what is now fifty years."Christgau's intense immersion into preparing the book put a strain on his marriage to Dibbell, as did their efforts to overcome infertility.

In his words, the guide almost

Kells Priory

Kells Priory is one of the largest and most impressive medieval monuments in Ireland. The Augustine priory is situated alongside King's River beside the village of Kells in the townland of Rathduff, about 15 km south of the medieval city of Kilkenny; the priory is in the guardianship of the Office of Public Works. One of its most striking feature is a collection of medieval tower houses spaced at intervals along and within walls which enclose a site of just over 3 acres; these give the priory the appearance more of a fortress than of a place of worship and from them comes its local name of "Seven Castles". 4 km southeast of the priory on the R697 regional road is Kilree round tower and 9th century High Cross, said to be the burial place of Niall Caille. It was used in the film Barry Lyndon as the location for the English Redcoat encampment. Kells Priory was founded by Geoffrey FitzRobert in 1193. FitzRobert was brother-in-law to Strongbow and the priory succeeded an earlier church, dedicated to St. Mary, the Blessed Virgin and served as parish church to nearby Kells village.

During its first century and a half the priory was attacked and burned on three occasions, firstly by Lord William de Bermingham in 1252, by the Scots army of Edward Bruce on Palm Sunday 1326, by a second William de Bermingham in 1327. It seems then that the walls and fortifications date back to this period of unrest. In 1324 the Bishop of Ossory Richard de Ledrede paid a lenten visit to the priory. Following an inquisition into a Kilkenny sect of heretics, Alice Kyteler and William Outlawe were ordered to appear before the Bishop to answer charges of witchcraft. Outlaw was supported by Arnold de Paor, Lord of Kells who arrested the Bishop and had him imprisoned in Kilkenny Castle for 17 days; this caused great scandal and on his release the Bishop prosecuted the heretics. Alice Kyteler fled to England and remained there, Alice Smith fled, but her maidservant Petronilla de Meath became Ireland's first heretic to be burned at the stake. Dissolution of Kells Priory took place in March 1540 and the church and property were surrendered to James Butler, 9th Earl of Ormonde.

The priory is divided into two parts, an inner monastic Precinct alongside the river and a large outer enclosure to the south. In the fifteenth century, the latter was referred to as Villa Prioris but in more recent times it has been known as Burgher's Court, the Burgess or Burgess Court. Burgess Court is adopted here. In the past Burgess Court was though to have been the site of the medieval borough of Kell but modern research has shown that this was not the case. Today all the monastic remains are grouped together in the Precinct while Burgess Court is little more than a walled field populated by tourists and sheep. Tom Fanning, a state archaeologist and subsequently senior archaeology lecturer in NUI Galway began an excavation of the site in 1972, his work was completed by Miriam Clyne after Mr. Fanning's death in 1993; the excavation is one of the largest undertaken in Ireland at a monastic house and the publication by Clyne, Kells Priory, Co. Kilkenny: archaeological excavations by T. Fanning & M. Clyne, is one of the largest published on a rural medieval site.

There were some 20,000 archaeological finds which range from pieces of carved stone, pottery including Ham Green and ridge tiles, metal objects as well as a collection of painted window glass which has allowed the reconstruction what some of the window patterns may have looked like. The original priory church was a simple cruciform building, over time, was extended in every possible direction including the fifteenth century second enclosure. Patrick Barrett List of abbeys and priories in Ireland Clyne, Kells Priory, Co. Kilkenny: archaeological excavations by T. Fanning & M. Clyne, Dublin: Government of Ireland, ISBN 0-7557-7582-1 Barry, Terence B; the Archaeology of Medieval Ireland, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-01104-3 A site by Daniel Tietzsch-Tyler with photos and plans. Http:// – Kilree Round Tower and High Cross

Luís Guillermo Peréz

Luís Guillermo Peréz is a Colombian human rights lawyer, serving as the General Secretary for the Americas for the International Federation for Human Rights. He has represented the Americas at the FIDH since 2004 and in May 2013 announced his candidacy to stand for the FIDH's presidency, he sits on its general assembly. Peréz was born in Líbano in the Tolima department of Colombia's Andean Region, he gained his undergraduate degree from the National University of Colombia and has done graduate study at the Institute for Higher Studies in Development, External University of Colombia, political science at Sciences Po Bordeaux and the Institute of Political Studies, Brussels. Peréz joined the José Alvear Restrepo Lawyer's Collective in 1987 and became the general secratry for the Americas region for International Federation for Human Rights in 2004, he has represented FIDH at the European Union in Brussels, the International Criminal Court in The Hague, the United Nations in Geneva and International Council at the World Social Forum.

He was the executive Secretary of the Copenhagen Initiative for Central America and Mexico for eight years, specializing in the areas of aid and development and the impact of free trade agreements on human rights. He served on the Expert Committee of the Centre National de Coopération au Développement between 1997 and 1998 for the selection of project in Latin America. In April 2018 Pérez visited Europe, in United Kingdom he submitted evidence of political murders that occurred in Colombia in 2017 to the International Criminal Court. In academia, Perez has taught General and Comparative Constitutional Law at the Graduate Department of the Escuela Superior de Administración Pública, Constitutional Law at the Academia Diplomática de San Carlos, he has held a professorship at the Law Department of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia. He has served as a permanent commentator for the radio program “Radio Air Libre Bruselas” covering issues related to human rights in Latin America and has appeared on several other media outlets.

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19th Guards Rifle Division

The 19th Guards Rifle Division was formed from the first formation of the 366th Rifle Division on March 17, 1942. At this time it was in the 52nd Army of Volkhov Front, taking part in the Lyuban Offensive Operation, planned to encircle and defeat the enemy forces laying siege to Leningrad. However, just at that time the German 18th Army was in the process of cutting off the Soviet Lyuban grouping in a pocket, over the following months the division was nearly destroyed. Enough survivors emerged from the swamps in June and July to rebuild the unit, it fought in the Second Sinyavino Offensive before it was shifted south into Kalinin Front to take part in the battle and siege of Velikiye Luki in December. In the summer of 1943 the 19th Guards fought in the battles for Smolensk, won its first battle honor, "Rudnya". in September. During the offensive in the summer of 1944 it was awarded the Order of the Red Banner for its successes in the fighting around Vitebsk, it was further honored in February, 1945, with the Order of Lenin for its role in the victories in East Prussia.

In the summer the division was moved by rail with its 39th Army to the Far East and saw action in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria in August, winning its second battle honor, "Khingan", for its services. The division continued to see service well into the postwar era; the division was raised to Guards status on March 17, 1942, although its sub-units would not be redesignated for a month or more. Its basic order of battle would be: 54th Guards Rifle Regiment 56th Guards Rifle Regiment 61st Guards Rifle Regiment 45th Guards Artillery Regiment Col. Semyon Ivanovich Bulanov remained in command of the division, part of 52nd Army in Volkhov Front; this came just as the German 18th Army was in the process of cutting off and trapping parts of the 52nd and the 59th and all of 2nd Shock Army in the half-frozen wasteland south of Lyuban, the division was fighting for its existence. The encirclement was completed on March 20. On March 27 a gap was opened near the village of Miasnoi Bor; the Red Army forces in the salient continued to operate under these circumstances through April and into May.

On May 12, Soviet intelligence indicated that 18th Army was about to attack again to cut the corridor. In light of this, orders came from the STAVKA to begin a phased withdrawal from the salient on May 14. Colonel Bulanov was recorded as missing in action on July 25. During June and July, individual soldiers and small parties of men of the 19th Guards found their way out of the pocket through the thinly-held German lines, they were formed up with survivors of the 25th Cavalry Division to rebuild the division. Col. David Markovich Barinov was assigned to command of the division on July 26; the Soviet high command was anticipating a German summer offensive near Leningrad and intended to forestall it with an offensive of its own. This attack would break the siege by penetrating the land corridor east of the city between the Neva and Naziia rivers, south of the village of Sinyavino; the "bottleneck" was defended and fortified, much of the terrain was peat bogs. The rebuilt 19th Guards was allocated to the 6th Guards Rifle Corps with the 3rd and 24th Guards and 265th Rifle Divisions, which formed the shock group of the 8th Army of Volkhov Front.

The overall offensive began with 55th Army attacking across the Neva from Leningrad. 8th Army began its attack at 0210 hrs on August 27, striking the junction of the German 227th and 223rd Infantry Divisions on a 15 km front with about a four-to-one advantage in manpower. On the first day, the 24th Guards and 265th Divisions broke the boundary and forced their way across the Chernaya River. Early the next day the 19th Guards exploited the breakthrough, advancing 5 to 6 km and reaching the southeastern approaches to Sinyavino by nightfall; this promising start was soon stymied as German reserves, including elements of 96th and 170th Infantry Divisions assembled at Sinyavino. On the 29th the Tiger tank made its inauspicious combat debut when four were committed south of Sinyavino Heights. By the 31st 6th Guards Corps had suffered such severe attrition against fierce and skillful German resistance that its penetration was contained. Over September 5–6, 19th and 24th Guards were withdrawn from the salient, although a General Staff report on September 15 stated that the first part of this withdrawal by the 19th was unauthorized.

As of October 1 the division was in 2nd Shock Army, but having been withdrawn it escaped the second encirclement and breakout of that Army in late September. By November 1 the rebuilding division had been moved south to the reserves of Kalinin Front in accordance with a directive from the STAVKA to that Front's commander, Lt. Gen. M. A. Purkaev, on October 13:"... 2. In the Front's reserve in the Soblago region - the 8th Estonian Corps, consisting of the corps headquarters, the 7th and 249th Estonian Rifle Divisions and the 19th Guards Rifle Division; the corps is beginning to move following the 5th Guards Rifle Corps from the Yegorevska region and the 19th Guards Rifle Division from the Volkhov Front. This corps will not be employed without the STAVKA's permission." At the beginning of December, as the battle for Velikiye Luki was underway, the 8th Corps was still in the reserves of Kalinin Front. Within two weeks it was subordinated to 3rd Shock Army

Kalala Ilunga

Kalala Ilunga was a Prince and one of the emperors of Luba Empire, the latter of which spread over the province of Katanga into Zambia and Zimbabwe. A mythic cultural hero who had invented much of Luba culture, Kalala is the first sacred King of the Kingdom of Luba and its most revered son; as the Egyptian Pharaohs and rulers in much of Ancient Egypt and antique world, Luba kings were revered as deities upon death, comparable to Christian "saints’ lives". Known as "The Warrior" and regarded as the most famous of Luba Kings for having been able to praise himself for his future exploits the same day he was born, Kalala Ilunga was the eldest son of Ilunga Mbili and nephew of King Kongolo Mwamba. From a young age, Kalala is an attractive option by his capacity warrior, his intelligence, powerful presence as well as his spiritual and mystical gifts. Kongolo, on the other hand old and worried for his offspring and his empire ambitions and fearing revenge against Ilunga Mbili, will organize a plot to eliminate Kalala as well.

During a ceremony at the Court, Kalala Ilunga, like all other Princes had to do a ritual dance before the king. In the dance hall had been dug a hole where there had concealed spears and fetishes so that Kalala Ilunga would fall over and die. However, priests Mbudie alerted him. During the ceremony, Kalala Ilunga performed his dance with caution to avoid the trap. After the coup failed, Kongolo held another conspiracy with the complicity of a few soldiers, it was expected. When the mutiny broke out, the faithful of the protected Kalala Ilunga and came out victorious. Thinking that his victory was gained, Kongolo went on the battlefield to find Kalala Ilunga living and supported by the soldiers. Kalala Ilunga caught him and killed him, he took care to take his genitals with whom he returned to the capital of Mwibele. In exposing the people and the court, he was proclaimed King of kings, Mulopwe

Keith Waugh

Keith Waugh is an English-born footballer who played as a goalkeeper in the Football League between the 1970s and 1990s, most notably with Peterborough United, Sheffield United and Bristol City. He started as a trainee with Sunderland, but did not play any League games with them, he moved to Peterborough United, first playing a league game for them in 1976–77, he went on to make 195 League appearances for The Posh. He moved to Sheffield United in 1981 for a fee of £100,000, made 99 League appearances for the clubHe moved to Bristol City in the mid-1980s, although he had loan spells at Bristol City and Cambridge United during the 1984–85 season before his permanent move to The Robins. Waugh was to make 167 League appearances for the Ashton Gate club before a brief spell at Coventry City in the late 1980s, he moved to Watford and made a total of 7 league appearances for them. On 23 March 1993 he was recalled to the Watford team for the first time in 14 months against Newcastle United, put in an excellent performance in Watford's 1–0 victory.

His final Football League appearance came against Charlton Athletic on 6 April 1993. After his playing career finished he remained at Watford as youth team coach