White is the lightest color and is achromatic. It is the color of fresh snow and milk, is the opposite of black. White objects reflect and scatter all the visible wavelengths of light. White on television and computer screens is created by a mixture of red and green light. In ancient Egypt and ancient Rome, priestesses wore white as a symbol of purity, Romans wore a white toga as a symbol of citizenship. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance a white unicorn symbolized chastity, a white lamb sacrifice and purity, it was the royal color of the Kings of France, of the monarchist movement that opposed the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War. Greek and Roman temples were faced with white marble, beginning in the 18th century, with the advent of neoclassical architecture, white became the most common color of new churches and other government buildings in the United States, it was widely used in 20th century modern architecture as a symbol of modernity and simplicity. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, white is the color most associated with perfection, the good, cleanliness, the beginning, the new and exactitude.
White is an important color for all world religions. The Pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, has worn white since 1566, as a symbol of purity and sacrifice. In Islam, in the Shinto religion of Japan, it is worn by pilgrims. In Western cultures and in Japan, white is the most common color for wedding dresses, symbolizing purity and virginity. In many Asian cultures, white is the color of mourning; the word white continues Old English hwīt from a Common Germanic *χwītaz reflected in OHG wîz, ON hvítr, Goth. ƕeits. The root is from Proto-Indo-European language *kwid-, surviving in Sanskrit śveta "to be white or bright" and Slavonic světŭ "light"; the Icelandic word for white, hvítur, is directly derived from the Old Norse form of the word hvítr. Common Germanic had the word *blankaz, borrowed into Late Latin as *blancus, which provided the source for Romance words for "white"; the antonym of white is black. Some non-European languages have a wide variety of terms for white; the Inuit language has seven different words for seven different nuances of white.
Sanskrit has specific words for bright white, the white of teeth, the white of sandalwood, the white of the autumn moon, the white of silver, the white of cow's milk, the white of pearls, the white of a ray of sunlight, the white of stars. Japanese has six different words, depending upon brilliance or dullness, or if the color is inert or dynamic. White was one of the first colors used in art; the Lascaux Cave in France contains drawings of bulls and other animals drawn by paleolithic artists between 18,000 and 17,000 years ago. Paleolithic artists used calcite or chalk, sometimes as a background, sometimes as a highlight, along with charcoal and red and yellow ochre in their vivid cave paintings. In ancient Egypt, white was connected with the goddess Isis; the priests and priestesses of Isis dressed only in white linen, it was used to wrap mummies. In Greece and other ancient civilizations, white was associated with mother's milk. In Greek mythology, the chief god Zeus was nourished at the breast of the nymph Amalthea.
In the Talmud, milk was one of four sacred substances, along with wine and the rose. The ancient Greeks saw the world in terms of darkness and light, so white was a fundamental color. According to Pliny the Elder in his Natural History and the other famous painters of ancient Greece used only four colors in their paintings. A plain white toga, known as a toga virilis, was worn for ceremonial occasions by all Roman citizens over the age of 14–18. Magistrates and certain priests wore a toga praetexta, with a broad purple stripe. In the time of the Emperor Augustus, no Roman man was allowed to appear in the Roman forum without a toga; the ancient Romans had two words for white. A man who wanted public office in Rome wore a white toga brightened with chalk, called a toga candida, the origin of the word candidate; the Latin word candere meant to be bright. It was the origin of the words candid. In ancient Rome, the priestesses of the goddess Vesta dressed in white linen robes, a white palla or shawl, a white veil.
They protected the penates of Rome. White symbolized their purity and chastity; the early Christian church adopted the Roman symbolism of white as the color of purity and virtue. It became the color worn by priests during Mass, the color worn by monks of the Cistercian Order, under Pope Pius V, a former monk of the Dominican Order, it became the official color worn by the pope himself. Monks of the Order of Saint Benedict dressed in the white or gray of natural undyed wool, but changed to black, the color of humility and penitence. Postclassical history art, the white lamb became the symbol of the sacrifice of Christ on behalf of mankind. John the Baptist described Christ as the lamb of God; the white lamb was the center of one of the most famous paintings of the Medieval period, the Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck. White was the symbolic color of the transfiguration; the Gospel of Saint Mark describes Jesus' clothing in this event as "shining, exceeding white as snow." Artists such as Fra Angelico used their skill
St Laurence's College
St Laurence's College is a private Catholic school for boys located in South Brisbane, Australia. It was founded by the Christian Brothers in 1915; the school has an enrolment of over 1900 students from Year 5 to Year 12. St Laurence's is a College in the Edmund Rice Tradition. St Laurence's is associated with the Associated Independent Colleges sporting association; the school's main campus is located in the inner-city Brisbane suburb of South Brisbane and houses a library, monastery and six buildings with classrooms and support rooms. Three of the teaching buildings are subject specific as they house the visual and performing arts, manual arts and science and computing specific classrooms and laboratories; as part of an agreement with the adjacent Mater hospital, the school's land was leased for 25 years to build a six-story car park, which now houses the college's synthetic oval on top along with a new 1500 seat auditorium. In 2016, construction finished on a new $3 million chapel adjacent to the old monastery.
In 2017, construction finished on a $14 million sporting and science centre, which houses a gym, 2 basketball courts, a 250-seat viewing area, along with 12 science and engineering laboratories and staff rooms. Which is named after the previous principle Mr Ian MacDonald who approved the construction of the building; this building is called the STEM building located behind the Monastery. Since 1961, the school has operated sporting fields in the southern Brisbane suburb of Runcorn, which contains 8 playing fields and a function centre; the school maintains an outdoor educational facility, Camp Laurence, at Lake Moogerah, to the west of Brisbane. The college is a founding member of the AIC sporting association along with Marist College Ashgrove, St Edmunds College, Ipswich, St Patrick's College, Iona College, Padua College, St. Peters Lutheran College and Villanova College; the sports played in the AIC include rugby union, cricket, volleyball, swimming, Water Polo and cross country. Alumni of St Laurence's College are known as "Old Boys" and may elect to join the school's alumni association, the St Laurence's College Old Boys Association.
Notable alumni include: Sports Laurie Lawrence, Australian Olympic swim coach. Cooper Cronk, Sydney Roosters and Queensland and Australia Rugby league player. Nev Cottrell, former Wallabies captain and Queensland Reds player. Brendan Cannon, former Wallabies and Queensland Reds player. Mark Connors, former Wallabies and Queensland Reds player. Dan Crowley, former Wallabies and Queensland Reds player and dual Rugby Union World Cup winner. Neil Betts, former Wallabies player. William Zillman, Gold Coast Titans player. Luke McLean, Italy national rugby union team and Sale Sharks player. Archie Smith, Australian rules footballer playing for the Brisbane Lions. Ken Fletcher, 12 tennis Grand Slam titles and Davis Cup player John Anderson, OAM, sailing gold medal winner at the 1972 Olympics. Thomas Anderson, sailing gold medal winner at the 1972 Olympics. Mark Stockwell, swimming silver medal winner at the 1984 Olympics, chairman of the Australian Sports Foundation. Damon Kelly, Olympic weightlifter and Commonwealth Games Gold Medal winner.
Elliott Shriane, Olympic speed skater Joshua Slack, Olympic beach volleyball player Rowan Crothers, Paralympic swimmer. Brendan O'Reilly, UFC mixed martial artist. Greg Hartung, President of the Australian Paralympic Committee and Vice-President of the International Paralympic Committee. Ryley Jacks, Melbourne Storm Rugby League Player. Business John Symond, founder of Aussie Home Loans. Peter O'Meara, former CEO of the Western Force rugby union teamEntertainment, Arts & the Media Kerry O'Brien, television news journalist and presenter. Ross Symonds, former news presenter for Seven Network in Sydney. Murray Foy and theatre director. Gerard Lee, Australian novelist and director. Conrad Sewell, Australian singer-songwriter. Science & Medicine Robert John Walsh OBE, founder of the NSW Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service and former Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of New South Wales Joseph King OBE, sugar technologist and administratorPolitics, Law & Public Service Len Keogh, former federal Labor member for the Division of Bowman.
Condon Byrne, former federal Labor Senator for Queensland. Mike Horan, former state National member for Toowoomba South and Leader of the Opposition. John Mickel, former state Labor member for Logan and Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Darryl Briskey, former state Labor member for Cleveland. Paul Finn, Judge of the Federal Court of Australia. Jeffrey Spender, Judge of the Federal Court of Australia and Queen's Counsel. Denis Ives AO, former Public Service Commissioner 1990–1995. Rhodes Scholars James Maloney, 1929 Peter Hempenstall, 1970 St Laurence's College St Laurence's Old Boys Association
St Mary's Cathedral College, Sydney
St Mary's Cathedral College is a private Roman Catholic secondary day school for boys located in the central business district of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Founded in 1824, it is the oldest Catholic school in Australia and among the oldest schools in the country catering for 770 students from Years 3 to 12, it operates as a systemic school. It is attached to St Mary's Cathedral; the school is the responsibility of the Congregation of Christian Brothers and was the last school in Sydney to be served by Christian Brothers as both principal and deputy principal. St Mary's Cathedral College was established in 1824 as an elementary school by the Rev. John Therry; the high school was established in 1828. It is the oldest Roman Catholic school in Australia. St Mary's Cathedral College was conducted by the Christian Brothers and is administered by Sydney Catholic Schools, Eastern Region; the Christian Brothers association with the school dates back to 1911. Catholic education on the same site as St Mary's Cathedral has been continuous since 1824, except during the construction of the existing college buildings and the associated bishop's quarters.
Schools on the site have been provided with staff by the Benedictine monks, the Marist Brothers, Sisters of Charity and the Christian Brothers from 1910. The staff lay staff; the replacement of the Marist order by the Christian Brothers in 1911 was controversial. The Marist Brothers had complained to the Archbishop of Sydney, Cardinal Patrick Francis Moran, about their working and living conditions; the cardinal ordered them to leave the college. He directed the Christian Brothers to take over the college in their place; the cardinal granted to the Christian Brothers the requests that the Marist Brothers had been denied. The college celebrated 100 years of Christian Brothers administration in 2011. Beginning in 2016, Michael Kelleher is the school principal alongside the assistant principal, Natalie Devenish; the college supports a musical tradition, with close ties to the St Mary's Cathedral Choir and the cathedral liturgies. It supports sporting sides in all CBSA sports and carnivals. Students at the college have the option to participate in debating, public speaking, mock trial, Duke of Edinburgh Award, assisting at the Matthew Talbot Hostel in Woolloomooloo.
The school has a Fairtrade program through to Year 10. All students are encouraged to participate in altar serving at the Cathedral and to attend Wednesday morning Mass on a daily basis. Student leadership is of high regard at the college with 12 prefects from Year 12, including a captain and a vice-captain, who are allocated to ministry, house & community and other areas. Additionally, each year group nominates four to. Five class captains from each different homeroom and two members of the Student Representative Council to represent the form throughout the college. College Concert at Sydney Town Hall College Swimming Carnival College Athletics Carnival Edmund Rice Day CBSA Sports and Carnivals CCC Carnivals School Camps Year 12 Retreat Anthony Albanese - Australian Labor Party politician. List of Christian Brothers schools List of Non-Government schools in New South Wales St Mary's Cathedral Choir, Sydney St Mary's Cathedral College Website
Navy blue is a dark shade of the color blue. Navy blue got its name from the dark blue worn by officers in the British Royal Navy since 1748 and subsequently adopted by other navies around the world; when this color name, taken from the usual color of the uniforms of sailors came into use in the early 19th century, it was called marine blue, but the name of the color soon changed to navy blue. An early use of navy blue as a color name in English was in 1840 though the Oxford English Dictionary has a citation from 1813. In practice, actual blue uniforms of the United States Navy and other navies have become outright black in color, in order to combat fading. At right is displayed the color bright navy blue; this is the bright tone called "navy blue" by Crayola. This tone of navy blue was formulated as a Crayola color in 1958. Indigo dye is the color, called Añil in the Guía de coloraciones by Rosa Gallego and Juan Carlos Sanz, a color dictionary published in 2005, popular in the Hispanophone realm.
Indigo dye is the basis for all the historical navy blue colors, since in the 18th, 19th, early 20th century all navy uniforms were made by dyeing them with various shades of indigo dye. Displayed at the right is the color Peacoat, a dark shade of navy blue; the source of this color is the "Pantone Textile Cotton eXtended" color list, color #19-3920 TCX—Peacoat. At right is displayed the color purple navy. Purple navy is a color, used by some navies. "Purple navy" in this color terminology usage is regarded as a shade of indigo, a color which can be regarded as a tone of purple when using the common English definition of purple, i.e. a color between blue and red. The first recorded use of purple navy as a color name in English was in 1926; the source of this color is Dictionary of Color Names. The color Persian indigo is displayed at right. Another name for this color is regimental, because in the 19th century it was used by many nations for navy uniforms; the first recorded use of regimental as a color name in English was in 1912.
Displayed at right is the color space cadet. Space cadet is one of the colors on the Resene Color List, a color list popular in Australia and New Zealand; the color was formulated in 2007. This color is a formulation of an impression of the color that cadets in space navy training would wear; the color navy was one of the original 16 HTML/CSS colors formulated for standardized computer display in the late 1980s. In many world navies, including the United States Navy and the Royal Canadian Navy, uniforms which are called navy blue are, in actuality, colored black, as the uniforms became darker to counter fading; the Canadian Forces Dress Instructions specify that "'navy blue' is a tone of black".. Navy Blue is the name of an album by Diane Renay. Navy blue is used by numerous professional and collegiate sports teams: Air Force blue Azure Blue lagoon List of colors Midnight blue Royal blue Sky blue
Division of Parramatta
The Division of Parramatta is an Australian electoral division in the state of New South Wales. The division was created in 1900 and was one of the original 65 divisions contested at the first federal election, it is named for the locality of Parramatta. The name Parramatta has been sourced to an Aboriginal word for the area; the Darug people had lived in the area for many generations, regarded the area as a food bowl, rich in food from the river and forests. They called the area Baramada or Burramatta which means "the place where the eels lie down"; the division is based in the western suburbs of Sydney. Besides Parramatta, it includes Camellia, Constitution Hill, Dundas Valley, Harris Park, Mays Hill, North Parramatta, Rosehill, Telopea, Westmead; the current Member for the Division of Parramatta, since the 2004 federal election, is Julie Owens, a member of the Australian Labor Party. As created, it covered the outer northwestern suburbs of Sydney, though that city's dramatic growth made it an urban seat after World War II.
For most of the first seven decades after Federation, it included a large amount of conservative-leaning territory that swamped Parramatta itself, a working-class area. As a result, the seat was held by the Liberals and their predecessors for all but one term from Federation until 1977. A redistribution ahead of the 1977 election split Parramatta in half. Most of the wealthier eastern half became the comfortably safe Liberal seat of Dundas. Most of the western half, including the bulk of the Parramatta LGA, became the core of a marginal Labor seat that retained the Parramatta name, as per Australian Electoral Commission guidelines that require the names of original Federation electorates to be preserved where possible. However, the reconfigured Parramatta was anchored in traditionally pro-Labor territory in western Sydney. Parramatta's Liberal incumbent, Phillip Ruddock, opted to follow most of his base into Dundas, allowing his 1975 challenger, John Brown to become only the second Labor member to win Parramatta.
Since it has been located between Labor's traditional heartland of western Sydney and the traditional Liberal stronghold of the North Shore. As a result, whenever the seat is redistributed, a shift of a few kilometres to the west or east can radically alter its political landscape. Most the 2006 redistribution shifted Parramatta from marginally Labor to notionally marginally Liberal; as was expected at the 2007 federal election, the incumbent Labor member, Julie Owens, held the seat ahead of Liberal candidate Colin Robinson, a member of the Electrical Trades Union, with an increased majority. Owens has subsequently been re-elected at the 2013 and 2016 elections; the latter victory came as Labor lost government, marking the second time that the Liberals and their predecessors have been in government without holding Parramatta. Prominent members of Parramatta over the years have included a former Prime Minister. Ruddock, a former Attorney-General and Immigration Minister represented the seat. Division of Parramatta - Australian Electoral Commission
Sky blue is the name of a colour that resembles the colour of the unclouded sky at noon reflecting off of a metallic surface. The entry for "sky-blue" in Murray's New English Dictionary reports a first sighting of the term in the article on "silver" in Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopaedia of 1728. However, many writers had used the term "sky blue" to name a colour before Chambers. For example, we find "sky blue" in A Collection of vol. 2, p. 322, where John Nieuhoff describes certain flowers: "they are of a lovely sky blue colour, yellow in the middle". The sense of this colour may have been first used in 1585 in a book by Nicolas de Nicolay where he stated "the tulbant of the merchant must be skie coloured". Displayed at right is the web colour sky blue. Celeste (Spanish:, is the colloquial name for the pale turquoise blue colour associated with Italian bicycle manufacturer Bianchi S.p. A and sometimes known as Bianchi Green. In Italian, as the name indicates, it is an attempt to reproduce the colour of clear skies.
In English, this colour may be referred to as Italian sky blue. The Japanese equivalent is known as sora iro or mizudori, referring to the color of the sky or its reflection on the sea. Bleu celeste is a occurring tincture in heraldry; this tincture is sometimes called ciel or celeste. It is depicted in a lighter shade than the range of shades of the more traditional tincture azure, the standard blue used in heraldry; the Italian Wikipedia cites Il dizionario dei colori: nomi e valori in quadricromia by S. Fantetti and C. Petracchi and describes multiple variants of Celeste as shown below, plus details as defined in the infobox above. Bianchi bicycles are traditionally painted celeste known as Bianchi Green. Contradictory myths say; the exact shade of turquoise used by the company has varied over time, but has always been described as Celeste. In Anglophone countries Celeste is sometimes reported as Pantone -#332, with various other shades. Displayed at right is the web colour light sky blue, it is close in shade to baby blue.
Displayed at right is the colour medium sky blue. This is the colour, called sky blue in Crayola crayons; this colour was formulated by Crayola in 1958. "Sky blue" appears in the 48, 64, 96 and 120 packs of crayons. Displayed at right is the colour vivid sky blue. Deep sky blue is an azure-cyan colour associated with deep sky blue. Deep sky blue is a web colour; this colour is the colour on the colour wheel halfway between cyan. The traditional name for this colour is Capri; the first use of Capri as a colour name in English was in 1920. The colour Capri in general is named for the azure-cyan colour of the Mediterranean sea around the island of Capri off Italy, the site of several villas belonging to the Roman Emperor Tiberius, including his Imperial residence in his years, the Villa Jovis; the colour Capri is named after the colour of the Blue Grotto on the island of Capri. as it appears on a bright sunny day. Today the island of Capri is a resort island popular with tourists; the colour name deep sky blue for this colour did not come into use until the promulgation of the X11 colour list in 1987.
The name Capri is still used for this colour as well as the name deep sky blue. At right is displayed the colour French sky blue, the tone of sky blue, called sky blue in the Pourpre.com colour list, a colour list popular in France. Spanish sky blue is the colour, called celeste in the Guía de coloraciones by Rosa Gallego and Juan Carlos Sanz, a colour dictionary published in 2005, popular in the Hispanophone realm. Displayed at right is the colour dark sky blue; this is the colour called sky blue in Pantone. The source of this colour is the "Pantone Textile Paper eXtended" colour list, color #14-4318 TPX—Sky Blue. SportsArgentina: Following the colors of the Flag of Argentina, in which sky blue is the predominant color, many Argentine sport teams feature the color, including Racing Club de Avellaneda, Belgrano de Córdoba, Racing de Córdoba, Club Atlético Temperley, Atlético Rafaela, Villa San Carlos, Gimnasia y Esgrima de Jujuy, Gimnasia y Tiro de Salta, Gimnasia y Esgrima de Concepción del Uruguay.
In addition, the Argentina national football team is known as the'albicelestes' due to the white-and-sky blue striping on their jerseys. This color scheme is featured in other prominent national squads in popular sports such as rugby, field hockey, polo or volleyball, to name a few. Uruguay: The Uruguay national football team has worn a sky blue jersey since 1910, after Uruguayan club team River Plate F. C. wore sky blue while defeating contemporary Argentine powerhouse Alumni Athletic Club. The national team is nicknamed'La Celeste'; as in Argentina, a number of Uruguayan club teams use sky blue in their uniforms, such as C. A. Cerro, Club Atlético Torque, Club Oriental de Football, Rocha F. C.. Azure Bleu celeste List of colours Marian blue Shades of blue Bianchi Corporate site Bianchi USA US site International English-language site Sea Foam Green
Christian Brothers College, St Kilda
Christian Brothers College was founded in 1878 and is a Roman Catholic independent secondary college for boys. It is part of the Association of Edmund Rice schools; the school was founded and run by the Christian Brothers, however the Brothers have for many years not be involved in the running of the school. CBC St Kilda is located in the Melbourne suburb of St Kilda East with another campus in nearby Balaclava. CBC St Kilda, founded during 1878, is one of the oldest private boys schools in Melbourne, it is a member of the Association of Catholic Colleges. In addition to its St Kilda East site, the college has had a second campus in Balaclava since 2008. Richard Keane – Prominent trade unionist and Trade Minister in Chifley Labour government James Reginald Halligan – senior public servant Tony Lupton – Cabinet Secretary, Brumby Labor Government, Victoria, 2002– 2014 John Madigan – Australian Federal Senator representing Victoria and Deputy Leader of the DLP Frank McGuire – Labor Party Member of the Victorian Legislative Assembly for Broadmeadows Sir Frank Meere – senior public servant Hon Justice James Elliott, Judge of the Supreme Court of Victoria, 2013- Hon Justice Robert Wallace, Judge of the Supreme Court of Western Australia, 1972-1991 Morris West – writer of international renown Shane Maloney – novelist Peter Corrigan – Australian architect of international renown Frank Howson – noted Australian scriptwriter and film director Damien Parer – legendary Australian war photographer, filmed the first Australian film to win an Academy Award Daniel Keene – noted Australian playwright Ronald Conway – psychologist and author of "The Great Australian Stupor" Barry Oakley – writer and former Literary Editor of the Australian Kevin Summers – actor, playwright Gerard Vaughan – director of the National Gallery of Australia Felix Mallard - actor Patrick John O'Dea – Australian rules footballer turned American football legend Kevin O'Donnell – Australian rules footballer, father of Simon O'Donnell Robert James Thomson, editor-in-chief of Dow Jones & Company and the managing editor of The Wall Street Journal, former editor of The Times Paul Gardner – former Chairman of Grey Global.