The King of Queens
The King of Queens is an American sitcom that ran on CBS from September 21, 1998, to May 14, 2007, for a total of nine seasons and 207 episodes. The series was created by Michael J. Weithorn and David Litt, who served as the show's executive producer; the series stars Kevin James and Leah Remini as Doug and Carrie Heffernan a working class couple living in Rego Park, New York. The King of Queens was produced by Hanley Productions and CBS Productions, CBS Paramount Network Television, in association with Columbia TriStar Television, Sony Pictures Television, it was filmed at Sony Pictures Studios in California. The ninth and final season began airing on December 6, 2006, concluded on May 14, 2007, with a double-length finale episode, making The King of Queens the last American live action sitcom that premiered in the 1990s to end its run. In May 2017, Kevin James and Leah Remini reunited; the show ended on May 7, 2018. Doug and Carrie Heffernan are a working class couple living at "3121 Aberdeen Street" in Rego Park, New York, along with Carrie's father, Arthur Spooner.
Doug works for the fictional International Parcel Service as a delivery driver, while Carrie works as a secretary in Manhattan, first for a law firm and for a real estate firm. Their lives are complicated by the demands of Arthur, so much so that they hire Holly, a professional dog walker, to spend time with him as she walks dogs in the park. Featured on the show are Doug's friends Deacon Palmer, Spence Olchin, Richie Iannucci, as well as Doug's cousin Danny Heffernan. Deacon's wife Kelly is Carrie's best friend. Most scenes take place in the Heffernans' home, but other common locations include Doug and Carrie's workplaces, the restaurant "Cooper's" and the residences of friends and family. While locations seen during the theme-song were filmed in areas surrounding New York, the series was filmed in California; the show begins after Doug and Carrie have married, how they met is unclear due to continuity issues. In one flashback episode, "Meet By-Product", Doug meets Carrie when he is a bouncer at a nightclub that Carrie attends.
However, in another episode, "Road Rayge", Carrie reflects on a song that she says Doug asked her to dance to when they were in junior high school. Doug Heffernan is an average parcel delivery man with a smart-aleck personality. Doug never hesitates to protest his grievances intensely. Doug's birth date is February 9, 1965, he was born in Montreal, Canada. Some of his misadventures are fueled by his love of food; these basic desires sometimes cause him to think of strange, intricate schemes in order to get what he wants, although they fall through in the end, causing constant arguments between Doug and Carrie. Doug's tendency to give in to his temptations, despite promising Carrie otherwise, is another common cause of disagreements, he enjoys the simple pleasures of watching sports and playing poker with his friends. Carrie Heffernan is Doug's sardonic wife, she has a quick-temper and is physically abusive to Doug. She has been characterized as scary by Holly and Doug when she is angry. During a flashback, Carrie concludes.
She never is employed as a hard-working legal secretary. Her constant attempts to make her relationship with Doug more romantic and meaningful cause Doug frustration, as he prefers a simple life with as few restrictions as possible; the more quick-witted and adventurous of the couple, Carrie pushes Doug to make more of himself and improve his morals, but she can be just as immoral as he is. Although Carrie scolds Doug for his selfish behavior, she has proven to be selfish as well at times, with little patience for others' problems or tolerance for their quirks. Carrie's best friend is Kelly Palmer. Arthur Spooner is Carrie's widowed father, married three times, his fourth marriage is to Spence's mother during the final season. Arthur is the classic oddball of the family, he lives in the basement of the Heffernan house because he accidentally set fire to his own uninsured home, burning it to the ground in the pilot episode. Volatile, Arthur is known for his incoherent, irascible outbursts, he tells a lot of questionable stories of.
Arthur causes chaos in the Heffernan household and gets on Doug's and Carrie's nerves. And, although he and Doug have a bitter rivalry in some episodes, he still approves of Doug, regardless, they sometimes have trouble finding time alone. Arthur tries to cause trouble with Doug's friends, he bullies Spence but tries it on Deacon, who refers to him as "the old man". Deacon John Palmer is co-worker. Towering in height and athletic, Deacon is a year and a few weeks younger than Doug, but the more mature of the two, in addition to being the classic "family man". Deacon and his wife Kelly have two sons, named Kirby, he is seen hanging out with Doug, whether it is on their lunch break, over the weekend, or for a family gathering. Although he experiences relationship problems, Deacon always has time to relax and have fun, he will help Doug plan elaborate schemes to fool Carrie, but he likes to get involved in the scheme himself. Deacon
The term child actor or child actress is applied to a child acting on stage or in motion pictures or television, but to an adult who began their acting career as a child. To avoid confusion, the latter is called a former child actor. Associated is teenage actor or teen actor, an actor who reached popularity as a teenager. Many child actors find themselves struggling to adapt. Lindsay Lohan and Macaulay Culkin are two particular famous child actors who experienced much difficulty with the fame they acquired at a young age. Many child actors become successful adult actors as well, a prime example of this being Jodie Foster, whose career includes such films like the 1976 film Taxi Driver, the 1991 film The Silence of the Lambs and the 2007 film The Brave One. In the United States, the activities of child actors are regulated by the governing labor union, if any, state laws; some projects film in remote locations to evade regulations intended to protect the child. Longer work hours or risky stunts prohibited in California, for example, might be permitted to a project filming in British Columbia.
US federal law "specifically exempted minors working the Entertainment Business from all provisions of the Child Labor Laws." Any regulation of child actors is governed by disparate state law. Due to the large presence of the entertainment industry in California, it has some of the most explicit laws protecting child actors. Being a minor, a child actor must secure an entertainment work permit before accepting any paid performing work. Compulsory education laws mandate that the education of the child actor not be disrupted while the child is working, whether the child actor is enrolled in public school, private school or home school; the child does his/her schoolwork under the supervision of a studio teacher while on the set. Before the 1930s, many child actors never got to see the money they earned because they were not in charge of this money. Jackie Coogan earned millions of dollars from working as a child actor only to see most of it squandered by his parents. In 1939, California weighed in on this controversy and enacted the Coogan Bill which requires a portion of the earnings of a child to be preserved in a special savings account called a blocked trust.
A trust, not monitored can be problematic however as in the case of Gary Coleman who after working from 1974 sued his adoptive parents and former business advisor for $3.8 million over misappropriation of his trust fund. Some people criticize the parents of child actors for allowing their children to work, believing that more "normal" activities should be the staple during the childhood years. Others observe that competition is present in all areas of a child's life—from sports to student newspaper to orchestra and band—and believe that the work ethic instilled or the talent developed accrues to the child's benefit; the child actor may experience unique and negative pressures when working under tight production schedules. Large projects which depend for their success on the ability of the child to deliver an effective performance add to the pressure. Ethel Merman, who several times worked in long-running stage productions with child actors, disliked what she saw as their overprofessionalization - "acting more like midgets than children" - and disapproved of parents pushing adulthood on them.
The failure to retain stardom and success and the exposure at a young age to fame has caused many child actors to lead adult lives plagued by legal troubles and drug abuse. Examples include child cast members of the American sitcom Diff'rent Strokes Todd Bridges, Gary Coleman, Dana Plato. Plato was featured in several softcore pornography films, she was arrested twice for armed robbery and forging prescriptions, died in May 1999 from an overdose of prescription medication, deemed suicide. Coleman famously sued his parents for misuse of his trust fund and, although awarded over $1,000,000, filed for bankruptcy in 1999. After many charges of assault throughout the next years, Coleman died in May 2010. Bridges was plagued with many legal troubles as well as an addiction to cocaine. After breaking this habit, he traveled across the U. S. touring schools and warning about the dangers of drug abuse. He has since made several cameo appearances on multiple television programs; the popular television sitcom Full House made child stars out of the Olsen twins.
After the show, Sweetin went on to develop an addiction to methamphetamine, as well as alcoholism. She overcame this and wrote a memoir describing her experiences. Mary-Kate Olsen and Tracey Gold developed eating disorders, for which they were treated with intensive rehab. Anissa Jones, of Family Affair fame, overdosed on August 28, 1976 at age 18. Jonathan Brandis, who appeared in a number of films as a child and teenager, committed suicide in 2003 at the age of 27 due to reasons related to his lack of continued success into adulthood. Sawyer Sweeten, a child actor who portrayed Geoffrey Barone on the American sitcom Everybody Loves Raymond, took his life in 2015 at the age of 19 after a period of depression. Drew Barrymore was notorious for her illegal and public antics beginning shortly after her first role in E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial. Barrymore admits to smoking cigarettes at age nine, drinking alcohol by the time she was eleven, smoking marijuana at the age of twelve, snorting cocaine at the age of thirteen.
At the age of fourteen, she attempted suicide. Another popular example today of child actors with post-success troubles would be Lindsay Lohan. Famous for her starring roles in The Parent Trap, Freaky Friday, Confessions of a Teenage Dr
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
The Jersey was a television series that aired on Disney Channel that premiered January 30, 1999, based on the Monday Night Football Club books by Gordon Korman. The series finale was on March 23, 2004; the Jersey is about Nick Lighter, Morgan Hudson, Coleman Galloway, Elliot Riffkin, four teens who discover the magic of "the jersey", a mystical football jersey that transports them into the bodies of professional athletes. This is done in a way similar to the way that the main character in Quantum Leap, travels from body to body, there is a different athlete featured in every episode; the show had several athletes as guest actors, including Dan Lyle, Michael Andretti, Terrell Davis, David Robinson, Malik Rose, Tony Gonzalez, Shannon Sharpe, Donovan McNabb, Byron Dafoe, Michael Strahan, Kurt Warner, Stephon Marbury, Sergei Fedorov, Kordell Stewart, Jerome Bettis, Junior Seau, Scott Steiner, Eddie George, Sabrina Bryan, Randy Johnson, Tony Hawk, Laila Ali, Peyton Manning, Danny Farmer. Michael Galeota as Nick Lighter Courtnee Draper as Morgan Hudson Jermaine Williams as Coleman Galloway Brianne Prather as Hilary Lighter Cheselka Leigh as Willa Conklin Theo Greenly as Elliot Rifkin Michael Bofshever as Mr. Lighter McNally Sagal as Mrs. Lighter Meagan Good as Tamika Vance Yudell as Phill Parker While production on the show wrapped in February 2001, new episodes were shown until March 2004.
The last few episodes aired early Saturday mornings on Disney Channel and after all 64 episodes were shown, The Jersey was taken off the air in June 2004. The Jersey on IMDb The Jersey at TV.com
The West Wing
The West Wing is an American serial political drama television series created by Aaron Sorkin, broadcast on NBC from September 22, 1999, to May 14, 2006. The series is set in the West Wing of the White House, where the Oval Office and offices of presidential senior staff are located, during the fictitious Democratic administration of Josiah Bartlet; the West Wing was produced by Warner Bros. Television and featured an ensemble cast, including Martin Sheen, John Spencer, Allison Janney, Rob Lowe, Bradley Whitford and Richard Schiff. For the first four seasons, there were three executive producers: Sorkin, Thomas Schlamme, John Wells. After Sorkin left the series, Wells assumed the role of head writer, with executive producers being directors Alex Graves and Christopher Misiano, writers Lawrence O'Donnell Jr. and Peter Noah. The West Wing is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential television series, it has been ranked among the best television shows of all time in publications such as, Time, TV Guide, Rolling Stone, the New York Daily News.
The Writers Guild of America ranked. It has received praise from critics, political science professors, former White House staffers and has been the subject of critical analysis; the West Wing received a multitude of accolades, including two Peabody Awards, three Golden Globe Awards, 26 Primetime Emmy Awards, including the award for Outstanding Drama Series, which it won four consecutive times from 2000–2003. The show's ratings waned in years following the departure of series creator Sorkin after the fourth season, yet it remained popular among high-income viewers, a key demographic for the show and its advertisers, with around 16 million viewers; the West Wing employed a broad ensemble cast to portray the many positions involved in the daily work of the federal government. The President, the First Lady, the President's senior staff and advisers form the core cast. Numerous secondary characters, appearing intermittently, complement storylines that revolve around this core group. Josiah "Jed" Bartlet is the President of the United States.
An economist by training, he is a former Congressman and Governor from New Hampshire who unexpectedly won the Democratic Party nomination. He suffers from multiple sclerosis, a fact he hides from the electorate, he is succeeded by Matt Santos. Leo McGarry is Chief of Staff. Following a heart attack, he becomes Counselor to the President, the Democratic Candidate for Vice President, he dies before assuming office. Josh Lyman is the Deputy Chief of Staff to Leo McGarry. Josh leaves the White House to become the "Santos for President" campaign manager; when Santos is elected, Josh becomes White House Chief of Staff. Toby Ziegler is the Communications Director, where he wrote many of Bartlet's speeches, including both Inaugural Addresses and many State of the Union Addresses, he is fired from the Bartlet administration during a leak investigation, though he is pardoned for his crimes at series' end. He has twin children with his ex-wife, a congresswoman from Maryland. Sam Seaborn is the Deputy Communications Director to Toby Ziegler.
In his time at the White House, Sam is responsible for writing many of Bartlet's speeches. He departs the White House following the re-election of President Bartlet to run for Congress, he is recruited to become Santos' Deputy Chief of Staff at the series end. C. J. Cregg is the Press Secretary, she succeeds Leo McGarry as Chief of Staff and departs the White House at the end of the Bartlet administration. Post-series, she has a child. Charlie Young is the Personal Aide to the President and a Deputy Special Assistant to the Chief of Staff, he is in a relationship with Zoey Bartlet. At the series end he begins to study law at Georgetown. Donna Moss is the Senior Assistant to Josh Lyman, she departs to be a spokesperson for the Russell campaign and the Santos campaign. Upon Santos' election, she becomes Chief of Staff to the First Lady. Abbey Bartlet is the First Lady, Jed's wife, a physician.. Mandy Hampton is Josh Lyman's ex-girlfriend and a media consultant contracted by the Bartlet administration.
She departs without explanation following the first season. Will Bailey is hired as a speechwriter and transitions into the role of Deputy Communications Director, he becomes Chief of Staff to the Vice President, Russell's Campaign Manager, Communications Director. After the series end he becomes a congressman for Oregon. Kate Harper is the Deputy National Security Advisor. Matt Santos is a Congressman from Texas, convinced by Josh Lyman to run for President, he wins the nomination and the election.. Arnold Vinick is a Senator from California. After his loss in the general election, he is appointed Secretary of State by President-elect Santos. Annabeth Schott (Kristin Chenowet
The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company known as Walt Disney or Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California. It is the world's largest media conglomerate in terms of revenue, ahead of NBCUniversal and WarnerMedia. Disney was founded on October 16, 1923 by brothers Walt and Roy O. Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio; the company established itself as a leader in the American animation industry before diversifying into live-action film production and theme parks. Since the 1980s, Disney has created and acquired corporate divisions in order to market more mature content than is associated with its flagship family-oriented brands; the company is known for its film studio division, Walt Disney Studios, which includes Walt Disney Pictures, Walt Disney Animation Studios, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm, 20th Century Fox, Fox Searchlight Pictures, Blue Sky Studios. Disney's other main divisions are Disney Parks and Products, Disney Media Networks, Walt Disney Direct-to-Consumer and International.
Disney owns and operates the ABC broadcast network. The company has been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average since 1991. Cartoon character Mickey Mouse, created in 1928 by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, is one of the world's most recognizable characters, serves as the company's official mascot. In early 1923, Kansas City, animator Walt Disney created a short film entitled Alice's Wonderland, which featured child actress Virginia Davis interacting with animated characters. After the bankruptcy in 1923 of his previous firm, Laugh-O-Gram Studio, Disney moved to Hollywood to join his brother, Roy O. Disney. Film distributor Margaret J. Winkler of M. J. Winkler Productions contacted Disney with plans to distribute a whole series of Alice Comedies purchased for $1,500 per reel with Disney as a production partner. Walt and Roy Disney formed Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio that same year. More animated films followed after Alice. In January 1926, with the completion of the Disney studio on Hyperion Street, the Disney Brothers Studio's name was changed to the Walt Disney Studio.
After the demise of the Alice comedies, Disney developed an all-cartoon series starring his first original character, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, distributed by Winkler Pictures through Universal Pictures. The distributor owned Oswald, so Disney only made a few hundred dollars. Disney completed 26 Oswald shorts before losing the contract in February 1928, due to a legal loophole, when Winkler's husband Charles Mintz took over their distribution company. After failing to take over the Disney Studio, Mintz hired away four of Disney's primary animators to start his own animation studio, Snappy Comedies. In 1928, to recover from the loss of Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, Disney came up with the idea of a mouse character named Mortimer while on a train headed to California, drawing up a few simple drawings; the mouse was renamed Mickey Mouse and starred in several Disney produced films. Ub Iwerks refined Disney's initial design of Mickey Mouse. Disney's first sound film Steamboat Willie, a cartoon starring Mickey, was released on November 18, 1928 through Pat Powers' distribution company.
It was the first Mickey Mouse sound cartoon released, but the third to be created, behind Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho. Steamboat Willie was an immediate smash hit, its initial success was attributed not just to Mickey's appeal as a character, but to the fact that it was the first cartoon to feature synchronized sound. Disney used Pat Powers' Cinephone system, created by Powers using Lee de Forest's Phonofilm system. Steamboat Willie premiered at B. S. Moss's Colony Theater in New York City, now The Broadway Theatre. Disney's Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho were retrofitted with synchronized sound tracks and re-released in 1929. Disney continued to produce cartoons with Mickey Mouse and other characters, began the Silly Symphony series with Columbia Pictures signing on as Symphonies distributor in August 1929. In September 1929, theater manager Harry Woodin requested permission to start a Mickey Mouse Club which Walt approved. In November, test comics strips were sent to King Features, who requested additional samples to show to the publisher, William Randolph Hearst.
On December 16, the Walt Disney Studios partnership was reorganized as a corporation with the name of Walt Disney Productions, Limited with a merchandising division, Walt Disney Enterprises, two subsidiaries, Disney Film Recording Company and Liled Realty and Investment Company for real estate holdings. Walt and his wife held Roy owned 40 % of WD Productions. On December 30, King Features signed its first newspaper, New York Mirror, to publish the Mickey Mouse comic strip with Walt's permission. In 1932, Disney signed an exclusive contract with Technicolor to produce cartoons in color, beginning with Flowers and Trees. Disney released cartoons through Powers' Celebrity Pictures, Columbia Pictures, United Artists; the popularity of the Mickey Mouse series allowed Disney to plan for his first feature-length animation. The feature film Walt
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia