In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase. Chinese characters are logograms; the use of logograms in writing is called logography, a writing system, based on logograms is called a logographic system. In alphabets and syllabaries, individual written characters represent sounds only, rather than entire concepts; these characters are called phonograms in linguistics. Unlike logograms, phonograms do not have word or phrase meanings singularly until the phonograms are combined with additional phonograms thus creating words and phrases that have meaning. Writing language in this way, is called phonetic writing as well as orthographical writing. Logographic systems include the earliest writing systems. A purely logographic script would be impractical for most languages, none is known, apart from one devised for the artificial language Toki Pona, a purposely limited language with only 120 morphemes. All logographic scripts used for natural languages rely on the rebus principle to extend a limited set of logograms: A subset of characters is used for their phonetic values, either consonantal or syllabic.
The term logosyllabary is used to emphasize the phonetic nature of these scripts when the phonetic domain is the syllable. In both Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs and in Chinese, there has been the additional development of fusing such phonetic elements with determinatives. Logographic writing systems include: Logoconsonantal scripts These are scripts in which the graphemes may be extended phonetically according to the consonants of the words they represent, ignoring the vowels. For example, Egyptian was used to write both sȝ'duck' and sȝ'son', though it is that these words were not pronounced the same apart from their consonants; the primary examples of logoconsonantal scripts are:Hieroglyphs and demotic: Ancient Egyptian Logosyllabic scripts These are scripts in which the graphemes represent morphemes polysyllabic morphemes, but when extended phonetically represent single syllables. They include:Anatolian hieroglyphs: Luwian Cuneiform: Sumerian, other Semitic languages, Hittite, Luwian and Urartian Maya glyphs: Chorti and other Classic Maya languages Han characters: Chinese, Japanese, Zhuang Derivatives of Han characters: Chữ nôm: Vietnam Dongba script written with Geba script: Naxi language Jurchen script: Jurchen Khitan large script: Khitan Sawndip: Zhuang languages Shui script: Shui language Tangut script: Tangut language Yi: various Yi languagesNone of these systems is purely logographic.
This can be illustrated with Chinese. Not all Chinese characters represent morphemes: some morphemes are composed of more than one character. For example, the Chinese word for spider, 蜘蛛 zhīzhū, was created by fusing the rebus 知朱 zhīzhū with the "bug" determinative 虫. Neither *蜘 zhī nor *蛛 zhū can be used separately; this is incorrect. In Archaic Chinese, one can find the reverse: a single character representing more than one morpheme. An example is Archaic Chinese 王 hjwangs, a combination of a morpheme hjwang meaning king and a suffix pronounced /s/. In modern Mandarin, bimorphemic syllables are always written with two characters, for example 花儿 huār'flower'. A peculiar system of logograms developed within the Pahlavi scripts used to write Middle Persian during much of the Sassanid period; these logograms, called hozwārishn, were dispensed with altogether after the Arab conquest of Persia and the adoption of a variant of the Arabic alphabet. Logograms are used in modern shorthand to represent common words.
In addition, the numerals and mathematical symbols are logograms – 1'one', 2'two', +'plus', ='equals', so on. In English, the ampersand & is used for'and' and for Latin et, % for'percent', # for'number', § for'section', $ for'dollar', € for'euro', £ for'pound', ° for'degree', @ for'at', so on. All historical logographic systems include a phonetic dimension, as it is impractical to have a separate basic character for every word or morpheme in a language. In some cases, such as cuneiform as it was used for Akkadian, the vast majority of glyphs are used for their sound values rather than logographically. Many logographic systems have a semantic/ideographic component, called "determinatives" in the case of Egyptian and "radicals" in the case of Chinese. Typical Egyptian usage was to augment a logogram, which may represent several words with different pronunciations, with a determinate to narrow down the meaning, a phonetic component to specify the pronunciation. In the case of Chinese, the vast majority of characters are a fixed combination of a radical that indicates its nominal category, plus a phonetic to give an idea of the pronunciation.
The Mayan system used logograms
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Asger Oluf Jorn was a Danish painter, ceramic artist, author. He was a founding member of the Situationist International, he was born in Vejrum, in the northwest corner of Jutland and baptized Asger Oluf Jørgensen. The largest collection of Asger Jorn's works—including his major work Stalingrad—can be seen in the Museum Jorn, Denmark. Asger Jorn willed his property and the works of art located inside to the Municipality of Albissola Marina, so that the italian museum called "Casa Museo Jorn" was created for displaying his works, he was the second oldest of an elder brother to Jørgen Nash. Both of his parents were teachers, his father, Lars Peter Jørgensen, a fundamentalist Christian, died in a car crash when Asger was 12 years old. His mother, Maren, née Nielsen, was more liberal but a committed Christian; this early heavy Christian influence had a negative effect on Asger who began progressively to inwardly rebel against it, more against other forms of authority. In 1929, aged 15, he was diagnosed with tuberculosis, although he made a recovery from it after spending three months on the west coast of Jutland.
By the age of 16 he was influenced by N. F. S. Grundtvig, although he had started to paint, Asger enrolled in the Vinthers Seminarium, a teacher-training college in Silkeborg where he paid particular attention to a course in 19th century Scandinavian thought. At about this time Jorn became the subject of a number of oil paintings by the painter Martin Kaalund-Jørgensen, which encouraged Jorn to try his hand in this medium; when he graduated from college in 1935, the principal wrote a reference for him which said that he had attained'an extraordinary rich personal development and maturity' – because of his wide reading in areas outside the topics required for his studies. While at college he joined the small Silkeborg branch of the Communist Party of Denmark and came under the direct influence of the syndicalist Christian Christensen, with whom he became close friends and who, Jorn was to write, was to become a second father to him. In 1936 he traveled to Paris to become a student of Kandinsky.
However, when he discovered that Kandinsky was having economic difficulties able to sell his own paintings, Jorn decided to join Fernand Léger's Académie Contemporaine. In 1937 he joined Le Corbusier in working on the Pavillon des Temps Nouveaux at the 1937 Paris Exhibition, he returned again to Denmark in the summer of 1937. He again traveled to Paris in the summer of 1938, before returning to Denmark, traveling to Løkken and Copenhagen. Asger Jorn was a good friend of the Danish art dealer Børge Birch, owner of Galerie Birch, who sold his art as early as the 1930s. On Jorn held many group exhibitions and solo exhibitions in different galleries. From 1937 to 1942, he studied at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen; the occupation of Denmark by Nazi Germany was a time of deep crisis for Jorn, inculcated with pacifism. The occupation sank him into deep depression, he subsequently became active in the communist resistance movement. During the war he co-founded with the architect Robert Dahlmann Olsen the underground art group, Helhesten or "hell-horse," and was a contributor to its journal.
In 1939, he wrote the key theoretical essay, "Intimate Banalities," published in Helhesten, which claimed that the future of art was kitsch and praised amateur landscape paintings as "the best art today." He was the first person to translate Franz Kafka into Danish. After the war, he complained that opportunities for critical thinking within the context of the communist arena had been curtailed by what he characterised as a centralised bourgeois political control. Finding this unacceptable, he broke with the Communist Party of Denmark, although he did not hand in his membership until the mid-1960s and remained committed philosophically to a revision of the Marxist analysis of capitalism from the point of view of the artist, he traveled again to France where he, together with Christian Dotremont and Constant, founded COBRA, edited monographs of the Bibliothèque Cobra. He returned and ill with tuberculosis, to Silkeborg in 1951 and resumed work in the ceramics field in 1953; the following year he traveled to Albissola Marina in Italy where he became involved with an offshoot of COBRA, the International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus.
In 1954 he met Guy Debord, to become a close friend. The two men collaborated on two artist's books, Fin de Copenhagen and Mémoires, along with prints, forewords to each other's work, he participated in the conference that led to the merger of the International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus, the Lettriste Internationale, London Psychogeographical Association to form the Situationist International in 1957. Here he applied his scientific and mathematical knowledge drawn from Henri Poincaré and Niels Bohr to develop his situlogical technique. Jorn never believed in a conception of the Situationist ideas as artistic and separated from political involvement, he was at the root and at the core of the Situationist International project sharing the revolutionary intentions with Debord. The Situationist general principles were an attack on the capitalist exploitation and degradation of the life of people, solution of alternative life experiences, construction of situations, unitary urbanism, with the union of play and criti
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
COBRA (avant-garde movement)
COBRA was a European avant-garde movement active from 1948 to 1951. The name was coined in 1948 by Christian Dotremont from the initials of the members' home cities: Copenhagen, Amsterdam. During the time of occupation of World War II, the Netherlands had been disconnected from the art world beyond its borders. COBRA was formed shortly thereafter; this international movement of artists who worked experimentally evolved from the criticisms of Western society and a common desire to break away from existing art movements, including "detested" naturalism and "sterile" abstraction. Experimentation was the symbol of an unfettered freedom, according to Constant, was embodied by children and the expressions of children. COBRA was formed by Karel Appel, Corneille, Christian Dotremont, Asger Jorn, Joseph Noiret on 8 November 1948 in the Café Notre-Dame, with the signing of a manifesto, "La cause était entendue", drawn up by Dotremont. Formed with a unifying doctrine of complete freedom of colour and form, as well as antipathy towards Surrealism, the artists shared an interest in Marxism as well as modernism.
Their working method was based on spontaneity and experiment, they drew their inspiration in particular from children’s drawings, from primitive art forms and from the work of Paul Klee and Joan Miró. Coming together as an amalgamation of the Dutch group Reflex, the Danish group Høst and the Belgian Revolutionary Surrealist Group, the group only lasted a few years but managed to achieve a number of objectives in that time: the periodical Cobra, a series of collaborations between various members called Peintures-Mot and two large-scale exhibitions; the first of these was held at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam, November 1949, the other at the Palais des Beaux-Arts in Liège in 1951. In November 1949 the group changed its name to Internationale des Artistes Expérimentaux with membership having spread across Europe and the United States, although this name has never stuck; the movement was disbanded in 1951, but many of its members remained close, with Dotremont in particular continuing collaborations with many of the leading members of the group.
The primary focus of the group consisted of semi-abstract paintings with brilliant color, violent brushwork, distorted human figures inspired by primitive and folk art and similar to American action painting. Cobra was a milestone in the development of European abstract expressionism. Cobra was the last avant-garde movement of the twentieth century. According to Nathalie Aubert the group only lasted for three years. After that period each artist in the group developed their own individual paths; the manifesto, entitled, "La cause était entendue" was written by CoBrA member Christian Dotremont and signed by all founding members in Paris in 1948. It was directly speaking to their experience attending the Centre International de Documentation sur l’Art d’Avant-garde in which they felt the atmosphere was sterile and authoritarian, it was a statement of working collaboratively in an organic mode of experimentation in order to develop their work separate from the current place of the avant-garde movement.
The name of the manifesto was a play on words from an earlier document signed by Belgian and French Revolutionary Surrealists in July 1947, entitled "La cause est entendue". The European artists were different from their American counterparts for they preferred the process over the product and introduced primitive and folkloric elements along with a decorative input from their children. One of the new approaches that united the COBRA artists was their unrestrained use of strong colors, along with violent handwritings and figuration which can be either frightening or humorous, their art was alive with subhuman figures in order to mirror the terror and weakness of our time unlike the dehumanized art of Abstraction. This spontaneous method was a rejection of Renaissance art, ‘civilized art’, they preferred ‘uncivilized’ forms of expression which created an interplay between the conscious and the unconscious instead of the Surrealist interest in the unconscious alone; the childlike in their method meant a pleasure in painting, in the materials and the picture itself.
The Dutch Artists in particular within Cobra were interested in Children's art.“We Wanted to start again like a child” Karel Appel insisted. As part of the Western Left, they were built upon the fusion of Art and Life through experiment in order to unite form and expression, they exhibited in Holland, but Paris and other countries in Europe. The first major exhibition was held at the Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam in November 1949 under the title "International Experimental Art"; the museum's director and curator Willem Sandberg was interested in bringing experimentalism and abstraction to The Netherlands, had been an active member of the Dutch Resistance during the war. He was involved with the CoBrA group and maintained direct contacts between the artists and the Stedelijk Museum; the architect Aldo van Eyck, who would become known for his architecture of playgrounds as cultural critique, was asked to do the interior design of the exhibition. The close relationship between Van Eyck and the artists from the CoBrA, who drew their inspiration in particular from children's drawings, makes it probable that much of Eyck's early inspiration for the playgrounds may have derived from CoBrA.
The Stedelijk Museum exhibition gave rise to furious criticism from the public. A critic f