Guelph (electoral district)
Guelph is a federal electoral district in Ontario, represented in the House of Commons of Canada since 1979. This riding has had a Liberal MP since 1993. From 2008 until his decision not to run in 2015, the riding's parliamentary seat was held by Liberal MP Frank Valeriote. Valeriote had announced his intention to retire on November 15, 2014; the Liberal candidate in the 2015 federal election in the riding was Lloyd Longfield, who served as president of the Guelph Chamber of Commerce. Longfield was elected on October 19, 2015 with nearly 50 per cent of the popular vote, more than 15,000 votes ahead of the Conservative candidate, Gloria Kovach. Guelph riding was created in 1976 from parts of Halton—Wentworth and Wellington—Grey ridings, it consisted of the Townships of Eramosa, Guelph and Puslinch and the City of Guelph in the County of Wellington. The electoral district was abolished in 1987 when it was merged into Guelph—Wellington riding, adding Erin to the existing boundaries. In 1996, Erin and Pilkington was removed from the riding.
In 2003, a new riding of Guelph was created again, consisting of the City of Guelph. This riding gained a fraction of territory from Wellington—Halton Hills during the 2012 electoral redistribution. A so-called "robocall" or voter suppression scandal occurred in this riding during the 2011 federal election, when hundreds of Guelph voters who were opposition supporters received automated calls, or'robocalls', claiming to be from Elections Canada on election day, May 2, 2011; these calls directed them to the wrong polling stations. While reports of such calls were alleged in five other ridings described as election fraud by a Federal Court judge, there was insufficient evidence to support charges in those ridings; the "robocall" incidents were referred to as the "Pierre Poutine" scandal because a cellphone in the affair was registered to a fictitious Pierre Poutine of Separatist Street in Joliette, Que. One June 2, 2014 Michael Sona, the former director of communications for the Conservative candidate in Guelph was charged with "wilfully preventing or endeavouring to prevent an elector from voting".
Sona was found guilty on November 14, 2014 and was sentenced to nine months in jail plus twelve months of probation. During the trial, Justice Hearn agreed with the Crown prosecutor's allegation that Sona had not acted alone. Sona was released from the Maplehurst Correctional Complex on December 1, 2014, on bail after serving twelve days, pending his appeal of the sentence, he did not appeal the conviction. Based on another incident during the 2011 federal election campaign, Liberal MP Frank Valeriote’s riding association was fined by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission for violations of the Unsolicited Telecommunications Rules; as reported by the National Post, this fine was based on a robocall message that anonymously attacked the Conservative opponent’s position on abortion. The call did not give a callback number. Under a settlement agreement with Valeriote, the CRTC assessed a $4,900 fine. In 2008, the election in Guelph was a four-way one between the NDP, the Tories and the Liberals, who came out on top.
The NDP only won a small handful of polls in the centre part of the city, where the Greens did well. In fact, the Greens dominated the central part of the city; the Tories did well on the fringes of the city along the northern borders and in the far south of the city. The Liberals won northern and western parts of the city. According to the Canada 2001 CensusEthnic groups: 87.7% White, 2.7% Chinese, 2.6% South Asian, 1.3% Southeast Asian, 1.3% Black, 1.1% Filipino Languages: 80.1% English, 1.5% French, 17.4% Others Religions: 37.7% Protestant, 31.5% Catholic, 3.1% Other Christian, 1.6% Buddhist, 1.6% Muslim, 1.2% Christian Orthodox, 20.8% No religion Average income: $32,405 This riding has elected the following member of the Canadian House of Commons: The call for a federal election to be held on October 14, 2008 occurred when Guelph was in the throes of a by-election scheduled for September 8, intended to replace retiring Liberal MP Brenda Chamberlain. As a result of this, the by-election was cancelled, the four major candidates running opted to represent their parties again in the federal election.
They included: Frank Valeriote, a local lawyer with thorough community experience who had garnered the Liberal nomination in an upset over Marva Wisdom. In Guelph, optimism ran high that either the NDP, Green Party, or Conservative Party could procure the seat, as many felt that the nominees might benefit from the relative unpopularity of Stéphane Dion's Liberals and the gaffes made by prior Liberal MP Brenda Chamberlain, who had failed to show up to a number of Parliamentary votes and retired before the end of her term in office. However, Frank Valeriote was able to narrowly garner the seat over star candidate Gloria Kovach, who lost by around three percent and decreased the margin of defeat for her party. Noteworthy, was the increase in the electoral returns of the Green Party, who managed to fare better than the federal NDP in Guelph for the first time, finishing with twenty-one percent of the vote - three times what they had received in the 2006 election. In terms of distance from
Winnipeg Free Press
The Winnipeg Free Press is a daily broadsheet newspaper in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It provides coverage of local, national, sports and entertainment news. Various consumer-oriented features such as homes and automobiles appear on a weekly basis; the newspaper's main competition is a print daily tabloid. Founded in 1872 as the Manitoba Free Press, it is the oldest newspaper in western Canada, it has the largest readership of any newspaper in the province and is regarded as the newspaper of record for Winnipeg and Manitoba. The newspaper's existence began only two years after Manitoba's joining of Confederation in 1870, predated Winnipeg's incorporation in 1873. November 30, 1872: The "Manitoba Free Press" was launched by William Fisher Luxton and John A. Kenny. Luxton bought a press in New York and he and Kenny rented a shack at 555 Main st, near the present corner of Main Street and James Avenue.1874: The Free Press moved to a new building on Main Street, across from St. Mary Avenue In 1882, control of the Free Press passed to Clifford Sifton,1882: Control of the Free Press was passed to Clifford Sifton, the paper moved to a building on McDermot Avenue.
The organization remained there until 1900, when it moved to a new address on McDermot, at Albert Street.1901: John Wesley Dafoe served as editorial writer, editor-in-chief and president until 1944. 1905: The newspaper moved to a four-storey building at Portage and Garry. 1913: The newspaper moved to 300 Carlton Street and remained there for 78 years.1920: The Free Press took their newsprint supplier before the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council for violating the World War I War Measures Act. In Fort Frances Pulp and Paper v. Manitoba Free Press, the newspaper won because the court determined that whether the state of national emergency continued after the war was a political matter for Parliament. 1931: The Manitoba Free Press was renamed "Winnipeg Free Press". 1991: The Free Press moved to its current location in the Inkster Industrial Park, a $150 million plant at 1355 Mountain Avenue.. 2001: In December, the Free Press and its sister paper, Brandon Sun, was bought from Thomson Newspapers by FP Canadian Newspapers Limited Partnership.
At noon on Monday, October 13 of 2008, about 1,000 members of the Communications and Paperworkers Union, which represents editorial, advertising and press staff, as well as newspaper carriers, launched a strike action. The strike ended 16 days when the union ratified the final offer on Tuesday, October 28; the contract was ratified by 67 per cent of newspaper carriers, 75 per cent of the pressmen and 91 per cent of the inside workers, including journalists. The recent five-year contract was negotiated and signed in 2013, with no threat of a strike. Workers and managers negotiated directly with great success, without the need of a lawyer as previous contracts required; as of November 1, 2009, the paper ceased publishing a regular Sunday edition. In its place, a Sunday-only tabloid called On 7 was launched. On March 27, 2011, the Sunday newspaper was retooled as a broadsheet format called Winnipeg Free Press SundayXtra, due to the impending arrival of Metro in the Winnipeg market; the Sunday edition is now only available online.
According to Canadian Newspaper Association figures, the newspaper's average weekday circulation for 2013 was 108,583, while on Saturdays it was 144,278. Because of the small population of Manitoba, this means that over ten percent of the population will look at the paper and the ads; the Winnipeg Free Press has seen like most Canadian daily newspapers a decline in circulation. Its total circulation dropped by 17 percent to 106,473 copies daily from 2009 to 2015. Daily average List of newspapers in Canada Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher; the world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers pp 361–65 Winnipeg Free Press site
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries. The organization implements the North Atlantic Treaty, signed on 4 April 1949. NATO constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its independent member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's Headquarters are located in Haren, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons, Belgium. Since its founding, the admission of new member states has increased the alliance from the original 12 countries to 29; the most recent member state to be added to NATO is Montenegro on 5 June 2017. NATO recognizes Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Ukraine as aspiring members. An additional 21 countries participate in NATO's Partnership for Peace program, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programs; the combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total.
Members have committed to reach or maintain defense spending of at least 2% of GDP by 2024. On 4 March 1947 the Treaty of Dunkirk was signed by France and the United Kingdom as a Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance in the event of a possible attack by Germany or the Soviet Union in the aftermath of World War II. In 1948, this alliance was expanded to include the Benelux countries, in the form of the Western Union referred to as the Brussels Treaty Organization, established by the Treaty of Brussels. Talks for a new military alliance which could include North America resulted in the signature of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949 by the member states of the Western Union plus the United States, Portugal, Norway and Iceland; the North Atlantic Treaty was dormant until the Korean War initiated the establishment of NATO to implement it, by means of an integrated military structure: This included the formation of Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe in 1951, which adopted the Western Union's military structures and plans.
In 1952 the post of Secretary General of NATO was established as the organization's chief civilian. That year saw the first major NATO maritime exercises, Exercise Mainbrace and the accession of Greece and Turkey to the organization. Following the London and Paris Conferences, West Germany was permitted to rearm militarily, as they joined NATO in May 1955, in turn a major factor in the creation of the Soviet-dominated Warsaw Pact, delineating the two opposing sides of the Cold War. Doubts over the strength of the relationship between the European states and the United States ebbed and flowed, along with doubts over the credibility of the NATO defense against a prospective Soviet invasion – doubts that led to the development of the independent French nuclear deterrent and the withdrawal of France from NATO's military structure in 1966. In 1982 the newly democratic Spain joined the alliance; the collapse of the Warsaw Pact in 1989–1991 removed the de facto main adversary of NATO and caused a strategic re-evaluation of NATO's purpose, nature and focus on the continent of Europe.
This shift started with the 1990 signing in Paris of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe between NATO and the Soviet Union, which mandated specific military reductions across the continent that continued after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991. At that time, European countries accounted for 34 percent of NATO's military spending. NATO began a gradual expansion to include newly autonomous Central and Eastern European nations, extended its activities into political and humanitarian situations that had not been NATO concerns. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in Germany in 1989, the organization conducted its first military interventions in Bosnia from 1992 to 1995 and Yugoslavia in 1999 during the breakup of Yugoslavia. Politically, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, most of which joined the alliance in 1999 and 2004. Article 5 of the North Atlantic treaty, requiring member states to come to the aid of any member state subject to an armed attack, was invoked for the first and only time after the September 11 attacks, after which troops were deployed to Afghanistan under the NATO-led ISAF.
The organization has operated a range of additional roles since including sending trainers to Iraq, assisting in counter-piracy operations and in 2011 enforcing a no-fly zone over Libya in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 1973. The less potent Article 4, which invokes consultation among NATO members, has been invoked five times following incidents in the Iraq War, Syrian Civil War, annexation of Crimea; the first post-Cold War expansion of NATO came with German reunification on 3 October 1990, when the former East Germany became part of the Federal Republic of Germany and the alliance. As part of post-Cold War restructuring, NATO's military structure was cut back and reorganized, with new forces such as the Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps established; the changes brought about by the collapse of the Soviet Union on the military balance in Europe were recognized in the Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty, signed in 1999. The policies of French President Nicolas Sarkozy resulted in a major reform of France's military position, culminating with the return to full membership on 4 April 2009, which included France rejoining the NATO Military Command Structure, while maintaining an independent nuclear deterrent.
Between 1994 and 1997, wider forums for regional co
1993 Canadian federal election
The 1993 Canadian federal election was held on October 25 of that year to elect members to the House of Commons of Canada of the 35th Parliament of Canada. Fourteen parties competed for the 295 seats in the House at that time, it was one of the most eventful elections in Canada's history, with more than half of the electorate switching parties from the 1988 election. The Liberals, led by Jean Chrétien, won a strong majority in the House and formed the next government of Canada; the election was called on September 8, 1993, by the new Progressive Conservative Party leader, Prime Minister Kim Campbell, near the end of her party's five-year mandate. When she assumed office, the party was unpopular, was further weakened by the emergence of new parties that were competing for its core supporters. Campbell's initial efforts helped the party recover somewhat in pre-election polls before the writs were issued. However, this momentum did not last, the Progressive Conservatives suffered the most lopsided defeat for a Canadian governing party at the federal level, among the worst suffered by a governing party in the Western world.
They lost more than half their vote from all but two of their 156 seats. Though they recovered in the 1997 election, the Progressive Conservatives lost seats in 2000 and would never be a major force in Canadian politics again. In 2003, the Progressive Conservative Party disappeared when it merged with the larger Canadian Alliance party to create the new Conservative Party of Canada. Two new parties emerged in this election from former supporters of the Progressive Conservatives; the sovereigntist Bloc Québécois won half the votes in Quebec and became the Official Opposition. To date, this is the only time that a party committed to the political secession of a region of Canada has become the Official Opposition of Canada; the Reform Party won nearly as many seats and replaced the PCs as the major right-wing party in the Commons, although it won only one seat east of Manitoba. The traditional third party, the NDP, collapsed to nine seats only one election after having what was its best performance.
It remains the NDP's worst result in a federal election since its formation and the only election where the party polled fewer than one million votes. Voter turnout was 70.9%, adjusted from initial tallies of 69.6% to account for deceased electors. The Liberal Party had dominated Canadian politics for much of the 20th century; the party had been in office for all but 22 years between 1896 and 1984. The Conservatives only formed government six times in this period. In 1984 Brian Mulroney led the Progressive Conservatives to the biggest majority government in Canadian history, winning a majority of the seats in every province; the Liberals lost 95 seats in the worst defeat for a governing party at the federal level at the time. The PCs made a strong showing in Quebec, a province where they had held few seats for much of the century. Between 1896 and 1984, the Conservatives had only managed to win the majority of seats in that province once, in their landslide of 1958—the only other time besides 1984 that a party has won 200 seats in an election.
After winning only one seat in the province in 1980, the Tories won 58 seats in 1984, leaving the Liberals with no seats outside of Montreal. Mulroney's government was based on a "grand coalition" of conservative populists from the West, fiscal conservatives from Atlantic Canada and Ontario, Quebec nationalists; this coalition helped him win reelection in 1988, with a smaller mandate. That election was wholly focused on the proposed Free Trade Agreement with the United States. Over the next five years, the popularity of Mulroney and his party collapsed; the late 1980s recession badly harmed the Canadian economy, as unemployment increased and the federal budget deficit grew. When the Conservatives had come to office in 1984, the federal deficit was at an unprecedented $34.5 billion. Despite pledges to reduce it, the deficit had grown to over $40 billion by 1993; the federal debt had grown to $500 billion. In an attempt to restore the fiscal balance, Mulroney had brought in the unpopular Goods and Services Tax.
Mulroney had promised to change the constitutional status quo in favour of increasing provincial autonomy. This was one of the most important reasons for his party's support in Quebec, he attempted to amend the constitution twice. The Meech Lake Accord failed when the provincial legislatures of Newfoundland and Manitoba adjourned without bringing the issue to a vote; the Charlottetown Accord was defeated by the Canadian people in a 1992 referendum. In the case of the Charlottetown Accord, the majority of Canada's population voted against an agreement endorsed by every First Minister and most other political groups; this stinging rebuke against the "political class" in Canada was a preview of things to come, as the upcoming election would be held on October 25, 1993, a year less a day after the Charlottetown referendum. These factors combined to make Mulroney the least popular leader since opinion polling began in the 1940s; the Progressive Conservative Party's popularity reached a low of just over 15% in 1991.
With polls showing him facing certain defeat in the next election, in February 1993, Mulroney announced his retirement from politics. While several senior members of cabinet had passed over contesting the leadership, Minister of Justice Kim Campbell emerged as the leading candidate to replace Mulroney as party leader and prime minister. Despite a vigorous challenge from Environment Minister Jean Charest, Campbe
Vancouver East is a federal electoral district in British Columbia, represented in the House of Commons of Canada since 1935. The riding of Vancouver East is the poorest in Canada with a median individual income of $24,374. Vancouver East is known as a New Democratic Party stronghold. Both losses have come at the hands of Liberal candidates who failed to retain the seat at the next election; the Conservative Party and its right-leaning predecessors have always fared poorly in the riding garnering more than 20 percent of the vote. In the 2006 federal election, the NDP won a higher percentage of the vote in Vancouver East than in any other riding in the country: 56.6%. In 2011 the NDP increased its majority win to 62.83%. The district includes the City of Vancouver's Downtown Eastside, Mount Pleasant, Grandview–Woodland, Hastings–Sunrise. Riding associations are the local branches of the national political parties: This is a prominently industrial and working-class riding, it is home to North America's largest Chinatown as well as the impoverished Downtown Eastside.
42% of this riding are immigrants and 22% are of Chinese-Canadian descent. A high number, 63%, or residents here are renters compared to only 37% home owners. 24 % of residents over age 25 have degree. Manufacturing, port-related industries, accommodation and food service industries are vital to employment in this riding; the average family income is over $61,000. The unemployment rate is about 7.7%. The ethnically diverse area is home to many of the city's activists. In recent years, the area has been negatively affected by an influx of hard drugs and the problems associated with their use; the riding is the least religious in Canada, with 55.1% of the population not adhering to any religion. Languages: 46.6% English, 1.8% French, 49.3% Other, 2.3% Multiple languages Religions: 22.2% Catholic, 11.9% Protestant, 8.6% Buddhist, 1.3% Muslim, 1.1% Christian Orthodox, 4.5% Other Christian, 47.4% No religious affiliation Average income: $22,144 The electoral district was created in 1933 from Vancouver South and Vancouver—Burrard ridings.
Vancouver East was one two electoral districts in British Columbia that saw no changes to its boundaries proposed following the 2012 federal electoral boundaries redistribution. Its Member of Parliament is Jenny Kwan, she is a member of the New Democratic Party. List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts " Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Library of Parliament Riding Profile Expenditures – 2004 Expenditures – 2000 Expenditures – 1997 Website of the Parliament of Canada
Leeds—Grenville—Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes
Leeds—Grenville—Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes is a federal electoral district in Ontario, represented in the House of Commons since 1979. Prior to the 2015 election, the riding was known as Leeds—Grenville; the riding consists of the entirety of the United Counties of Grenville. According to the Canada 2016 CensusEthnic groups: 94.4% White, 3.5% IndigenousLanguages: 93.0% English, 3.7% French Religions: 76.2% Christian, 22.6% NoneMedian income: $34,329 Average income: $42,939 The federal district was created in 1976 from parts of Grenville–Carleton and Leeds ridings. It was defined as consisting of the County of Grenville and the County of Leeds, excluding the Town of Smiths Falls. Since 1987, it was re-defined as consisting of the United Counties of Leeds and Grenville, but this did not result in any boundary changes, as Smiths Falls is not part of the county; the 2003 redistribution defined the riding as including the independent municipalities of Brockville and Prescott which are politically separate jurisdictions, but are geographically within the county, therefore did not result in a boundary change either.
With the 2012 electoral redistribution, this district lost a small portion of territory to Lanark—Frontenac—Kingston, following an annexation of a parcel of land by the Town Smiths Falls. In the process, the riding was renamed Leeds—Grenville—Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes. At 49 characters, this is the longest riding name in Canada; this riding has elected the following Members of Parliament: Note: Conservative vote is compared to the total of the Canadian Alliance vote and Progressive Conservative vote in 2000 election. Note: Canadian Alliance vote is compared to the Reform vote in 1997 election. ^ Change is from 1980 List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts " Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 2011-03-03. Federal riding history from the Library of Parliament 2011 Results from Elections Canada Leeds—Grenville profile at CBC News
Winnipeg Transit is the public transit agency in Winnipeg, Canada. It is a bus-only transit system and it is owned and operated by the city of Winnipeg. In operation for over 130 years, it employs over 1,300 people and operates over 600 buses to more than 6,000 bus stops within the city limits. Public transit in Winnipeg began in 1882 with the horse-drawn Winnipeg Street Railway Company under the direction of Toronto businessman Albert William Austin; the WSR experimented with electric cars in 1891, but the city gave the electric rights in 1892 to the competing Winnipeg Electric Street Railway Company, headed by William Mackenzie and James Ross of Montreal. The width of Winnipeg's main streets allowed both companies to operate simultaneously. Austin's company lost 68 horses to a disastrous fire in 1893, he tried to fight for exclusive street railway rights in court, all the way to the Privy Council in London, but after losing his case, he sold all of its assets to the WESR for $175,000 in 1894.
Horse car operations ended the next day, except for the Kennedy Street line, which city council required to operate for another six weeks. Austin kept the Elm Park horse-car line to operate as a private venture. With the ending of a price war between the two companies, fares doubled, from 50 up to 25 tickets for a dollar, or 5¢ cash; the WESR continued to expand its lines, its inventory of rolling stock, its car barns. It bought the Manitoba Electric & Gas Light Company for $400,000 in 1898, changed line voltage from 250 to the standard 550 volts in 1899; the Winnipeg General Power Company was incorporated by officers of the WESR in 1902, amalgamated with railway company in 1904. The combined company adopted a new name, the Winnipeg Electric Railway Company, now controlled all street railway, electric power, gas utilities in the city; the Suburban Rapid Transit Company, operated west of Winnipeg along Portage Avenue, inaugurating a line as far as Charleswood in 1903. It leased cars and bought power from the WESR.
It was bought up by the amalgamated WER in 1905, which finished expansion of its line to the village of Headingley by the end of the year. The Winnipeg, Selkirk & Lake Winnipeg Railway, an interurban electric transit company incorporated in 1900, operated cars from the WESR's Main Street terminal to the town of Selkirk, with a spur line from West St Paul to Stonewall, its stock was bought by the WESR in 1906, although it continued to operate as an independent company. In 1906, a hydroelectric plant was completed in Pinawa, streetcars started operating on Sundays, following a plebiscite; the company did well during the economic boom of the early 1900s, built a new headquarters in the eleven-storey Electric Railway Chambers building at Notre Dame Avenue and Albert Street in 1911–13. In 1914, the Public Utilities Commission ordered the WER to start collecting fares on a pay-as-you-enter system, which required some rebuilding of cars. From 1914 to 1915, the WER would start to experience competition from jitneys owned taxi cabs.
The financial pressures of this competition, tensions with the Public Utilities Commission about route planning, complaints regarding the poor state of rolling stock all led to a crisis in 1918. Negotiations with the city led to a repealing of the jitney bylaw, some route changes, a program of rebuilding old trolley cars, the first appearance of motor buses in Winnipeg; the company was affected by the Winnipeg General Strike of 1919, a terrible explosion and fire at the Main Street car barn, after which some rolling stock was bought from the Twin City Rapid Transit Company of Minneapolis. In 1921 it bought some Birney Safety Cars from Preston Car & Coach, which would start service in 1923 after delays caused by controversy over the safety of the one-man cars. Increasing competition with the automobile and the post-war economic slump led to the company rebuilding the rest of its own fleet as one-man cars. On March 13, 1924, the Manitoba Legislature passed a bill changing the company's name to the Winnipeg Electric Company.
In January 1940, William Carter was named the new President of Winnipeg Electric Company. During the summer of 1948, a Public Utility Board inquiry took place questioning the depreciation costs claimed by WECo. and its predecessors on streetcar equipment. This led to a difference of $495,000, part of which WECo. overclaimed $363,504, overestimated $30,000 for snow removal costs, didn't include a $99,000 "saving" on conversion to trolleybuses. The River Ave. bus route was extended and its name changed to Crescent in October 1949 after a six-month battle over the routing. A referendum was conducted in March 1953, where only the electorate in the city proper were eligible to vote, it created the Greater Winnipeg Transit Commission because the Winnipeg Electric Company did not want to operate the transit system any longer. Express bus service was introduced on the Portage route starting November 4, 1957. A 5-cent premium fare was charged to passengers. In response to an expressway plan published in 1957, sponsored by the Downtown Winnipeg Association, a city councillor sponsored the hiring of Norman D. Wilson to design a subway plan for the greater Winnipeg area.
This plan was published on April 11, 1959 as the Future Development of the Greater Winnipeg Transit System. In October 1962 a report on transit was released which recommended scrapping the idea of a'downtown bus terminal' for Winnipeg Transit, it recommended a price reduction of 50 cents for month