Christian militias in Syria

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A number of Christian militias have formed in Syria since the start of the Syrian Civil War in 2011, the militias are composed largely of fighters from the various Syriac, Assyrian, Arab and Armenian Christian communities in Syria, and are also found amongst Assyrian communities in neighbouring northern Iraq. Before the war, as much as 10% of the population was Assyrian, Syriac-Aramean, Armenian or Arab Christian, and together they formed one of the largest Christian minorities in the middle east; in the early days of the civil war, some Christian communities were armed by the Syrian Government and Kurds to defend themselves against what were seen as threatening sectarian Sunni Islamic rebels.

The Syriac Military Council, a Christian militia allied with the Kurdish YPG, is the largest Christian militia in the Syrian civil war. By comparison with some of the other armed groups in Syria, Christian militias are usually not large and dependent on the Kurdish or Syrian government aid.[1] Maronite Christians in Lebanon have also formed militias to fight against ISIS incursions from Syria, over the border, and the Assyrians in Iraq have formed well armed militias in the north to protect Assyrian communities, towns and villages in the Assyrian homeland and Nineveh plains.[2]

These formed defence units called Popular Committees, the popular committees do not exist as standalone units, and have now been combined into the Syrian National Defence force, under its formal structure.[3] After the spread of the civil war, and the rise of the Islamist factions, many Christian civilians have fled, in particular in fear of ISIL, who have violently persecuted Christians in the areas that have come under their control,[4] some of those that have stayed had formed militias, largely to protect their own populations from ISIL and other hardline Sunni Islamist factions such as al-Qaeda's Nusra Front, Ahrar al-Sham, and Jund al-Aqsa. While initially forming to protect their own territory, some of the larger militias have gone on the offensive. Christian Militias in Syria either support the Government, or work side by side with the Kurdish forces in Rojava.

Syriac Military Council[edit]

The Syriac Military Council (Syriac abbreviation: MFS) is largely composed of Assyrian and Armenian Christians, with its headquarters in al-Malikiyah, it is the main armed Christian opposition militia in northeastern Syria, the Hasakah Governorate.[5] The group is allied with the mainly-Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG) and has more than 2,000 armed members, the militia has confronted, with their allies, the al-Nusra Front in Tel Hamis in 2013, and finally regained the city in late February 2015. Assyrian forces defended Christian villages of the Khabour area from ISIL attacks, also in 2015, they were also involved in the effort to retake Hasakah, successfully capturing the town from ISIL in conjunction with the YPG.[5][6][7] The group is armed mainly with light and some medium weapons, and some armoured vehicles, and has appealed to the West for heavier weapons, the West presently only sends weapons to other rebel groups, but has so far not offered any aid, with the militia sourcing most of its low level weapons locally.[5][8] In October 2015, the Syriac Military Council was one of the founding components of the Syrian Democratic Forces.

Bethnahrain Women's Protection Forces[edit]

The Bethnahrain Women's Protection Forces is a small female-only subunit of the MFS, the formation of which was influenced by the Women's Protection Units. [9][10]

Sutoro[edit]

Sutoro which is also known as the Syriac Security Office or the Sutoro Police, is an ethnic Assyrian, Syriac-Christian police force in Jazira Canton of the Federation of Northern Syria – Rojava in Syria, where it works in concert with the general Kurdish Asayish police force of the canton with the mission to police ethnic Assyrian areas and neighbourhoods, it is based around the city of Qamishli and has around 1,200 fighters, and arms checkpoints in Assyrian populated parts of cities, together with Assyrian towns and villages such as Tell Tamer.[11]

Sootoro[edit]

The Sootoro is another Assyrian militia based only in the city of Qamishli, in the North East Kurdish area, it is aligned with the Syrian regime, and has clashed not only with ISIL, but with the YPG and Sutoro, which it accuses of trying to appropriate Assyrian lands.[12][13]

Gozarto Protection Force[edit]

This is a largely Syriac-Assyrian militia based in Qamishli, in Syria's North-east. It is allied with the Syrian government, and fights in conjunction with the Syrian Army, it has been active in the defense of the majority Christian town of Sadad from Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.[14] The militia has 500 fighters.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Allott, "Jordan Kurds and Christians Fight Back against ISIS in Syria" nationalreview http://www.nationalreview.com/article/427304/syria-christian-militia-takes-isis-jordan-allott November 19, 2015
  2. ^ George, Susannah (10 November 2014). "Lebanese Christians Gun Up Against ISIS". 
  3. ^ Lund, Aron (2013-08-27). "The Non-State Militant Landscape in Syria". CTC Sentinel. Retrieved 2013-08-28. 
  4. ^ "Islamic State 'abducts dozens of Christians in Syria'" 24 February 2015 http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-31601451
  5. ^ a b c Global Post "Christian militia fights its own battle against jihadists Syria" http://www.globalpost.com/article/6404438/2015/02/27/christian-militia-fights-its-own-battle-against-jihadists-syria
  6. ^ Allott, "Jordan Kurds and Assyrian Christians Fight Back against ISIS in Syria" nationalreview http://www.nationalreview.com/article/427304/syria-christian-militia-takes-isis-jordan-allott November 19, 2015
  7. ^ "Syrien: Christen lassen sich von IS nicht vertreiben - WELT". DIE WELT. 
  8. ^ "Christian Militias Fighting Against Islamic State In Syria". 
  9. ^ Bishop, Rachel. "female-fighters-form-fierce-Christian Militia" The Mirror 13 Dec 2015 http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/world-news/female-fighters-form-fierce-christian-7004827
  10. ^ Christian Female Fighters Join Militia Monday, 18 Jan 2016 http://www.newsmax.com/Newsfront/christian-female-fighters-join/2016/01/18/id/709888/
  11. ^ Christian Militia Syria Defends Ancient Settlements Isis https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/mar/03/christian-militia-syria-defends-ancient-settlements-isis
  12. ^ "Christian Assyrian Militias Fighting Kurds in Syria". 25 April 2016. 
  13. ^ Al Tamimi, Aymenn J (24 March 2014). "Assad regime lacks the total support of Syria’s Christians". The National. Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  14. ^ Louisa Loveluck, and Roland Oliphant "Russia-transporting-militia-groups-fighting-Islamic-State-to-frontlines-in-Syria" Telegraph 17 Nov 2015 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/11999694/Russia-transporting-militia-groups-fighting-Islamic-State-to-frontlines-in-Syria.html