International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
The Christian Science Monitor
The Christian Science Monitor is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition. It was founded in 1908 as a daily newspaper by Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of the Church of Christ, Scientist; as of 2011, the print circulation was 75,052. According to the organization's website, "the Monitor's global approach is reflected in how Mary Baker Eddy described its object as'To injure no man, but to bless all mankind.' The aim is to embrace the human family, shedding light with the conviction that understanding the world's problems and possibilities moves us towards solutions." The Christian Science Monitor has won seven Pulitzer Prizes and more than a dozen Overseas Press Club awards." Despite its name, the Monitor is not a religious-themed paper, does not promote the doctrine of its patron church. However, at its founder Eddy's request, a daily religious article has appeared in every issue of the Monitor; the paper has been known for avoiding sensationalism, producing a "distinctive brand of nonhysterical journalism".
In 1997, the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, a publication critical of United States policy in the Middle East, praised the Monitor for its objective and informative coverage of Islam and the Middle East. In 2006, Jill Carroll, a freelance reporter for the Monitor, was kidnapped in Baghdad, released safely after 82 days. Although Carroll was a freelancer, the paper worked tirelessly for her release hiring her as a staff writer shortly after her abduction to ensure that she had financial benefits, according to Bergenheim. Beginning in August 2006, the Monitor published an account of Carroll's kidnapping and subsequent release, with first-person reporting from Carroll and others involved; the paper's overall circulation has ranged from a peak of over 223,000 in 1970, to just under 56,000 shortly before the suspension of the daily print edition in 2009. In response to declining circulation and the struggle to earn a profit, the church's directors and the manager of the Christian Science Publishing Society were purportedly forced to plan cutbacks and closures, which led in 1989 to the mass protest resignations by its chief editor Kay Fanning, managing editor David Anable, associate editor David Winder, several other newsroom staff.
These developments presaged administrative moves to scale back the print newspaper in favor of expansions into radio, a magazine, shortwave broadcasting, television. Expenses, however outpaced revenues, contradicting predictions by church directors. On the brink of bankruptcy, the board was forced to close the broadcast programs in 1992; the Monitor's inception was, in part, a response by its founder Mary Baker Eddy to the journalism of her day, which relentlessly covered the sensations and scandals surrounding her new religion with varying degrees of accuracy. In addition, Joseph Pulitzer's New York World was critical of Eddy, this, along with a derogatory article in McClure's, furthered Eddy's decision to found her own media outlet. Eddy required the inclusion of "Christian Science" in the paper's name, over initial opposition by some of her advisors who thought the religious reference might repel a secular audience. Eddy saw a vital need to counteract the fear spread by media reporting: Looking over the newspapers of the day, one reflects that it is dangerous to live, so loaded with disease seems the air.
These descriptions carry fears to many minds. A periodical of our own will counteract to some extent this public nuisance. Eddy declared that the Monitor's mission should be "to injure no man, but to bless all mankind". MonitoRadio was a radio service produced by the Church of Christ, Scientist between 1984 and 1997, it featured several one-hour news broadcasts a day, as well as top of the hour news bulletins. The service was heard on public radio stations throughout the United States; the Monitor launched an international broadcast over shortwave radio, called the World Service of the Christian Science Monitor. Weekdays were news-led, but weekend schedules were dedicated to religious programming; that service ceased operations on June 28, 1997. In 1986, the Monitor started producing a current affairs television series, The Christian Science Monitor Reports, distributed via syndication to television stations across the United States. In 1988, the Christian Science Monitor Reports won a Peabody Award for a series of reports on Islamic fundamentalism.
That same year, the program was canceled and the Monitor created a daily television program, World Monitor, anchored by former NBC correspondent John Hart, shown on the Discovery Channel. In 1991, World Monitor moved to a 24-hour news and information channel; the channel launched on May 1991 with programming from its Boston TV station. The only religious programming on the channel was a five-minute Christian Science program early each morning. In 1992, after eleven months on the air, the service was shut down amid huge financial losses. Programming from the Monitor Channel was carried nationally via the WWOR EMI Service; the print edition continued to struggle for readership, and, in 2004, faced a renewed mandate from the church to earn a profit. Subsequently, the Monitor began relying more on the Internet as an integral part of its busines
Christian Science Pleasant View Home
The Christian Science Pleasant View Home is a historic senior citizen residential facility located at 227 Pleasant Street in Concord, New Hampshire, in the United States, It was built in 1927 by the Christian Science Board of Directors as a retirement home for aged Christian Science practitioners and other workers in the cause of Christian Science and occupies the site of "Pleasant View", Mary Baker Eddy's last home before moving to Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, in 1908. It is now a senior independent living facility. On September 19, 1984, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places. Pleasant View was Mary Baker Eddy's last home before moving to Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, in 1908, it was destroyed by the Christian Science Board of Directors and all evidence of it was buried. The directors in 1927 built a charitable retirement home for aged Christian Science practitioners on the site; the home and the large estate on which it stood were sold to the State of New Hampshire, which sold the building to a secular group which operates it as a profit-making retirement home.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Merrimack County, New Hampshire List of former Christian Science churches and buildings Mary Baker Eddy's Pleasant View in Star of Boston Waymarking listing for Pleasant View with photos of the Mary Baker Eddy historical marker there Pleasant View Retirement website
In philosophy, the concept of The Absolute known as The Ultimate, The Wholly Other, The Supreme Being, The Absolute/Ultimate Reality, other names, is the thing, entity, force, presence, principle, etc. that possesses maximal ontological status, existential ranking, existential greatness, or existentiality. In layman's terms, this is the one that is, in one way or another, the greatest, truest, or most real being. There are many conceptions of The Absolute in various fields and subjects, such as philosophy, spiritual traditions and natural science; the nature of these conceptions can range from "merely" encompassing all physical existence, nature, or reality, to being unconditioned existentially, transcending all concepts and types, categories of being. The Absolute is thought of as causing to come into being manifestations that interact with lower or lesser forms of being; this is either done passively, through emanations, or through avatars and incarnations. These existential manifestations, which themselves can possess transcendent attributes, only contain minuscule or infinitesimal portions of the true essence of The Absolute.
The term itself was not in use in ancient or medieval philosophy, but related to the description of God as Actus purus in scholasticism. It was introduced in modern philosophy, notably by Hegel, for "the sum of all being and potential"; the term has since been adopted in perennial philosophy. There are three general ways of conceiving the Absolute; the Absolute might be the first and greatest being, not a being at all but the "ground" of being, or both the ground of being and a being. In conception one the Absolute is the most intelligible reality, it can be known. For example, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's Absolute Spirit is the most true reality, it is thinkable and exists in the objective world by comprehending everything, including people and world history. In conception two the Absolute might be conceived of as utterly outside of all other reality and hence unintelligible, it can not be spoken about. Plato's Socrates says that "The Form of the Good" is "beyond being", implying that it is beyond thought and normal categories of existence.
St. John of the Cross says: In conception three the Absolute is seen as transcending duality and distinction; this concept of a fundamental reality that transcends or includes all other reality is associated with divinity. While this conception seems contradictory, it has been influential. One way to understand this third conception is to consider the Tao Te Ching; these opening lines distinguish between two Taos. One is the "eternal Tao" and the other "Tao" seems to exist in space and time; the eternal Tao is beyond existence and cannot be named or understood, while the other Tao exists and can be known. The eternal Tao is infinite; the eternal Tao is formless. The eternal Tao is transcendent; the other "Tao" is an attempt to describe the "eternal Tao" in human terms. He continues: In these lines, he further discusses the difference between the two Taos; the eternal Tao is the origin of Heaven and Earth. The "named" Tao, on the other hand, is able to describe specific phenomenons that exist in space and time, hence it is the mother of myriad of things.
He points out that both the "named" and the "nameless" emerge together from the same eternal Tao. This self-contradictory unity, of course, is said to be the mystery to be understood. One or more of these conceptions of the Absolute can be found in various other perspectives; the following is a list of conceptions of the Absolute. Note that the list is ordered alphabetically, but some of the sublists are ordered by historical precedence: General philosophy — God, Conceptions of God, Deity Abrahamic religions — God in Abrahamic religions Alawites — Allah Bahá'í Faith and Bábism — God in the Bahá'í Faith, Báb, He whom God shall make manifest Christianity — God in Christianity, Jehovah Christian theology — Apophatic theology and Cataphatic theology Catholic theology Scholasticism and Thomas Aquinas: Thomism and Thought of Thomas Aquinas — Actus purus, Actus primus Eastern Orthodox theology — Essence–energies distinction Oriental Orthodoxy — Miaphysitism Protestant theology — Five solae Paul Tillich — God Above God Christian philosophy — God in Christianity Nicolas Malebranche — God Christian mysticism — God in Christianity Kimbanguism — Simon Kimbangu Druze — God Islam — God in Islam, Allah Schools of Islamic theology — God in Islam Islamic philosophy — God in Islam Sufism — Haqiqa, Alam-i-HaHoot Judaism — God in Judaism, Tetragrammaton The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah — Yahweh Jewish philosophy — God in Judaism Jewish mysticism / Kabbalah — Ein Sof Mormonism — God in Mormonism Rastafari — Jah Samaritanism — Yahweh Shabakism — Divine Reality Yazdânism — Hâk / Haq Alevism — Haqq-Muhammad-Ali Ishikism — Haqq-Muhammad-Ali Yarsanism — The Divine Essence Yazidis — Melek Taus Acosmism — Unmanifest Adyghe Habze — Theshxwe Akan religion — Anansi Kokuroku Albanian mythology — Perendi Aldous Huxley's — Ground of Being, see The Perennial Philosophy Ancient Canaanite religion — El Ancient Egyptian religion and Egyptian mythology — Ra and assorted aspects, s
In philosophy, Idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial. Epistemologically, Idealism manifests as a skepticism about the possibility of knowing any mind-independent thing. In contrast to Materialism, Idealism asserts the primacy of consciousness as the origin and prerequisite of material phenomena. According to this view, consciousness is the pre-condition of material existence. Consciousness determines the material and not vice versa. Idealism believes consciousness and mind to be the origin of the material world and aims to explain the existing world according to these principles. Idealism theories are divided into two groups. Subjective idealism takes as its starting point the given fact of human consciousness seeing the existing world as a combination of sensation. Objective idealism posits the existence of an objective consciousness which exists before and, in some sense, independently of human ones.
In a sociological sense, idealism emphasizes how human ideas—especially beliefs and values—shape society. As an ontological doctrine, idealism goes further, asserting that all entities are composed of mind or spirit. Idealism thus rejects dualist theories that fail to ascribe priority to the mind; the earliest extant arguments that the world of experience is grounded in the mental derive from India and Greece. The Hindu idealists in India and the Greek Neoplatonists gave panentheistic arguments for an all-pervading consciousness as the ground or true nature of reality. In contrast, the Yogācāra school, which arose within Mahayana Buddhism in India in the 4th century CE, based its "mind-only" idealism to a greater extent on phenomenological analyses of personal experience; this turn toward the subjective anticipated empiricists such as George Berkeley, who revived idealism in 18th-century Europe by employing skeptical arguments against materialism. Beginning with Immanuel Kant, German idealists such as Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Arthur Schopenhauer dominated 19th-century philosophy.
This tradition, which emphasized the mental or "ideal" character of all phenomena, gave birth to idealistic and subjectivist schools ranging from British idealism to phenomenalism to existentialism. Idealism as a philosophy came under heavy attack in the West at the turn of the 20th century; the most influential critics of both epistemological and ontological idealism were G. E. Moore and Bertrand Russell, but its critics included the New Realists. According to Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, the attacks by Moore and Russell were so influential that more than 100 years "any acknowledgment of idealistic tendencies is viewed in the English-speaking world with reservation". However, many aspects and paradigms of idealism did still have a large influence on subsequent philosophy. Idealism is a term with several related meanings, it comes via idea from the Greek idein, meaning "to see". The term entered the English language by 1743. In ordinary use, as when speaking of Woodrow Wilson's political idealism, it suggests the priority of ideals, principles and goals over concrete realities.
Idealists are understood to represent the world as it might or should be, unlike pragmatists, who focus on the world as it presently is. In the arts idealism affirms imagination and attempts to realize a mental conception of beauty, a standard of perfection, juxtaposed to aesthetic naturalism and realism. Any philosophy that assigns crucial importance to the ideal or spiritual realm in its account of human existence may be termed "idealist". Metaphysical idealism is an ontological doctrine that holds that reality itself is incorporeal or experiential at its core. Beyond this, idealists disagree. Platonic idealism affirms that abstractions are more basic to reality than the things we perceive, while subjective idealists and phenomenalists tend to privilege sensory experience over abstract reasoning. Epistemological idealism is the view that reality can only be known through ideas, that only psychological experience can be apprehended by the mind. Subjective idealists like George Berkeley are anti-realists in terms of a mind-independent world, whereas transcendental idealists like Immanuel Kant are strong skeptics of such a world, affirming epistemological and not metaphysical idealism.
Thus Kant defines idealism as "the assertion that we can never be certain whether all of our putative outer experience is not mere imagining". He claimed that, according to idealism, "the reality of external objects does not admit of strict proof. On the contrary, the reality of the object of our internal sense is clear through consciousness". However, not all idealists restrict the real or the knowable to our immediate subjective experience. Objective idealists make claims about a transempirical world, but deny that this world is divorced from or ontologically prior to the mental, thus and Gottfried Leibniz affirm an objective and knowable reality transcending our subjective awareness—a rejection of epistemological idealism—but propose that this reality is grounded in ideal entities, a form of metaphysical idealism. Nor do all metaphysical idealists agree on the nature of the ideal; as a rule, transcendental idealists like Kant affirm idealism's epistemic side without committing themselves to whether reality is mental.
Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures
Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures is the central text of the Christian Science. Mary Baker Eddy described it as her "most important work." She began writing it in February 1872 and the first edition was published in 1875. However, she would continue making changes for the rest of her life; the book was selected as one of the "75 Books By Women Whose Words Have Changed The World," by the Women's National Book Association. Christian Science develops its theology and its healing method from these simple statements: "God is All-in all." "God is good." "God is Mind, God is infinite. The five physical senses, which take no account of Spirit, are the origin of all false beliefs. Adherents of Christian Science claim. Praying from this standpoint removes the belief and brings healing; the latest edition of the book consists of a short preface, the main section, a "Key to the Scriptures", Fruitage. Some editions include a word index; the main section is 500 pages long and comprises chapters titled as follows: Prayer Atonement and Eucharist Marriage Christian Science versus Spiritualism Animal Magnetism Unmasked Science, Medicine Physiology Footsteps of Truth Creation Science of Being Some Objections Answered Christian Science Practice Teaching Christian Science Recapitulation.
This section is 100 pages long, comprises Genesis The Apocalypse Glossary This section consists of 84 testimonials of the healing power derived from reading the text in Science and Health. There are descriptions of addiction, broken bone, cancer, eczema, a fibroid tumor, rheumatism. Prior intervention by physicians is mentioned in 50 of these cases, one relates a confirmatory X-ray by a physician; the first edition was copyrighted in 1875. The copyright for Science and Health went through several renewals including a posthumous renewal in 1934 by the Christian Science Board of Directors. At the request of the Christian Science Board of Directors, in December 1971 Congress passed a law extending the copyright on Science and Health by 75 years. However, following a legal suit brought by David James Nolan and Lucile J. Place of United Christian Scientists, the copyright extension was found unconstitutional in 1985 by Federal District Judge Thomas Penfield Jackson. In 1987 the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia upheld the ruling of the district court.
As a result and Health has been in the public domain since 1987. The first edition was printed by W. F. Co.. Their invoice for 1,000 copies, dated 30 October 1875, was made out to George M. Barry and Edward Hitchins for $2285.35. It consisted of 2 pages of errata. There were hundreds of typographic errors, some because the printer, not understanding the author's meaning, had tried to correct the wording without consulting her; the second edition, printed by Rand, Avery & Co, appeared with 167 pages of new material. It was called Science and Health Volume 2 to indicate that it was a supplement to the first edition, but it, was full of typographic errors; however the third edition, printed by John Wilson at the University Press in Cambridge was of a high standard. Twelve further two-volume editions followed, before the 16th edition appeared as a single volume in 1886; this edition of the book had 552 pages, plus an index of 38 pages, "with Key to the Scriptures" had been added to the title. Eddy remained loyal to the University Press for the rest of her life, in 1897 made a substantial investment to save it from bankruptcy.
Eddy left Boston in 1889, in order to revise the text for the 50th edition. This consisted of 578 pages plus a 73-page index, for the first time included marginal headings; the 226th "thousand" appeared in 1902, this included "Fruitage," making up the page count of 700 pages which remains to this day. The last numbered edition was the 418th, which appeared in 1906, but further changes were made until 1910; the German translation appeared in 1912. At Eddy's insistence, the English text of each page was printed opposite the German translation; the same format was kept for the subsequent versions in other languages: Czech, Dutch, French, Indonesian, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian and Swedish. During the 1990s, a trade edition was released which included an index and a banner headline "More than 10 million copies sold." This edition was intended for marketing through ordinary booksellers. Science and Health encapsulates the teachings of Christian Science and Christian Scientists call it their "textbook."
At Sunday services, passages from the book are read along with passages from the Bible. Eddy called the two books Christian Science's "dual and impersonal pastor." Eddy, Mary Baker. Science & Health with Key to the Scriptures; the Christian Science Board of Directors. "The Constitution and the Christian Science Textbook". Mary Baker Eddy Institute. 2000. Retrieved 2006-10-15. Brosang, Ernest J.. A Christian Science Library: A Descriptive and Extended Bibliography. Printed. Read Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures online The major milestones of Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures from the Mary Baker Eddy Library website Science and Health (First edition. Boston: Chri