The Torrijos–Carter Treaties are two treaties signed by the United States and Panama in Washington, D. C. on September 7, 1977, which superseded the Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty of 1903. The treaties guaranteed that Panama would gain control of the Panama Canal after 1999, ending the control of the canal that the U. S. had exercised since 1903. The treaties are named after the two signatories, U. S. President Jimmy Carter and the Commander of Panama's General Omar Torrijos; this first treaty is titled The Treaty Concerning the Permanent Neutrality and Operation of the Panama Canal and is known as the "Neutrality Treaty". Under this treaty, the U. S. retained the permanent right to defend the canal from any threat that might interfere with its continued neutral service to ships of all nations. The second treaty is titled The Panama Canal Treaty, provided that as from 12:00 on December 31, 1999, Panama would assume full control of canal operations and become responsible for its defense. Panamanian efforts to renegotiate the original Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty had been ongoing since it was first signed in November 1903, a few weeks after Panama obtained its independence from Colombia.
However, activity to renegotiate or abrogate the treaty increased after the Suez Crisis, events in 1964 precipitated a complete breakdown in relations between the U. S. and Panama. On January 9 of that year, Panamanian students entered the canal zone to fly the Panamanian flag next to the American flag, as per a 1963 agreement to defuse tension between the two countries. Panamanians watching the event began rioting after the students raising the Panamanian flag were jeered and harassed by American school officials and their parents. During the scuffle, somehow the Panamanian flag was torn. Widespread rioting ensued, during which about 500 were injured. Most of the casualties were caused by fire from U. S. troops, called in to protect Canal Zone property, including private residences of Canal Zone employees. January 9 is a National Holiday in Panama, known as Martyrs' Day; the next day, January 10, Panama broke off diplomatic relations with the United States and on January 19, President of Panama Roberto Chiari declared that Panama would not re-establish diplomatic ties with the United States until the U.
S. agreed to begin negotiations on a new treaty. The first steps in that direction were taken shortly thereafter on April 3, 1964 when both countries agreed to an immediate resumption of diplomatic relations and the United States agreed to adopt procedures for the "elimination of the causes of conflict between the two countries". A few weeks Robert B. Anderson, President Lyndon Johnson's special representative, flew to Panama to pave the way for future talks. Negotiations over the next years resulted in a treaty in 1967, but it failed to be ratified in Panama. Negotiations were completed by August 10 of that year. On the American side the negotiators were Sol Linowitz. Senator Dennis DeConcini sponsored a critical amendment to the Panama Canal Treaty that allowed the Senate to come to a consensus on giving control of the Canal to Panama. A few days before final agreement on the treaties was reached, President Jimmy Carter had sent a telegram to all members of Congress informing them of the status of the negotiations and asking them to withhold judgment on the treaty until they had an opportunity to study it.
Senator Strom Thurmond responded to Carter's appeal by stating in a speech that day, "The canal is ours, we bought and we paid for it and we should keep it." Both treaties were subsequently ratified in Panama by a two-thirds vote in a referendum held on October 23, 1977. To allow for popular discussion of the treaties and in response to claims made by opponents of the treaty in the U. S. that Panama was incapable of democratically ratifying them, restrictions on the press and on political parties were lifted several weeks prior to the vote. On the day of the vote, 96% of Panama's eligible voters went to the polls, the highest voter turnout in Panama up to that time; the neutrality treaty was of major concern among voters on the political left, was one reason why the treaties failed to obtain greater popular support. The United States Senate advised and consented to ratification of the first treaty on March 16, 1978 and to the second treaty on April 18 by identical 68 to 32 margins. On both votes, 52 Democrats and 16 Republicans voted in favor of advising and consenting to ratification, while 10 Democrats and 22 Republicans voted against.
The treaties were the source of vehement controversy in the United States among conservatives led by Ronald Reagan, Strom Thurmond and Jesse Helms, who regarded them as the surrender of a strategic American asset to what they characterized as a hostile government. The attack was mobilized by numerous groups the American Conservative Union, the Conservative Caucus, the Committee for the Survival of a Free Congress, Citizens for the Republic, the American Security Council, the Young Republicans, the National Conservative Political Action Committee, the Council for National Defense, Young Americans for Freedom, the Council for Inter-American Security, the Campus Republican Action Organization. In the year preceding the final transfer of canal assets there was an effort in the United States Congress, notably House Joint Resolution 77 introduced by Helen Chenoweth-Hage, to d
Advocacy is an activity by an individual or group that aims to influence decisions within political and social systems and institutions. Advocacy can include many activities that a person or organization undertakes including media campaigns, public speaking and publishing research or conducting exit poll or the filing of an amicus brief. Lobbying is a form of advocacy where a direct approach is made to legislators on an issue which plays a significant role in modern politics. Research has started to address how advocacy groups in the United States and Canada are using social media to facilitate civic engagement and collective action. An advocate is someone. There are several forms of advocacy, each representing a different approach in a way to initiate changes in the society. One of the most popular forms is social justice advocacy; the initial definition does not encompass the notions of power relations, people's participation and a vision of a just society as promoted by social justice advocates.
For them, advocacy represents the series of actions taken and issues highlighted to change the “what is” into a “what should be”, considering that this “what should be” is a more decent and a more just society. Those actions, which vary with the political and social environment in which they are conducted, have several points in common. They: Question the way policy is administered Participate in the agenda-setting as they raise significant issues Target political systems "because those systems are not responding to people's needs" Are inclusive and engaging Propose policy solutions Open up space for public argumentationOther forms of advocacy include: Budget advocacy: another aspect of advocacy that ensures proactive engagement of Civil Society Organizations with the government budget to make the government more accountable to the people and promote transparency. Budget advocacy enables citizens and social action groups to compel the government to be more alert to the needs and aspirations of people in general and the deprived sections of the community.
Bureaucratic advocacy: people considered "experts" have more chance to succeed at presenting their issues to decision-makers. They use bureaucratic advocacy to influence the agenda. Express versus issue advocacy: These two types of advocacy when grouped together refers to a debate in the United States whether a group is expressly making their desire known that voters should cast ballots in a particular way, or whether a group has a long-term issue that isn't campaign and election season specific. Health advocacy: supports and promotes patients' health care rights as well as enhance community health and policy initiatives that focus on the availability and quality of care. Ideological advocacy: in this approach, groups fight, sometimes during protests, to advance their ideas in the decision-making circles. Interest-group advocacy: lobbying is the main tool used by interest groups doing mass advocacy, it is a form of action that does not always succeed at influencing political decision-makers as it requires resources and organization to be effective.
Legislative advocacy: the "reliance on the state or federal legislative process" as part of a strategy to create change. Mass advocacy: any type of action taken by large groups Media advocacy: "the strategic use of the mass media as a resource to advance a social or public policy initiative". In Canada, for example, the Manitoba Public Insurance campaigns illustrate how media advocacy was used to fight alcohol and tobacco-related health issues. We can consider the role of health advocacy and the media in “the enactment of municipal smoking bylaws in Canada between 1970 and 1995.” Special education advocacy: advocacy with a "specific focus on the educational rights of students with disabilities."Different contexts in which advocacy is used: In a legal/law context: An "advocate" is the title of a specific person, authorized/appointed in some way to speak on behalf of a person in a legal process. In a political context: An "advocacy group" is an organized collection of people who seek to influence political decisions and policy, without seeking election to public office.
In a social care context: Both terms are used in the UK in the context of a network of interconnected organisations and projects which seek to benefit people who are in difficulty. In the context of inclusion: Citizen Advocacy organisations seek to cause benefit by reconnecting people who have become isolated, their practice was defined in two key documents: CAPE, Learning from Citizen Advocacy Programs. Advocacy in all its forms seeks to ensure that people those who are most vulnerable in society, are able to: Have their voice heard on issues that are important to them Defend and safeguard their rights Have their views and wishes genuinely considered when decisions are being made about their livesAdvocacy is a process of supporting and enabling people to: Express their views and concerns Access information and services Defend and promote their rights and responsibilities Explore choices and options Groups involved in advocacy work have been using the Internet to accomplish organizational goals.
It has been argued that the Internet helps to increase the speed and effectiveness of advocacy-related communication as well as mobilization efforts, suggesting that social media are beneficial to the advocacy community. People advocate for a large variety of topics; some of these are clear-cut social issues that are univers
Paul Michael Weyrich was an American religious conservative political activist and commentator, most notable as a figurehead of the New Right. He co-founded the conservative think tanks The Heritage Foundation, the Free Congress Foundation, the American Legislative Exchange Council, he coined the term "moral majority," the name of the political action group Moral Majority that he co-founded in 1979 with Jerry Falwell. After Vatican II he transferred from the Latin Church of the Roman Catholic Church to the Melkite Greek Catholic Church and was ordained as a deacon. Weyrich was born in Wisconsin, to Virginia M. and Ignatius A. Weyrich, his father was a German immigrant. Weyrich became involved in politics while a student at the University of Wisconsin–Parkside, he was active in the Racine County Young Republicans from 1961 to 1963 and in Barry Goldwater's 1964 presidential campaign. He spent his early career in journalism as a political reporter for the Milwaukee Sentinel newspaper, as political reporter and weekend anchor for WISN-TV, in radio as a reporter for WAXO-FM, WLIP-AM, as news director of KQXI.
In 1966, he became press secretary to Republican U. S. Senator Gordon L. Allott of Colorado. While serving in this capacity, he met Jack Wilson, an aide of Joseph Coors, patriarch of the Coors brewing family. Frustrated with the state of public policy research, they founded Analysis and Research Inc. in 1971, but this organization failed to gain traction. In 1973, persuading Joseph Coors to put the money in, Weyrich and Edwin Feulner founded The Heritage Foundation as a think tank to counter liberal views on taxation and regulation, which they considered to be anti-business. While the organization was at first only minimally influential, it has grown into one of the world's largest public policy research institutes and has been hugely influential in advancing conservative policies; the following year, again with support from Coors, Weyrich founded the Committee for the Survival of a Free Congress, an organization that trained and mobilized conservative activists, recruited conservative candidates, raised funds for conservative causes.
The CSFC, founded by Weyrich, "became active in eastern European politics after the Cold War. Figuring prominently in this effort was Weyrich's right-hand man, Laszlo Pasztor, a former leader of the pro-Nazi Arrow Cross Party in Hungary, which had collaborated with Hitler's Reich. After serving two years in prison for his Arrow Cross activities, Pasztor found his way to the United States, where he was instrumental in establishing the ethnic-outreach arm of the Republican national Committee."Under Weyrich, the CSFC proved innovative. It was among the first grassroots organizations to raise funds extensively through direct mail campaigns, it was one of the first organizations to tap into evangelical Christian churches as places to recruit and cultivate activists and support for social conservative causes. In 1977, Weyrich co-founded Christian Voice with Robert Grant. Two years with Jerry Falwell, he founded the Moral Majority. Over the next two decades, Weyrich founded, co-founded, or held prominent roles in a number of other notable conservative organizations.
Among them, he was founder of the American Legislative Exchange Council, an organization of state legislators. The CSFC, reorganized into the Free Congress Foundation remained active. Under the auspices of the FCF, he founded the Washington, D. C.–based satellite television station National Empowerment Television relaunched as the for-profit channel "America's Voice" in 1997. That same year, Weyrich was forced out of the network he had founded when the network's head persuaded its board to force out Weyrich in a hostile takeover. Chip Berlet of Political Research Associates says this was "apparently for his divisive behavior in attacking GOP pragmatists". From 1989 to 1996, he was president of the Krieble Institute, a unit of the FCF that trained activists to support democracy movements and establish small businesses in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. By 1997, the Heritage Foundation and the Free Congress Foundation were two of the top five biggest and best funded conservative think tanks.
In contrast with many conservatives, Weyrich had a long history of ardent support for rail mass transit. He opposed "bus rapid transit", instead supported rail transit as a more effective alternative. In 1988 he co-founded a quarterly magazine on the subject of urban rail transit, called The New Electric Railway Journal, which until 1996 was published by FCF, he was its publisher, he contributed a few feature articles. FCF discontinued its affiliation with TNERJ in 1996, but the magazine continued being produced, under a different publishing company, until the end of 1998, with Weyrich listed as "Publisher Emeritus". In early 2000, about a year after the last magazine was published and William S. Lind launched a website where they could continue to post their views and news about rail transit, they called the webpage "The New New Electric Railway Journal", Weyrich wrote numerous op-ed columns in favor of proposed light rail and metro systems. He supported bringing back streetcars to U. S. cities.
Weyrich served on the national board of A
The Christian right or the religious right are conservative Christian political factions that are characterized by their strong support of conservative policies. Christian conservatives principally seek to apply their understanding of the teachings of Christianity to politics and to public policy by proclaiming the value of those teachings or by seeking to use those teachings to influence law and public policy. In the United States, the Christian right is an informal coalition formed around a core of conservative evangelical Protestants and Roman Catholics; the Christian right draws additional support from politically conservative mainline Protestants and Mormons. The movement has its roots in American politics going back as far as the 1940s and has been influential since the 1970s, its influence draws, in part, from grassroots activism as well as from focus on social issues and from the ability to motivate the electorate around those issues. The Christian right is notable for advancing conservative positions on issues including school prayer, intelligent design, embryonic stem cell research, euthanasia, sex education and pornography.
Although the term Christian right is most associated with politics in the United States, similar Christian conservative groups can be found in the political cultures of other Christian-majority nations. The Christian right is "also known as the New Christian Right or the Religious Right", although some consider the religious right to be "a broader category than Christian Right". John C. Green of the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life states that Jerry Falwell used the label religious right to describe himself. Gary Schneeberger, vice president of media and public relations for Focus on the Family, states that "erms like'religious right' have been traditionally used in a pejorative way to suggest extremism; the phrase'socially conservative evangelicals' is not exciting, but that's the way to do it."Evangelical leaders like Tony Perkins of the Family Research Council have called attention to the problem of equating the term Christian right with evangelicals. Although evangelicals constitute the core constituency of the Christian right, not all evangelicals fit the description and moreover, a number of Roman Catholics are members of the Christian right's core base.
The problem of description is further complicated by the fact that religious conservative may refer to other groups. Mennonites and the Amish, for example, are theologically conservative, however，there are no overtly political organizations associated with these denominations. Patricia Miller states that the "alliance between evangelical leaders and the Catholic bishops has been a cornerstone of the Christian Right for nearly twenty years". Since the late 1970s, the Christian right has been a notable force in both the Republican party and American politics when Baptist pastor Jerry Falwell and other Christian leaders began to urge conservative Christians to involve themselves in the political process. In response to the rise of the Christian right, the 1980 Republican Party platform assumed a number of its positions, including dropping support for the Equal Rights Amendment and adding support for a restoration of school prayer; the past two decades have been an important time in the political debates and in the same time frame religious citizens became more politically active in a time period labeled the New Christian Right.
While the platform opposed abortion and leaned towards restricting taxpayer funding for abortions and passing a constitutional amendment which would restore protection of the right to life for unborn children, it accepted the fact that many Americans, including fellow Republicans, were divided on the issue. Since about 1980, the Christian right has been associated with several institutions including the Moral Majority, the Christian Coalition, Focus on the Family and the Family Research Council. While the influence of the Christian right is traced to the 1980 Presidential election, Daniel K. Williams argues in God's Own Party that it had been involved in politics for most of the twentieth century, he notes that the Christian right had been in alliance with the Republican Party in the 1940s through 1960s on matters such as opposition to communism and defending "a Protestant-based moral order."Into the 1960 election and evangelicals worked against each other, as evangelicals mobilized their forces to defeat Catholics Al Smith in 1928 and John F. Kennedy in 1960.
Secularization came to be seen by Protestants as the biggest threat to Christian values, by the 1980s Catholic bishops and evangelicals had begun to work together on issues such as abortion. The alienation of Southern Democrats from the Democratic Party contributed to the rise of the right, as the counterculture of the 1960s provoked fear of social disintegration. In addition, as the Democratic Party became identified with a pro-choice position on abortion and with nontraditional societal values, social conservatives joined the Republican Party in increasing numbers. In 1976, U. S. President Jimmy Carter received the support of the Christian right because of his much-acclaimed religious conversion. However, Carter's spiritual transformation did not compensate for his liberal policies in the minds of Christian conservatives, as reflected in Jerry Falwell's criticism that "Americans have stood by and watched as godless, spineless leaders have brought our nation floundering to the brink of death."
The Christian Right has engaged in battles over abortion, contraception, gambling, state sanctioned prayer in public schools, textbook contents, se
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, transdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement. Evangelicals believe in the centrality of the conversion or "born again" experience in receiving salvation, in the authority of the Bible as God's revelation to humanity, in spreading the Christian message; the movement has had a long presence in the Anglosphere before spreading further afield in the 19th, 20th and early 21st centuries. Its origins are traced to 1738, with various theological streams contributing to its foundation, including English Methodism, the Moravian Church, German Lutheran Pietism. Preeminently, John Wesley and other early Methodists were at the root of sparking this new movement during the First Great Awakening. Today, evangelicals are found across many Protestant branches, as well as in various denominations not subsumed to a specific branch.
Among leaders and major figures of the evangelical Protestant movement were John Wesley, George Whitefield, Jonathan Edwards, Billy Graham, Bill Bright, Harold John Ockenga, John Stott and Martyn Lloyd-Jones. The movement gained great momentum during the 18th and 19th centuries with the Great Awakenings in Great Britain and the United States. In 2016, there were an estimated 619 million evangelicals in the world, meaning that one in four Christians would be classified as evangelical; the United States has the largest concentration of evangelicals in the world. American evangelicals are a quarter of the nation's population and its single largest religious group. In Great Britain, evangelicals are represented in the Methodist Church, Baptist communities, among evangelical Anglicans; some evangelical Christian denominations are grouped together in the World Evangelical Alliance. The word evangelical has its etymological roots in the Greek word for "gospel" or "good news": εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, from eu "good", angel- the stem of, among other words, angelos "messenger, angel", the neuter suffix -ion.
By the English Middle Ages, the term had expanded semantically to include not only the message, but the New Testament which contained the message, as well as more the Gospels, which portray the life and resurrection of Jesus. The first published use of evangelical in English was in 1531, when William Tyndale wrote "He exhorteth them to proceed in the evangelical truth." One year Sir Thomas More wrote the earliest recorded use in reference to a theological distinction when he spoke of "Tyndale his evangelical brother Barns". During the Reformation, Protestant theologians embraced the term as referring to "gospel truth". Martin Luther referred to the evangelische Kirche to distinguish Protestants from Catholics in the Roman Catholic Church. Into the 21st century, evangelical has continued in use as a synonym for Protestant in continental Europe, elsewhere; this usage is reflected in the names of Protestant denominations, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.
In the English-speaking world, evangelical was applied to describe the series of revival movements that occurred in Britain and North America during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Christian historian David Bebbington writes that, "Although'evangelical', with a lower-case initial, is used to mean'of the gospel', the term'Evangelical', with a capital letter, is applied to any aspect of the movement beginning in the 1730s." According to the Oxford English Dictionary, evangelicalism was first used in 1831. The term may be used outside any religious context to characterize a generic missionary, reforming, or redeeming impulse or purpose. For example, the Times Literary Supplement refers to "the rise and fall of evangelical fervor within the Socialist movement". One influential definition of evangelicalism has been proposed by historian David Bebbington. Bebbington notes four distinctive aspects of evangelical faith: conversionism, biblicism and activism, noting, "Together they form a quadrilateral of priorities, the basis of Evangelicalism."Conversionism, or belief in the necessity of being "born again", has been a constant theme of evangelicalism since its beginnings.
To evangelicals, the central message of the gospel is justification by faith in Christ and repentance, or turning away, from sin. Conversion differentiates the Christian from the non-Christian, the change in life it leads to is marked by both a rejection of sin and a corresponding personal holiness of life. A conversion experience can be emotional, including grief and sorrow for sin followed by great relief at receiving forgiveness; the stress on conversion differentiates evangelicalism from other forms of Protestantism by the associated belief that an assurance of salvation will accompany conversion. Among evangelicals, individuals have testified to both gradual conversions. Biblicism is a high regard for biblical authority. All evangelicals believe in biblical inspiration, though they disagree over how this inspiration should be defined. Many evangelicals believe in biblical inerrancy, while other evangelicals believe in biblical infallibility. Crucicentrism is the centrality that evangelicals give to the Atonement, the saving death and resurrection of Jesus, that offers forgiveness of sins and new life.
This is understood most in terms of a substitutionary atonement, in which Christ died as a substitute for sinful humanity by takin
The Heritage Foundation
The Heritage Foundation is an American conservative think tank based in Washington, D. C. geared towards public policy. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies were taken from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership. Heritage has since continued to have a significant influence in U. S. public policy making, is considered to be one of the most influential conservative research organizations in the United States. The Heritage Foundation was founded on February 16, 1973 by Paul Weyrich, Edwin Feulner, Joseph Coors. Growing out of the new business activist movement inspired by the Powell Memorandum, discontent with Richard Nixon's embrace of the "liberal consensus" and the nonpolemical, cautious nature of existing think tanks and Feulner sought to create a version of the Brookings Institution that advanced conservative activism. Coors was the primary funder of the Heritage Foundation in its early years. Weyrich was its first president.
Under president Frank J. Walton, the Heritage Foundation began using direct mail fundraising and Heritage's annual income grew to $1 million per year in 1976. By 1981, the annual budget grew to $5.3 million. Heritage advocated for pro-business policies, anti-communism and neoconservatism in its early years, but distinguished itself from the conservative American Enterprise Institute by advocating for Christian conservatism. Through the 1970s, Heritage would remain small relative to Brookings and the AEI. In January 1981 Heritage published the Mandate for Leadership, a comprehensive report aimed at reducing the size of the federal government, providing public policy guidance to the incoming Reagan administration, including more than 2,000 specific suggestions to move the federal government in a conservative direction; the report was well received by the White House, several of its authors went on to take positions in the Reagan administration. Reagan liked the ideas so much. 60% of the 2,000 proposals were implemented or initiated by the end of Reagan's first year in office.
Ronald Reagan on said that the Heritage Foundation played a "vital force" in the successes during his presidency. Heritage was influential in developing and advancing of the so-called "Reagan Doctrine," a Reagan administration foreign policy initiative in which the U. S. provided military and other support to anti-communist resistance movements fighting Soviet-aligned governments in Afghanistan, Cambodia and other nations during the final years of the Cold War. Heritage advocated the development of new ballistic missile defense systems for the United States. Reagan adopted this as his top defense priority in 1983, calling it the Strategic Defense Initiative. By mid-decade, The Heritage Foundation had emerged as a key organization in the national conservative movement, publishing influential reports on domestic and defense issues, as well as pieces by prominent conservative figures, such as Bob Dole and Pat Robertson. In 1986, Time called Heritage "the foremost of the new breed of advocacy tanks".
During the Reagan and Bush administrations, The Heritage Foundation served as the President's brain trust on foreign policy. The Heritage Foundation remained an influential voice on domestic and foreign policy issues during President George H. W. Bush's administration, it was a leading proponent of Operation Desert Storm against Iraq, – according to Frank Starr, head of the Baltimore Sun's Washington bureau – the foundation's studies "laid much of the groundwork for Bush administration thinking" about post-Soviet foreign policy. In domestic policy, the Bush administration agreed with six of the ten budget reforms contained in Mandate for Leadership III and included them in their 1990 budget proposal. Heritage became involved in the culture wars of the 1990s with the publication of "The Index of Leading Cultural Indicators" by William Bennett; the Index documented how crime, divorce, teenage suicide, drug use and fourteen other social indicators had become measurably worse since the 1960s. Heritage continued to grow throughout the 1990s and its journal, Policy Review, hit an all-time-high circulation of 23,000.
Heritage was an opponent of the Clinton health care plan of 1993. President Clinton's welfare reforms were analogous with Heritage's recommendations and were adopted in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996. In 1995, Heritage published the first Index of Economic Freedom, co-authored by policy analyst Bryan T. Johnson and Thomas P. Sheehy. In 1997, the Index became a joint project between the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal. In 1994, Heritage advised Newt Gingrich and other conservatives on the development of the "Contract with America", credited with helping to produce a Republican majority in Congress; the "Contract" was a pact of principles that directly challenged both the political status-quo in Washington and many of the ideas at the heart of the Clinton administration. In 2005, The Washington Post criticized the Heritage Foundation for softening its criticism of Malaysia following a business relationship between Heritage's president and Malaysia's then-prime minister Mahathir Mohamad.
The Heritage Foundation denied any conflict of interest, stating its views on Malaysia changed following the country's cooperation with the U. S. after the September 11 attacks in 2001, changes by Malaysia "moving in the right economic and political direction." In December 2012, an announcement was made that Senator Jim DeMint would resign from the Senate to head the Heritage Foundation. Pundits predicted his tenure would bring a sharper, more politicized edge to the Foundati