Anacapri is a comune on the island of Capri, in the Metropolitan City of Naples, Italy. The Ancient Greek prefix ana- means "up" or "above", signifying that Anacapri is located at a higher elevation on the island than Capri. Administratively, it has a separate status from the city of Capri; the most significant site in the village is the Villa San Michele. French composer Claude Debussy was a regular visitor to Anacapri, he named one of his preludes from the first book, No.5 Les collines d'Anacapri, in homage to the community. There is a bus service, via numerous hairpin bends, from Marina Capri to Anacapri. One of the tourist attractions in Anacapri is the chairlift to 589-m Monte Solaro for picturesque views of the south-facing coast. Punta Carena Lighthouse is located 3 km from the main town. Caprile Castello Barbarossa Belvedere della Migliera Casa Rossa Chiesa di San Michele Chiesa di Santa Sofia Eremo di Santa Maria a Cetrella Le Boffe Sentiero dei fortini Phoenician Steps Monte Solaro Punta Carena Lighthouse Casa Cernia di Luigi Cosenza Villa Damecuta Blue Grotto City of Capri Capri island
Marina Piccola is located on the southern side of the island of Capri. It is near the Faraglioni sea stacks to the southeast; the Via Krupp is a historic switchback paved footpath which connect the Charterhouse of San Giacomo and the Gardens of Augustus area with Marina Piccola. The Marina Piccola, used by Augustus and Tiberius, preceded the Marina Grande. Tyrrhenian Sea
Capri is an island located in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrentine Peninsula, on the south side of the Gulf of Naples in the Campania region of Italy. The main town Capri, located on the island shares the name, it has been a resort since the time of the Roman Republic. Some of the main features of the island include the Marina Piccola, the Belvedere of Tragara, the limestone crags called sea stacks that project above the sea, the town of Anacapri, the Blue Grotto,the ruins of the Imperial Roman villas, the various towns surrounding the Island of Capri including Positano, Ravello, Sorrento and Naples. Capri is part of the region of Metropolitan City of Naples; the town of Capri is the island's main population centre. The island has Marina Piccola and Marina Grande; the separate comune of Anacapri is located high on the hills to the west. The etymology of the name Capri is unclear, but it could derive from Latin capreae. Fossils of wild boars have been discovered, lending credence to the "kapros" etymology.
There is the possibility that the name derives from an Etruscan word for "rocky", though any historical Etruscan rule of the island is disputed. Capri is a large and sandstone rock; the sides of the island are perpendicular cliffs and the surface of the island is composed of more cliffs. The voters of the island elect representatives for the two municipalities on the island; the chosen representatives choose two mayors to govern with them. The island has been inhabited since early times. Evidence of human settlement was discovered during the Roman era; the emperor ordered these to be displayed in the garden of the Sea Palace. Modern excavations have shown that human presence on the island can be dated to the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. Augustus developed Capri. In his Aeneid, Virgil states that the island had been populated by the Greek people of Teleboi, coming from the Ionian Islands. Strabo says that "in ancient times in Capri there were two towns reduced to one." Tacitus records. Ruins of one at Tragara could still be seen in the 19th century.
Augustus' successor Tiberius built a series of villas at Capri, the most famous of, the Villa Jovis, one of the best-preserved Roman villas in Italy. In 27 AD, Tiberius permanently moved to Capri, running the Empire from there until his death in 37 AD. In 182 AD, Emperor Commodus banished his sister Lucilla to Capri, she was executed shortly afterwards. After the end of the Western Roman Empire, Capri returned to the status of a dominion of Naples, suffered various attacks and ravages by pirates. In 866 Emperor Louis II gave the island to Amalfi. In 987 Pope John XV consecrated the first bishop of Capri, when Capri, Scala and Lettere were made dioceses to serve as suffragans of Amalfi, which thereby became a metropolitan see. Capri continued to be a residential diocese until 1818, when the island became part of the archdiocese of Sorrento. No longer a residential bishopric, Capreae in Latin, is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. In 1496, Frederick IV of Naples established legal and administrative parity between the settlements of Capri and Anacapri.
The pirate raids reached their peak during the reign of Charles V: the famous Turkish admirals Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha and Turgut Reis captured the island for the Ottoman Empire, in 1535 and 1553 respectively. The first recorded tourist to visit the island was French antiques dealer Jean-Jacques Bouchard in the 17th century, his diary, found in 1850, is an important information source about Capri. French troops under Napoleon occupied Capri in January 1806; the British ousted the French in the following May, after which Capri was turned into a powerful naval base, but the building program caused heavy damage to the archaeological sites. The French reconquered Capri in 1808, remained there until the end of the Napoleonic era, when Capri was returned to the Bourbon ruling house of Naples; the natural scientist Ignazio Cerio catalogued Capri's fauna during the 19th century. His work was continued by his son and engineer Edwin Cerio, who wrote several books on life in Capri in the 20th century.
Prior to the First World War the island was popular with wealthy gay men. John Ellingham Brooks and Somerset Maugham shared a villa there. Norman Douglas, Friedrich Alfred Krupp, Jacques d'Adelswärd-Fersen, Christian Wilhelm Allers, Emil von Behring, Curzio Malaparte, Axel Munthe, Maxim Gorky are all reported to have owned a villa there, or to have stayed there for more than three months. Swedish Queen Victoria stayed there because Axel Munthe was her doctor. Rose O'Neill, the American illustrator and creator of the Kewpie, owned the Villa Narcissus owned by the famous Beaux-Arts painter Charles Caryl Coleman. Dame Gracie Fields had a villa and restaurant on the island and is buried there. Mariah Carey owns a villa on the island. In 1908, Lenin was hosted by Maxim Gorky, the Russian author, at his house near the Giardini Aug
Eduard von Knorr
Ernst Wilhelm Eduard von Knorr was a German admiral of the Kaiserliche Marine who helped establish the German colonial empire. Born in Saarlouis, Rhenish Prussia, Knorr entered the Prussian Navy in 1856. While serving on the corvette Danzig, he fought against pirates off the coast of Morocco that year. In 1859 he was promoted to Unterleutnant. From 1859–62 he sailed with the Elbe on an expedition to the Far East. Knorr was promoted to Leutnant in 1862 and Kapitänleutnant in 1865. On 12 November 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War, Knorr commanded the gunboat Meteor in a battle with the French aviso Bouvet near Havana, for which he was awarded the Iron Cross 2nd Class. In 1871 he was promoted to Korvettenkapitän. Beginning in 1874, Knorr took part in a voyage through the Pacific Ocean to discuss trade negotiations with Tonga on behalf of the German Empire, he was named Kapitän zur See in 1876, Chief of Staff of the Admiralty in 1881, Konteradmiral in 1883. As commander of the West African Squadron in December 1884, Knorr intervened in disputes between rival clans in Douala, imposing German sovereignty over the Cameroon Estuary.
He was awarded the Order of the Red Eagle for this success. From 1 April 1885 – 4 July 1885 Knorr was Reichskommissar of the German colony of Kamerun, he commanded a cruiser squadron travelling to Zanzibar and negotiated with its sultan for the acquisition of a strip of German colonial territory. In 1886 Knorr commanded a cruiser squadron at Samoa, he was promoted to Vizeadmiral in 1889, Admiral in 1893, Commanding Admiral in 1895. Raised to the German nobility on 18 January 1896, he received the Order of the Black Eagle on 15 June 1898. Knorr was appointed an admiral à la suite of the Seeoffizierkorps. Knorr died in Berlin. Admiral-Knorr-Straße, a street in Saarlouis, is named after him. Hildebrand, Hans. H — O. Deutschlands Admirale: 1849-1945: die militärischen Werdegänge der See-, Ingenieur-, Sanitäts-, Waffen- und Verwaltungsoffiziere im Admiralsrang. 2. Osnabrück: Biblio-Verl. ISBN 3764814993. G. Beckmann, K. U. Keubke: Alltag in der Kaiserlichen Marine um 1890. ISBN 3-89488-051-1, S.102-103 Cord Eberspächer/Gerhard Wiechmann: Admiral Eduard von Knorr.
Eine Karriere in der neuen Elite der Seeoffiziere in Preußen-Deutschland. In: Karl Christian Führer/Karen Hagemann/Birthe Kundrus: Eliten im Wandel. Gesellschaftliche Führungsschichten im 19. Und 20. Jahrhundert. Für Klaus Saul zum 65. Geburtstag, Münster 2004, S. 239-258 Deutsche-Schutzgebiete.de biography Cameroon 1884
History of Capri
The island of Capri is situated in the Gulf of Naples, between the Italian Peninsula and the islands of Procida and Ischia. Made of limestone, its lowest part is at the center, while its sides are high and surrounded by steep precipices, which contain numerous caves, its topography is dominated by the slopes of the Monte Solaro in the West and Mont-Saint-Michel in the East. The first discoveries of prehistoric-age remains occurred more than two thousand years ago during the Roman Imperial era, when excavations for Imperial buildings on the island unearthed remains of animals that had disappeared tens of thousands before, as well as traces of Stone-Age occupants; the story was documented by the historian Suetonius who described the interest shown by the emperor Augustus in preserving these remains, creating the first museum of paleontology and paleoanthropology in his villa's garden. The earliest mythical inhabitants were the Teleboi from Acarnania under their king Telon. Neolithic remains were found in 1882 in the Grotta delle Felci, a cave on the south coast.
In historical times the island was occupied by Greeks who from the eighth century BC onwards first settled on the island of Ischia and the mainland, at Cumae, came to Capri. The historian Strabo wrote that "in ancient times there were two towns in Capri, which were reduced to one". One of those two towns was the precursor to today's Capri town; this is confirmed by the remains of fortification walls, built with large limestone boulders at the bottom and square blocks at the top, visible from the terrace of the funicular railway, a building at the foot of Castiglione, these, together with other buildings now destroyed, complete the old town. Regarding the second city, many hypotheses have been advanced, but the most reliable is that then it was Anacapri, based on the existence of the Phoenician Steps that connect to the port. Since its first settlement, the natural shape of the island led to the creation of two communities, one in the East with hills sloping down to the sea, one to the West on a large plateau, the steep slopes of Monte Solaro and with no access to the sea.
Capri subsequently fell into the hands of Neapolis and remained so until the time of Augustus, who took it in exchange for Aenaria and resided there. Tiberius, who spent the last ten years of his life at Capri, built twelve villas there. Ruins of one at Tragara could still be seen in the 19th century. All these villas can be identified with more or less certainty, the best-preserved being those on the East extremity, consisting of a large number of vaulted substructures and the foundations of a Pharos. One was known as Villa Jovis. South of the Villa Jovis are remains of a watch tower used to communicate with the mainland; the numerous ancient cisterns show that in Roman as in modern times rain provided the island's water since it has no natural springs. The main motivation for Tiberius' move from Rome to Capri was his wariness with the political manoeuvring in Rome and a lingering fear of assassination; the villa is situated at a secluded spot of the island and the quarters of Tiberius in the north and east of the palatial villa were difficult to reach and guarded.
According to Suetonius, Villa Jovis was the scene of Tiberius' wild debauchery, but many modern historians regard these tales as vicious slander by his detractors. These historians believe that he lived a reclusive existence on the island. After Tiberius died, the island seems to have been little visited by the emperors, we hear of it only as a place of banishment for the wife and sister of Commodus; the island, having been at first the property of Neapolis, of the emperors, never had upon it any community with civic rights. In Imperial times Greek was spoken there, as many Greek as Latin inscriptions have been found on the island. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Capri fell again under the rule of Naples, suffered various attacks and ravages by pirates. In 866 Emperor Louis II gave the island to the comune of Amalfi; the political dependence of Capri to Amalfi, which had relations to the Eastern Mediterranean, is evident in art and architecture, in which Byzantine and Islamic forms appeared.
In 987 Pope John XV consecrated the first Caprese bishop. Frederick IV of Naples established legal and administrative parity between the two settlements of Capri and Anacapri in 1496. Pirate raids by the Barbary corsairs reached their peak during the reign of Charles V; the medieval town was on the north side at the chief landing-place, to it belonged the church of S. Costanzo, an early Christian building, it was abandoned in the 15th century on account of the inroads of pirates, the inhabitants took refuge higher up, in Capri and Anacapri. The pirate Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, called Barbarossa and burned Capri seven times; the worst raid occurred in 1535, when Barbarossa captured the island for the Ottoman Empire and had Anacapri castle burned down, the ruins of which are now called Castello Barbarossa. This castle is on the property of Villa San Michele today.) In 1553, a second invasion by Turgut Reis resulted in another capture and in the looting and destruction of Certosa di San Giacomo.
The danger of such attacks led Charles V to allow the inhabitants to arm themselves, new towers were built to defend the island. Only the 1830 French defeat of the pirates ended this threat. A 17th-century visitor to the island was the Fr
Friedrich Alfred Krupp
Friedrich Alfred Krupp was a German steel manufacturer of the company Krupp. He was the son of Alfred Krupp and inherited the family business when his father died in 1887. Whereas his father had supplied iron and steel, Friedrich shifted his company's production back to arms manufacturing. Friedrich expanded Krupp and acquired the Germaniawerft in 1896 which gave him control of warship manufacturing in Germany, he oversaw the development of nickel steel, U-boats, the diesel engine, much more. He died in 1902 after being accused of homosexuality, his daughter Bertha inherited the company. Krupp was born in Germany, his father was Alfred Krupp, who turned the small local ironworks of Krupp into one of the most powerful companies in the world. In 1887, Friedrich took over the leadership of his father's company, he married Baroness Margarethe von Ende. They had two daughters: Barbara. Whereas his father had supplied iron and steel for railroads in America, with the rise of Carnegie Steel Friedrich shifted his company's production back to arms manufacturing.
During his time he expanded Krupp, acquiring Germaniawerf in 1896 which gave him control of warship manufacturing in Germany. He oversaw the development of nickel steel, U-boats, y 1966; the diesel engine, much more. In 1902 he died by suicide, his daughter Bertha inherited the company and shortly thereafter married Gustav Halbach, the grandson of Henry Bohlen. Krupp increased and diversified the output of the Krupp Works, which he extended by the incorporation with them of other enterprises. A member of the House of Lords of Prussia and Council of State, he sat in Germany's Reichstag from 1893 to 1898, he loved the Italian island of Capri, where he lived for some months in each year. He stayed at the hotel Quisisana and had two yachts and Puritan, his hobby was oceanography. He met Felix Anton Ignazio Cerio on Capri. On 15 November 1902 the Social Democratic magazine Vorwärts claimed in an article that Friedrich Alfred Krupp was homosexual, that he had a number of liaisons with local boys and men and that his fondest attachment was to Adolfo Schiano, an 18-year-old barber and amateur musician.
This article had reached the German press months after stories of Krupp's homosexual orgies were printed in local and Neapolitan papers demanding an inquest. Capri locals were aware of Krupp's homosexual activities, but those in positions of power turned a blind eye, including the then-owner of Quisisana who had a certain influence over a local political party, of which Krupp contributed funds; the Neopolitan paper Mattino were the first to publish an article on Krupp's homosexual activities after being contacted by a disgruntled teacher in Capri who considered Krupp an enemy after seeking Italian language lessons with another teacher. This teacher had been criticized by the same political party that had the support and patronage of Krupp, causing the teacher to support the opposing political party. Krupp returned to Germany, but they never did. Articles continued to be published in Italian newspapers mentioning a wealthy foreign capitalist, reached Germany in August 1902, when the first to speak was the Catholic newspaper Augsburger Postzeitung, citing reports of two Italian newspapers, without stating the character's name.
In October 1902 the wife of Krupp, Margarethe von Ende, received anonymous letters and, it is said, compromising photos of her husband's orgies. Margarethe contacted Kaiser Wilhelm II, a family friend, asking him to take action against Krupp, for the reputation of the firm; the Kaiser, alarmed by the boldness of the woman and wife of its fixed supplier of weapons of mass destruction, had her seized upon arrival at her home and locked up in an insane asylum to shut her mouth forever. The newspaper Vorwärts published their article titled "Krupp in Capri", stating: "If Krupp continues to live in Germany, he will be subject to penalties of article 175 of the Code; when certain illegal practices lead to a public scandal, the police have a duty to promote legal action."In the Second Reich, homosexuality was considered one of the worst crimes. Under paragraph 175 of the German Penal Code it was punishable by years of hard labor. Krupp sued the journal and set in motion his friendships in the highest places, including the Emperor Wilhelm, seizing editions of Vorwärts everywhere in the homes of subscribers.
It seemed that Krupp had decided to give battle, however by now his nerves were shot because of the suspicion that this time the scandal was so big and well-grounded that his wealth and his friendships couldn't save him if due process occurred. A week after the German article was published, on 22 November 1902, Krupp died, it is uncertain whether he died from illness. In a speech at Krupp's burial, Emperor Wilhelm II attacked the Social Democratic politicians, insisting that they had lied about Krupp's sexual orientation. Krupp's heirs soon abandoned the action. A. Sper, Capri und die Homosexuellen: eine psychologische Studie, Orania Verlag, Berlin s.d. ma 1903. Guido Podrecca, La tavola rotonda in Germania, Roma 1919, pp. 102–109. Norman Douglas, Looking back: an autobiographical excursion, Harcourt and Company, New York 1933. Chapter about Dottor Salvatore Lo Bianco. Roger Peyrefitte, Les amours singulières, Paris 1949. Edwin Cerio: Capri. Ein kleines Welttheater im Mittelmeer, München, 1954, pages 135-143.
Willi Boelcke, Krupp und die Hohenzollern in Dokumenten, 1850-1918, Frank
Karlsruhe is the second-largest city of the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg after its capital of Stuttgart, its 309,999 inhabitants make it the 21st largest city of Germany. On the right bank of the Rhine, the city lies near the French-German border, between the Mannheim/Ludwigshafen conurbation to the north, the Strasbourg/Kehl conurbation to the south, it is the largest city of a region named after Hohenbaden Castle in the city of Baden-Baden. Karlsruhe is the largest city in the South Franconian dialect area, the only other larger city in that area being Heilbronn; the city is the seat of the Federal Constitutional Court, as well as of the Federal Court of Justice and the Public Prosecutor General of the Federal Court of Justice. Karlsruhe was the capital of the Margraviate of Baden-Durlach, the Margraviate of Baden, the Electorate of Baden, the Grand Duchy of Baden, the Republic of Baden, its most remarkable building is Karlsruhe Palace, built in 1715. There are nine institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport is the second-busiest airport of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart Airport, the 17th-busiest airport of Germany. Karlsruhe lies to the east of the Rhine, completely on the Upper Rhine Plain, it contains the Turmberg in the east, lies on the borders of the Kraichgau leading to the Northern Black Forest. The Rhine, one of the world's most important shipping routes, forms the western limits of the city, beyond which lie the towns of Maximiliansau and Wörth am Rhein in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate; the city centre is about 7.5 km from the river. Two tributaries of the Rhine, the Alb and the Pfinz, flow through the city from the Kraichgau to join the Rhine; the city lies at an altitude between 100 and 322 m. Its geographical coordinates are 49°00′N 8°24′E, its course is marked by a stone and painted line in the Stadtgarten. The total area of the city is 173.46 km2, hence it is the 30th largest city in Germany measured by land area. The longest north-south distance is 19.3 km in the east-west direction.
Karlsruhe is part of the urban area of Karlsruhe/Pforzheim, to which certain other towns in the district of Karlsruhe such as Bruchsal, Ettlingen and Rheinstetten, as well as the city of Pforzheim, belong. The city was planned with the palace tower at the center and 32 streets radiating out from it like the spokes of a wheel, or the ribs of a folding fan, so that one nickname for Karlsruhe in German is the "fan city". All of these streets survive to this day; because of this city layout, in metric geometry, Karlsruhe metric refers to a measure of distance that assumes travel is only possible along radial streets and along circular avenues around the centre. The city centre is the oldest part of town and lies south of the palace in the quadrant defined by nine of the radial streets; the central part of the palace runs east-west, with two wings, each at a 45° angle, directed southeast and southwest. The market square lies on the street running south from the palace to Ettlingen; the market square has the town hall to the west, the main Lutheran church to the east, the tomb of Margrave Charles III William in a pyramid in the buildings, resulting in Karlsruhe being one of only three large cities in Germany where buildings are laid out in the neoclassical style.
The area north of the palace is a forest. The area to the east of the palace consisted of gardens and forests, some of which remain, but the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Wildparkstadion football stadium, residential areas have been built there; the area west of the palace is now residential. Karlsruhe experiences an oceanic climate and its winter climate is milder, compared to most other German cities, except for the Rhine-Ruhr area. Summers are hotter than elsewhere in the country and it is one of the sunniest cities in Germany, like the Rhine-Palatinate area. Precipitation is evenly spread throughout the year. In 2008, the weather station in Karlsruhe, operating since 1876, was closed. According to legend, the name Karlsruhe, which translates as "Charles’ repose" or "Charles' peace", was given to the new city after a hunting trip when Margrave Charles III William of Baden-Durlach, woke from a dream in which he dreamt of founding his new city. A variation of this story claims. Charles William founded the city on June 17, 1715, after a dispute with the citizens of his previous capital, Durlach.
The founding of the city is linked to the construction of the palace. Karlsruhe became the capital of Baden-Durlach, in 1771, of the united Baden until 1945. Built in 18