Freetown Christiania known as Christiania, is an intentional community and commune of about 850 to 1,000 residents, covering 7.7 hectares in the borough of Christianshavn in the Danish capital city of Copenhagen. It was temporarily closed to visitors by residents by consensus in the plenum in April 2011 and a occasion, but re-opened. Christiania has been a source of controversy since its creation in a squatted military area in 1971, its cannabis trade was tolerated by authorities until 2004. Since relations between Christiania and Danish authorities have been strained. Since the beginning of the 2010s, the situation has been normalized and the common Danish law now applies to Christiania; the area of Christiania consists of the former military barracks of Bådsmandsstræde and parts of the city ramparts. The ramparts and the borough of Christianshavn were established in 1617 by King Christian IV by reclaiming the low beaches and islets between Copenhagen and Amager. After the siege of Copenhagen during the Second Northern War, the ramparts were reinforced during 1682 to 1692 under Christian V to form a complete defense ring.
The western ramparts of Copenhagen were demolished during the 19th century, but those of Christianshavn were allowed to remain. They are today considered among the finest surviving 17th century defence works in the world; the barracks of Bådsmandsstræde housed the Royal Artillery Regiment, the Army Materiel Command and ammunition laboratories and depots. Less used after World War II, the barracks were abandoned between 1967 and 1971; the adjacent area to the north, was Denmark's main naval base until the 1990s. It is an area in development, home to schools. An area further north open to the public during daytime; the outermost defence line, has been renamed Dyssen in Christiania language. It is connected to central Christiania by a bridge across the main moat or can be reached by the path beginning at Christmas Møllers Plads. Four gunpowder storehouses line the redans, they were built 1779-80 to replace a storage in central Copenhagen, at Østerport, which exploded infamously in 1770, killing 50 people.
The buildings are renamed Aircondition, Autogena and Kosmiske Blomst and have, although protected, been altered from their historical state. The last Danish execution site, active from 1946 to 1950, can still be seen on the Second Redan close to the building called Aircondition; the wooden execution shed is gone, but the concrete foundation and a drain for the blood remain just next to the path. In total, 29 World War II criminals were executed on the site; the last was Ib Birkedal, a high-level Danish Gestapo collaborator, on 20 July 1950. In 2007, the National Heritage Agency proposed protection status for some of the ancient military buildings, now in Christiania; these are: Den grå hal a riding house with a unique Bohlendach roof construction, now Christiania's largest concert venue Den grønne hal a smaller riding house Mælkebøtten The Commander's house, a half-timbered building The 17th and 18th century powder magazines on the bastions. Some of the historic buildings were altered after Christiania's takeover.
After the military moved out, the area was only guarded by a few watchmen and there was sporadic trespassing of homeless people using the empty buildings. On 4 September 1971, inhabitants of the surrounding neighborhood broke down the fence to take over parts of the unused area as a playground for their children. Although the takeover was not organized in the beginning, some claim this happened as a protest against the Danish government. At the time there was a lack of affordable housing in Copenhagen. On 26 September 1971, Christiania was declared open by Jacob Ludvigsen, a well-known provo and journalist who published a magazine called Hovedbladet, intended for and distributed to young people. In the paper, Ludvigsen wrote an article in which he and five others explored what he termed'The Forbidden City of the Military'; the article announced the proclamation of the free town, among other things he wrote the following under the headline Civilians conquered the'forbidden city' of the military: Christiania is the land of the settlers.
It is the biggest opportunity so far to build up a society from scratch - while still incorporating the remaining constructions. Own electricity plant, a bath-house, a giant athletics building, where all the seekers of peace could have their grand meditation - and yoga center. Halls where theater groups can feel at home. Buildings for the stoners who are too paranoid and weak to participate in the race... Yes for those who feel the beating of the pioneer heart there can be no doubt as to the purpose of Christiania, it is the part of the city, kept secret to us - but no more. Ludvigsen was co-author of Christiania's mission statement, dating from 1971, which offers the following: The objective of Christiania is to create a self-governing society whereby each and every individual holds themselves responsible over the wellbeing of the entire community. Our society is to be economically self-sustaining and, as such, our aspiration is to be steadfast in our conviction that psychological and physical destitution can be averted.
The spirit of Christiania developed into one of the hippie movement, the squatter
Morgenposten is a former Norwegian newspaper, issued in Oslo from 1861 to 1971. It was the largest newspaper in Norway from the 1870s until the early 1900s, when its name was Christiania Nyheds- og Avertissements-Blad nicknamed Sværta; the newspaper was founded in 1861 by William Nisson, under the name Christiania Avertissements-Blad, from 1865 it was called Christiania Nyheds- og Avertissements-Blad. The title Morgenposten was a subtitle from 1866, the main title of the newspaper from 1943. Thoralf Pryser edited the newspaper from 1918 to 1946, with exception from the last period of the German occupation of Norway, when he was replaced by the Nazi editor Feiring from 1943. During the interwar period the newspaper was Norway's third largest newspaper, after Aftenposten and Arbeiderbladet. During the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany Morgenposten became the second largest newspaper in Norway after Aftenposten. In 1946 a trial, the so-called "prøvesaken", was held, in order to decide the questions of possible confiscation of profits during the war years.
The trial was an important part of the legal actions against the press that followed World War II, as it had implications for the treatment of other newspapers that had cooperated with the Nazi authorities. The Supreme Court decision from 1948 resulted in a confiscation of NOK 170,000. Per Voksø was editor-in-chief from 1964 to 1967. In 1967 the controversial industrialist Sverre Munck bought the newspaper. Following this one third of the journalists, including the editor, resigned. Munck himself served as editor-in-chief until 1969. Leif Husebye was editor-in-chief from 1969. Morgenposten went defunct in 1971. Further readingHolm, Yngvar. Sværta: Morgenposten - en gang Norges største avis. Oslo: Tiden
Oslo is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a municipality. Founded in the year 1040 as Ánslo, established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence, with Sweden from 1814 to 1905 it functioned as a co-official capital. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour, it was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. The city's name was spelled Kristiania between 1897 by state and municipal authorities. In 1925 the city was renamed Oslo. Oslo is the governmental centre of Norway; the city is a hub of Norwegian trade, banking and shipping. It is maritime trade in Europe; the city is home to many companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the world's largest shipping companies and maritime insurance brokers.
Oslo is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme. Oslo is considered a global city and was ranked "Beta World City" in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network in 2008, it was ranked number one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine. A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo. In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's Worldwide Cost of Living study; as of 1 July 2017, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 672,061, while the population of the city's urban area of 3 December 2018 was 1,000,467. The metropolitan area had an estimated population of 1.71 million. The population was increasing at record rates during the early 2000s, making it the fastest growing major city in Europe at the time.
This growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing somewhat faster than the Norwegian population, in the city proper this is now more than 25% of the total population if immigrant parents are included; as of 1 January 2016, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 658,390. The urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus; the city centre is situated at the end of the Oslofjord, from which point the city sprawls out in three distinct "corridors"—inland north-eastwards, southwards along both sides of the fjord—which gives the urbanized area a shape reminiscent of an upside-down reclining "Y". To the north and east, wide forested hills rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre; the urban municipality of Oslo and county of Oslo are two parts of the same entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated.
Of Oslo's total area, 130 km2 is built-up and 7 km2. The open areas within the built-up zone amount to 22 km2; the city of Oslo was established as a municipality on 3 January 1838. It was separated from the county of Akershus to become a county of its own in 1842; the rural municipality of Aker was merged with Oslo on 1 January 1948. Furthermore, Oslo shares several important functions with Akershus county; as defined in January 2004 by the city council ^ The definition has since been revised in the 2015 census. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour; the old site east of the Aker river was not abandoned however and the village of Oslo remained as a suburb outside the city gates. The suburb called Oslo was included in the city proper. In 1925 the name of the suburb was transferred to the whole city, while the suburb was renamed "Gamlebyen" to avoid confusion; the Old Town is an area within the administrative district Gamle Oslo.
The previous names are reflected in street names like Oslo Oslo hospital. The origin of the name Oslo has been the subject of much debate, it is derived from Old Norse and was — in all probability — the name of a large farm at Bjørvika, but the meaning of that name is disputed. Modern linguists interpret the original Óslo, Áslo or Ánslo as either "Meadow at the Foot of a Hill" or "Meadow Consecrated to the Gods", with both considered likely. Erroneously, it was once assumed that "Oslo" meant "the mouth of the Lo river", a supposed previous name for the river Alna. However, not only has no evidence been found of a river "Lo" predating the work where Peder Claussøn Friis first proposed this etymology, but the name is ungrammatical in Norwegian: the correct form would have been Loaros; the name Lo is now believed to be a back-formation arrived at by Friis in support of his etymology
Christiania Theatre, or Kristiania Theatre, was Norway's finest stage for the spoken drama from October 4, 1836 to September 1, 1899. It was located at Bankplassen in Norway, it was the first lasting public theatre in Norway and the national stage of Norway and of Oslo during the 19th century. Christiania Theatre was the first long term public theatre in Oslo. In November 1771 and February 1772, Martin Nürenbach made an unsuccessful attempt to start the first public theatre in Oslo. Aside from this, theatre was performed only by the private amateur society Det Dramatiske Selskap at the concert hall Gevaexthuset, who did not offer public performances, by travelling foreign theatre companies; the first public theatre, the Christiania Offentlige Theater was inaugurated by the Swedish theatre director Johan Peter Strömberg in January 1827. This was to be the origin of the Christiania Theatre. After the building burnt down on 5 November 1835, it was reinstated with the name Christiania Theatre in October 1837.
Over next few years an avid debate developed with strong criticism of the Danish dominancy of the arts. Christiania Theatre only employed Danish actors during its first history for which it was criticized; the reason given was that there was not an acting school in Norway and that the Norwegian actors were therefore not good enough. The Norwegian language conflict centering on Norwegian writers who adopted distinctly Norwegian vocabulary in their work. Henrik Wergeland may have been the first to do so. Art critic Johan Sebastian Welhaven was one of the conservatives who took out against the theories of the extreme nationalists; the Danish troupe was mixed up with Norwegian actors after the employment of Norwegian actress and prima donna Laura Gundersen in 1849. The foundation of the first Norwegian theatre in Oslo, Christiania Norwegian Theatre in 1852, was but a temporary rival, as it was forced to close down in 1862; the theatre was a result of the controversy surrounding the Norwegian and Danish languages and was created as a counterpoint to the Danish language dominated Christiania Theatre.
Henrik Ibsen was artistic director of the Christiania Norwegian Theatre from the autumn of 1857 and served as the theatre leading director until its bankruptcy in 1862. From 1856, the Christiania Theatre promised to employ native actors. In 1872, Norwegian became the stage language. Ibsen's famous play Peer Gynt premiered here in 1876, as well as a large number of important Norwegian productions, including productions of Norway's other national bard at the time, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson. During the continued run of Peer Gynt a fire started on the performing night of January 15, 1877 that damaged the theatre, but luckily the theatre could be repaired. Christiania Theatre was during its years in use seen as Norway's national stage for drama until the Nationaltheatret was opened on 1 September 1899, with Bjorn Bjornson as theatre director and a large part of the ensemble from the Christiania Theatre. Blanc, Tharald Christiania Theater's Historie, 1827-1877 ISBN 978-1-168-23052-2 Lyche, Lise Norges teaterhistorie ISBN 82-7522-006-8 Næss, Trine Christiania Theater forteller sin historie: 1877-1899 ISBN 82-7099-427-8 Schmiesing, Ann Norway's Christiania Theatre, 1827-1867: From Danish Showhouse to National Stage ISBN 978-0-8386-4107-1 The New City Theatre in Oslo Nasjonalbiblioteket
Christiania Bank og Kreditkasse, branded domestically as Kreditkassen or K-Bank and internationally as Christiania Bank was a Norwegian bank that existed between 1848 and 2000 when it merged with MeritaNordbanken and became Nordea. The bank had its headquarters in Oslo and was Norway's second largest bank at the time of the merger. Christiania Bank had branch offices in London, New York, Singapore; the bank was founded in Oslo in 1848 as Christiania Kreditkasse, though changed its name to Christiania Bank og Kreditkasse in 1862. In 1858, the bank moved out of its temporary location at the home of the bank manager, Fritz Henrich Frölich, to permanent locations, it opened branches in 1897, under the directorship of Peter Harboe Castberg The bank expanded out of Oslo in 1957 when it bought Elverum Kreditbank and Hamar Privatbank, in 1959 with the acquisition of Agder Bank. By 1965, the bank had 18 offices outside Oslo. In 1973, the bank opened its first international office, in Luxembourg. In the 1980s, the bank further acquired Andresens Bank and Fiskernes Bank.
In the last years of the 1980s, there was a major financial crisis in Norway and by 1991 the bank had used up all capital. To save the bank, the Government of Norway took over the bank and gave it new capital, rescuing it from bankruptcy. In the early years of the 1990s, the bank bought Sunnmørsbanken and Sørlandsbanken. In 1995, the government reduced its ownership to 51%, listing it on the Oslo Stock Exchange, in 1999 to 35%; the same year, the Swedish MeritaNordbanken bid for the bank, in 2000 the government sold its shares and the bank became part of Nordea. Christiania Bank was at the time of the merger with Nordea Norway's oldest existing bank. Nordea web site History of the bank