National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is an American history museum and hall of fame, located in Cooperstown, New York, operated by private interests. It serves as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, displays baseball-related artifacts and exhibits, honors those who have excelled in playing and serving the sport; the Hall's motto is "Preserving History, Honoring Excellence, Connecting Generations." The word Cooperstown is used as shorthand for the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum to Canton for the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. The Hall of Fame was established in 1939 by the owner of a local hotel. Clark had sought to bring tourists to a city hurt by the Great Depression, which reduced the local tourist trade, Prohibition, which devastated the local hops industry. A new building was constructed, the Hall of Fame was dedicated on June 12, 1939; the erroneous claim that Civil War hero Abner Doubleday invented baseball in Cooperstown was instrumental in the early marketing of the Hall.
An expanded library and research facility opened in 1994. Dale Petroskey became the organization's president in 1999. In 2002, the Hall launched Baseball As America, a traveling exhibit that toured ten American museums over six years; the Hall of Fame has since sponsored educational programming on the Internet to bring the Hall of Fame to schoolchildren who might not visit. The Hall and Museum completed a series of renovations in spring 2005; the Hall of Fame presents an annual exhibit at FanFest at the Major League Baseball All-Star Game. Jeff Idelson replaced Petroskey as president on April 16, 2008, he had been acting as president since March 25, 2008, when Petroskey was forced to resign for having "failed to exercise proper fiduciary responsibility" and making "judgments that were not in the best interest of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum." Among baseball fans, "Hall of Fame" means not only the museum and facility in Cooperstown, New York, but the pantheon of players, umpires and pioneers who have been enshrined in the Hall.
The first five men elected were Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson and Walter Johnson, chosen in 1936. As of January 2018, 323 people had been elected to the Hall of Fame, including 226 former Major League Baseball players, 35 Negro league baseball players and executives, 22 managers, 10 umpires, 30 pioneers and organizers. 114 members of the Hall of Fame have been inducted posthumously, including four who died after their selection was announced. Of the 35 Negro league members, 29 were inducted posthumously, including all 24 selected since the 1990s; the Hall of Fame includes Effa Manley. The newest members elected on January 22, 2019, are players Edgar Martínez, Roy Halladay, Mike Mussina and Mariano Rivera, with Rivera becoming the first player to be elected unanimously. Players are inducted into the Hall of Fame through election by either the Baseball Writers' Association of America, or the Veterans Committee, which now consists of four subcommittees, each of which considers and votes for candidates from a separate era of baseball.
Five years after retirement, any player with 10 years of major league experience who passes a screening committee is eligible to be elected by BBWAA members with 10 years' membership or more who have been covering MLB at any time in the 10 years preceding the election. From a final ballot including 25–40 candidates, each writer may vote for up to 10 players. Any player named on 75% or more of all ballots cast is elected. A player, named on fewer than 5% of ballots is dropped from future elections. In some instances, the screening committee had restored their names to ballots, but in the mid-1990s, dropped players were made permanently ineligible for Hall of Fame consideration by the Veterans Committee. A 2001 change in the election procedures restored. Players receiving 5% or more of the votes but fewer than 75% are reconsidered annually until a maximum of ten years of eligibility. Under special circumstances, certain players may be deemed eligible for induction though they have not met all requirements.
Addie Joss was elected despite only playing nine seasons before he died of meningitis. Additionally, if an otherwise eligible player dies before his fifth year of retirement that player may be placed on the ballot at the first election at least six months after his death. Roberto Clemente's induction in 1973 set the precedent when the writers chose to put him up for consideration after his death on New Year's Eve, 1972; the five-year waiting period was established in 1954 after an evolutionary process. In 1936 all players were eligible, including active ones. From the 1937 election until the 1945 election, there was no waiting period, so any retired player was eligible, but writers were discouraged from voting for current major leaguers. Since there was no formal rule preventing a writer from casting a ballot for an active player, the scribes did not always comply with the informal guideline.
KLAS-TV, virtual channel 8, is a CBS-affiliated television station licensed to Las Vegas, United States. The station is owned by Nexstar Media Group. KLAS-TV's studios are located at 3228 Channel 8 Drive near the northern portion of the Las Vegas Strip in the unincorporated community of Winchester, its transmitter is located on Mount Arden in Henderson. KLAS first signed on the air on July 8, 1953. Channel 8 was the first television station to sign on in Nevada, it has always been a CBS affiliate, but maintained a secondary affiliation with ABC, which it would share with KLRJ/KORK-TV from that station's sign on in January 1955, until KSHO-TV debuted in May 1956. Greenspun sold the station to aviation magnate Howard Hughes's Summa Corporation in 1968 because the tycoon was dismayed that the station never played his favorite late night movies. After Hughes' death in 1976, the station was held in an outside trust for another two years until 1978, when it was sold to Landmark Communications. On April 16, 1996, KLAS-TV became the first commercial television station in Nevada to carry a digital broadcast signal.
This signal was first launched during the National Association of Broadcasters annual convention that year. A little more than four years on April 6, 2000, the first scheduled high definition network broadcasts in Las Vegas began on KLAS' digital signal. On January 30, 2008, Landmark announced its intention to sell KLAS, along with its other television station WTVF in Nashville. No suitable buyer for KLAS was found until Landmark took most of its properties off the market in October 2008 due to the economic recession. KLAS and WTVF remained under Landmark ownership for more than four years. On September 4, 2012, Journal Broadcast Group announced that it would purchase WTVF for $215 million; the sale was finalized on December 6. This left KLAS-TV as the only television station in Landmark's portfolio. On November 21, 2014, Nexstar Broadcasting Group announced that it would purchase KLAS for $145 million; the sale was completed on February 13, 2015. On January 29, 2016, shortly prior to Super Bowl 50, KLAS was dropped from Cox Cable due to a retransmission consent dispute with Nexstar across nine markets.
As a contingency plan, Cox announced on February 3, 2016 that it would offer a free preview of ESPN Deportes over the Super Bowl weekend, encouraged viewers to listen to the English radio broadcast along with it. The next day, KLAS was restored. On December 3, 2018, Nexstar announced it would acquire the assets of Chicago-based Tribune Media for $6.4 billion in cash and debt. The deal—which would make Nexstar the largest television station operator by total number of stations upon its expected closure late in the third quarter of 2019—would give KLAS additional sister stations in nearby markets including Los Angeles and San Diego; the station's digital channel is multiplexed: KLAS-TV shut down its analog signal, over VHF channel 8, on June 12, 2009, the official date in which full-power television stations in the United States transitioned from analog to digital broadcasts under federal mandate. The station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition VHF channel 7. Through the use of PSIP, digital television receivers display the station's virtual channel as its former VHF analog channel 8.
Syndicated programming seen on KLAS-TV includes Jeopardy!, Wheel of Fortune, Live with Kelly and Ryan, Dr. Phil; the station clears the entire CBS network schedule, though Let's Make a Deal leads out of The Bold and the Beautiful after the noon news and into The Talk, unusual scheduling for CBS' daytime programming, allowing Dr. Phil to be led into by The Talk. KLAS-TV presently broadcasts 35½ hours of locally produced newscasts each week. Although channel 8 does not produce a Saturday edition of its morning newscast, 8 News Now: Good Day, the station does produce a newscast which airs for 3 hours weekday mornings from 4 to 7 a.m. and on Sunday mornings for an hour at 5:30 a.m. and a half-hour af 8 a.m. since channel 8 airs the Saturday edition of CBS This Morning. The evening news runs at 5 p.m. 6 p.m. and 11 p.m. and is anchored by Dave Courvoisier, Denise Valdez, Paul Joncich and Christianne Klein. Channel 8 has been the ratings leader in the Las Vegas market for most of its history. However, in recent years, KLAS' local newscasts have been losing ground in the ratings, with rivals KTNV, KVVU and KSNV having eroded ratings for KLAS' newscasts.
KLAS branded its newscasts as Eyewitness News, taking over the name from 1982 after KVBC discontinued using the branding, used it until late 2009, when its newscasts adopted the 8 News Now title. In the early 1980s, the station's newscasts were branded as Newscenter 8, used
Politically Incorrect was an American late-night, half-hour political talk show hosted by Bill Maher that aired from 1993 to 2002. It premiered on Comedy Central in 1993, moved to ABC in January 1997, was canceled in 2002; the show first soon moved to Los Angeles. The New York episodes were shot at the CBS Broadcast Center and the Los Angeles episodes at CBS Television City, where it remained after its move to ABC; the first episode featured comedian Jerry Seinfeld, Howard Stern co-host Robin Quivers, Republican Party strategist Ed Rollins, comedian Larry Miller. Frequent guests included Dave Matthews, Arianna Huffington, Michael McKean, Ann Coulter, Carrot Top, Christine O'Donnell; the show began with a brief topical monologue from Maher. Maher introduces the guests individually, promoting their current projects. Four guests appear a mix of individuals from show business, popular culture, political consultants, regular people in the news, discussing topics in the news selected by Maher. Maher described the program as "The McLaughlin Group on acid."On rare occasions, Maher would interview a single guest.
The show was pioneering in mixing political entertainers. Maher tried to air all points of view controversial ones. Guests could be both aggravating and insightful, with the conversation similar to a cocktail party with quick-witted guests; the show's writers included Al Franken, Arianna Huffington, Kevin Bleyer, Scott Carter, Chris Kelly. The show won a 2000 Emmy Award for "Outstanding Technical Direction, Video for a Series." In addition, it was nominated for seventeen other awards, including: "Outstanding Variety". The show won two CableACE Awards in 1995 and 1996 for Talk Show Series and was nominated for a third in 1997, it was nominated for two Writers Guild of America awards for best Comedy/Variety series in 2001 and 2002. Barbara Olson, a frequent guest, was traveling to a taping of Politically Incorrect aboard American Airlines Flight 77 when it crashed into the Pentagon during the September 11 attacks of 2001. To honor Olson, Maher left. In the aftermath of the attacks, U. S. President George W. Bush said.
In the September 17, 2001, Maher's guest Dinesh D'Souza disputed Bush's label, saying the terrorists were warriors. Maher agreed, replied: "We have been the cowards, lobbing cruise missiles from 2,000 miles away. That's cowardly. Staying in the airplane when it hits the building, say what you want about it, not cowardly."Despite similar comments having been made in other media, advertisers withdrew their support and some ABC affiliates stopped airing the show temporarily. White House press secretary Ari Fleischer denounced Maher, warning that "people have to watch what they say and watch what they do." Maher apologized, explained that he had been criticizing U. S. military policy, not American soldiers. The show was canceled the following June, which Maher and many others saw as a result of the controversy, although ABC denied that the controversy was a factor and said the program was canceled due to declining ratings. Maher said. There were subsequently comments in various media on the irony that a show called Politically Incorrect was canceled because its host had made a politically incorrect comment.
The show was replaced on ABC by Jimmy Kimmel Live! in 2003. Maher rebounded with an hour-long program on HBO called Real Time with Bill Maher, which premiered on February 21, 2003, follows a similar format. Maher released a book in 1997, Does Anybody Have a Problem with That? The Best of Politically Incorrect, which featured questions asked on the show, comments Maher made and guest answers. In 2003 an audiobook POLITICAL INCORRECTIONS: The Best Opening Monologues from Politically Incorrect with Bill Maher was released, which featured opening monologues from the show accompanied by explanations of the current affairs that were being discussed in the media at that time. List of late-night American network TV programs Inside Washington Agronsky & Co. Washington Week Gordon Peterson Real Time with Bill Maher Official Site Politically Incorrect on IMDb Politically Incorrect at TV.com
All-American Girls Professional Baseball League
The All-American Girls Professional Baseball League was a professional women's baseball league founded by Philip K. Wrigley which existed from 1943 to 1954; the AAGPBL is the forerunner of women's professional league sports in the United States. Over 600 women played in the league, which consisted of 10 teams located in the American Midwest. In 1948, league attendance peaked at over 900,000 spectators; the most successful team, the Rockford Peaches, won a league-best four championships. The 1992 motion picture A League of Their Own is a fictionalized account of the early days of the league and its stars. With the entry of the United States into World War II, several major league baseball executives started a new professional league with women players in order to maintain baseball in the public eye while the majority of able men were away; the founders included Branch Rickey and Paul V. Harper, they feared that Major League Baseball might temporarily cease due to the war because of the loss of talent, as well as restrictions on team travel due to gasoline rationing.
The women's initial tryouts were held at Wrigley Field in Chicago. Scouted from amateur softball games across the country, over 200 women were invited to try-out, about 60 were selected for the league roster. Like the male major-league, the'girls' league was informally segregated, thus no African Americans were recruited or hired. Women were selected for their skilled play, but the player needed to fit what was seen by marketers as a wholesome feminine ideal; the first league game was played on May 30, 1943. The league went through three periods of ownership, it was owned by chewing gum mogul, Wrigley from 1943 to 1945, wealthy publicist Arthur Meyerhoff from 1945 to 1951, the teams were individually owned from 1951 to 1954. The teams played in Midwestern cities; the South Bend Blue Sox and the Rockford Peaches were the only two teams that stayed in their home cities for the full period of the AAGPBL's existence. In the first season, the league played a game, a hybrid of baseball and softball; the ball was 12 inches in the size of a regulation softball.
The pitcher's mound was only forty feet from home plate, closer than in regulation softball and much closer than the baseball distance of 60 feet, 6 inches. Pitchers threw underhand windmill, like in softball, the distance between bases was 65 feet, five feet longer than in softball but 25 feet shorter than in baseball. Major similarities between the AAGPBL and baseball included nine player teams and the use of a pitcher's mound. By 1948 the ball had shrunk to 10 3/8 inches, overhand pitching was allowed, the mound was moved back to 50 feet. Over the history of the league, the rules continued to approach those of baseball. By the final season in 1954, the ball was regulation baseball size, the mound was moved back to 60 feet, the basepaths were extended to 85 feet. Teams were managed by men who knew competitive athletics and were former major league players, in part to demonstrate to fans that the league was serious. Salaries were above average for women and ranged from $45–$85 a week during the first years of play to about $125 per week in years.
The women's league went along with the men's late spring to early autumn season. The uniforms worn by the female ballplayers consisted of a belted, short-sleeved tunic dress with a slight flare of the skirt. Rules stated that skirts were to be worn no more than six inches above the knee, but the regulation was most ignored in order to facilitate running and fielding. A circular team logo was sewn on the front of each dress, baseball caps featured elastic bands in the back so that they were one-size-fits-allDuring spring training the girls were required to attend Helena Rubinstein's evening charm school classes; the proper etiquette for every situation was taught, every aspect of personal hygiene and dress code was presented to all the players. In an effort to make each player as physically attractive as possible, each received a beauty kit and instructions on how to use it; as a part of the leagues'Rules of Conduct', the'girls' were not permitted to have short hair, smoke or drink in public places, they were required to wear lipstick at all times.
Fines for not following the leagues rules of conduct were five dollars for the first offense, ten for the second, suspension for the third. In 1944, Josephine "JoJo" D'Angelo was fired for cutting her hair short; the women's contracts were much stricter about behavior than in the men's league, each team was assigned its own chaperone by the league. The AAGPBL peaked in attendance during the 1948 season; the Rockford Peaches won the most league championships with four. The Milwaukee/Grand Rapids Chicks were second with three; the Racine Belles and the South Bend Blue Sox each won two, the Kalamazoo Lassies won in the league's final season. The 1992 film A League of Their Own, although fictionalized, covers the founding and play of this league. Geena Davis, Lori Petty, Rosie O'Donnell and Tom Hanks were the stars of the film, directed by Penny Marshall; the league is the forerunner of later-day professional league sports played by women. Lois Siegel documented the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League in her film Baseball Girls, produced by the National Film Board of Canada.
Nevada is a state in the Western United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast and Utah to the east. Nevada is the 7th most extensive, the 32nd most populous, but the 9th least densely populated of the U. S. states. Nearly three-quarters of Nevada's people live in Clark County, which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area where three of the state's four largest incorporated cities are located. Nevada's capital, however, is Carson City. Nevada is known as the "Silver State" because of the importance of silver to its history and economy, it is known as the "Battle Born State", because it achieved statehood during the Civil War. Nevada is desert and semi-arid, much of it within the Great Basin. Areas south of the Great Basin are within the Mojave Desert, while Lake Tahoe and the Sierra Nevada lie on the western edge. About 86% of the state's land is managed by various jurisdictions of the U. S. federal government, both civilian and military.
Before European contact, Native Americans of the Paiute and Washoe tribes inhabited the land, now Nevada. The first Europeans to explore the region were Spanish, they called the region Nevada because of the snow. The area formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, became part of Mexico when it gained independence in 1821; the United States annexed the area in 1848 after its victory in the Mexican–American War, it was incorporated as part of Utah Territory in 1850. The discovery of silver at the Comstock Lode in 1859 led to a population boom that became an impetus to the creation of Nevada Territory out of western Utah Territory in 1861. Nevada became the 36th state on October 31, 1864, as the second of two states added to the Union during the Civil War. Nevada has a reputation for its libertarian laws. In 1940, with a population of just over 110,000 people, Nevada was by far the least-populated state, with less than half the population of the next least-populated state. However, legalized gambling and lenient marriage and divorce laws transformed Nevada into a major tourist destination in the 20th century.
Nevada is the only U. S. state where prostitution is legal, though it is illegal in Clark County, Washoe County and Carson City. The tourism industry remains Nevada's largest employer, with mining continuing as a substantial sector of the economy: Nevada is the fourth-largest producer of gold in the world; the name "Nevada" comes from meaning "snow-covered", after the Sierra Nevada. Most Nevadans pronounce the second syllable of their state name using the TRAP vowel. Many from outside the Western United States pronounce it with the PALM vowel. Although the latter pronunciation is closer to the Spanish pronunciation, it is not the pronunciation preferred by most Nevadans. State Assemblyman Harry Mortenson proposed a bill to recognize the alternate pronunciation of Nevada, though the bill was not supported by most legislators and never received a vote; the Nevadan pronunciation is the de facto official one, since it is the one used by the state legislature. At one time, the state's official tourism organization, TravelNevada, stylized the name of the state as "Nevăda", with a breve mark over the a indicating the locally preferred pronunciation, available as a license plate design.
Nevada is entirely within the Basin and Range Province, is broken up by many north-south mountain ranges. Most of these ranges have endorheic valleys between them, which belies the image portrayed by the term Great Basin. Much of the northern part of the state is within the Great Basin, a mild desert that experiences hot temperatures in the summer and cold temperatures in the winter. Moisture from the Arizona Monsoon will cause summer thunderstorms; the state's highest recorded temperature was 125 °F in Laughlin on June 29, 1994. The coldest recorded temperature was −52 °F set in San Jacinto in 1972, in the northeastern portion of the state; the Humboldt River crosses the state from east to west across the northern part of the state, draining into the Humboldt Sink near Lovelock. Several rivers drain from the Sierra Nevada eastward, including the Walker and Carson rivers. All of these rivers are endorheic basins, ending in Walker Lake, Pyramid Lake, the Carson Sink, respectively. However, not all of Nevada is within the Great Basin.
Tributaries of the Snake River drain the far north, while the Colorado River, which forms much of the boundary with Arizona, drains much of southern Nevada. The mountain ranges, some of which have peaks above 13,000 feet, harbor lush forests high above desert plains, creating sky islands for endemic species; the valleys are no lower in elevation than 3,000 feet, while some in central Nevada are above 6,000 feet. The southern third of the state, where the Las Vegas area is situated, is within the Mojave Desert; the area is closer to the Arizona Monsoon in the summer. The terrain is lower below 4,000 feet, creating conditions for hot summer days and cool to chilly winter nights. Nevada and California have by far the longest diagonal line as a state boundary at just over 400 miles; this line begins in Lake Tahoe nearly
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti