Asiatisk Plads is a waterfront area in the Christianshavn neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is bounded by Torvegade to the south, next to Knippel Bridge, Strandgade to the east and it takes its name from Danish Asia Company which was based at the site from its foundation in 1732 until 1843 when it was dissolved. Asiatisk Plads is frequently used as a metonym for the Ministry, Danish Asia Company was founded in 1732 as a replacement for the Danish East India Company which had been dissolved in 1729. A head office for the company was built at a site just south of Old Dry Dock in 1738 to a design by Philip de Lange, the complex was expanded with the addition of two warehouses. The southern part of the grounds was redeveloped in 1978-1980 when a new home was built for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to designs by Haldor Gunnløgson, the complex consists of three buildings with gables facing the water in accordance with the traditions for warehouses. Their monotonous Modernist designs have been heavily criticized, Philip de Langes former head office for the Danish Asia Company is designed in the Late Baroque style.
The facade is decorated with a relief, probably by Johann Christoph Petzold, a short wall with a gate connects the building to a warehouse which was built at the neighbouring site in 1781 to a design by J. B. To achieve symmetry, the warehouse has a similar to that of the head office in terms of proportions. The site includes the Eigtved Warehouse which was built for the Danish Asia Company from 1748 to 1750. It is named after its architect, Nicolai Eigtved, who was responsible for the planning of Frederiksstaden around the time as well as for many prominent buildings such as Amalienborg Palace. Erik Møller Architects refurbished all three buildings and adapted them to the needs of the Foreign Ministry between 1979 and 1982, the quay features three abstract sculptures by Søren Georg Jensen, The Cyclop, The Long Journey )Den Lange Rejse) and Figurehead
An orphanage is a residential institution devoted to the care of orphans—children whose biological parents are deceased or otherwise unable or unwilling to care for them. It is frequently used to describe institutions abroad, where it is an accurate term. Most children who live in orphanages are not orphans, four out of five children in orphanages having at least one living parent, most orphanages have been closed in Europe and North America. Few large international charities continue to fund orphanages, they are still commonly founded by smaller charities, especially in developing countries, orphanages may prey on vulnerable families at risk of breakdown and actively recruit children to ensure continued funding. Orphanages in developing countries are run by the state. Other residential institutions for children can be called group homes, childrens homes, rehabilitation centers, night shelters, the Romans formed their first orphanages around 400 AD. Jewish law prescribed care for the widow and the orphan, plato says, Orphans should be placed under the care of public guardians.
Men should have a fear of the loneliness of orphans and of the souls of their departed parents, a man should love the unfortunate orphan of whom he is guardian as if he were his own child. He should be as careful and as diligent in the management of the property as of his own or even more careful still. The care of orphans was referred to bishops and, during the Middle Ages, as soon as they were old enough, children were often given as apprentices to households to ensure their support and to learn an occupation. In medieval Europe, care for orphans tended to reside with the Church, the Elizabethan Poor Laws were enacted at the time of the Reformation, and placed public responsibility on individual parishes to care for the indigent poor. The growth of sentimental philanthropy in the 18th century, led to the establishment of the first charitable institutions catering for the orphan, the first children were admitted into a temporary house located in Hatton Garden. At first, no questions were asked about child or parent, on reception, children were sent to wet nurses in the countryside, where they stayed until they were about four or five years old.
At sixteen, girls were apprenticed as servants for four years, at fourteen, boys were apprenticed into variety of occupations. There was a benevolent fund for adults. A basket was accordingly hung outside the hospital, the age for admission was raised from two months to twelve, and a flood of children poured in from country workhouses. Parliament soon came to the conclusion that the indiscriminate admission should be discontinued, the hospital adopted a system of receiving children only with considerable sums. This practice was stopped in 1801, and it henceforth became a fundamental rule that no money was to be received
Wilders Plads is a waterfront area located just north of Wilders Kanal, a branch of Christianshavns Kanal, in the north-western corner of the Christianshavn neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Denmark. The area is bounded by Christianshavn Canal to the east and Krøyers Plads to the north, the area now known as Wilders Plads was in the beginning of the 18th century still merely a marshy area north of Christianshavn. In 1735, Andreas Bjørn, obtained permission from King Christian VI to reclaim the area to establish a shipyard in the grounds and it managed to launch 59 ships before his death in 1750, including the naval ship Copenhagen Castle with 44 canons. The oldest building in the area is the building at Wilders Plads 10 which was built by Andreas Bjørn in 1736 as housing for workers at his shipyard. It 52 Strandgade, probably from about 1740, is the main building of the shipyard. It was originally used as housing for the most senior employees. In 1762, it was acquired by Carl Wilder who had made a fortune as a broker and he added a nail factory to the site before his death in 1764.
His son, Lars Wilder, continued running the shipyard until his own death and he died unmarried and left his considerable fortune to the poor. The so-called Wilder Warehouse today marks the northern boundary with Krøyers Plads. It was built for Carl Wilder by Johan Christian Conradi in 1873, in 1814, Wilders Plads was acquired by Jacob Holm. He was a grocer and industrialist who was now moving into ship building, founding his own shipyard in the grounds. The northern part of the island was sold to Royal Greenland Trade Department in the late 19th century, the company had most of its facilities in the southern part of Christianshavn, in the area now known as Christiansbro, but established a branch at Wilders Plads. Part of the area was redeveloped as housing in the 1970s and 80s. The first estate was built from 1975 to 1978 and faces the main harbour and it is popularly known as Det Gvide Snit. A second housing estate facing the canal was completed in 1985 and it is known as Den Gule Misundelse and replaced some of Burmeister & Wains old buildings.
Both housing estates are administrated by Lejerbo
Wildersgade is a street in the Christianshavn district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It runs along the length of the neighbourhood, parallel to Christianshavn Canal, one block to the east, the history of Wildersgade dates back to the foundation of Christianshavn as an independent market town in 1617-22. The street was originally called Kongensgade, complementing Dronningensgade and Prinsensgade on the side of the canal. The section to the north of Torvegade was known as Store Kongensgade while the section to the south of Torvegade was called Lille Kongensgade. The current name was introduced in 1859 when the larger street Ny Kongensgade on the other side of the harbor took over the name Store Kongensgade). The rectory of Christians Church was originally located at No.5, in 1795, the building was taken over by a branch of Borgerdyd School which shortly thereafter was Borgerdyd School on Nørregade in the city centre. Its name was changed to Vestre Borgerdyd School and it is now called Københavns Åbne Gymnasium.
In 1890, the building in Wildersgade was acquired by Burmeister & Wain while the school relocated to a new building on Stockholmsgade in Østerbro, No.60 is the former Wildersgade Barracks. The main building was built by Jørgen Henrich Rawert and Andreas Hallander in 1802, the long, one-storey building to the left is the barracks former stables. The yellow building on the side of the street is the rear side of the Irgens House complex which served as artillery barracks from 1789. Many other houses in the street are listed and they consist mostly of townhouses and former warehouses. 70, on the corner of Cjristianshavn Canal and Wilders Canal, is Princess Maries Home for Old Seamen and Their Widows, the oldest part of the building is from 1874 while an extension dates from 1921. The street is home to a number of listed warehouses and townhouses. The warehouse at No.51 was built in association with Niels Brocks House in Strandgade (No.36 on the side of the block. 41–43 is part of the Sigvart Grubbe House complex.
52, No.53 and No.58 are listed The buildings at No.9 and 10, No.10 houses the one Michelin-starred restaurant Kadeau which mainly uses products from the island of Bornholm and has a sister restaurant in Aakirkeby. The large, enighbouring building is a former hall from the 1860s and was built for B&W. It was adapted for use as a building by Dissing
A sailboat or sailing boat is a boat propelled partly or entirely by sails smaller than a sailing ship. Distinctions in what constitutes a sailing boat and ship vary by region, although sailboat terminology has varied across history, many terms have specific meanings in the context of modern yachting. A great number of sailboat-types may be distinguished by size, hull configuration, keel type, purpose and configuration of masts, and sail plan. Once a common racing configuration, today it gives versatility to cruising boats, a catboat has a single mast mounted far forward and does not carry a jib. Most modern designs have only one sail, the mainsail, however, a dinghy is a type of small open sailboat commonly used for recreation, sail training, and tending a larger vessel. They are popular in youth sailing programs for their short LOA, simple operation and they have three sails, the mainsail and spinnaker. Ketches are similar to a sloop, but there is a shorter mast astern of the mainmast. The second mast is called the mizzen mast and the sail is called the mizzen sail, a ketch can be Cutter-rigged with two head sails. A schooner has a mainmast taller than its foremast, distinguishing it from a ketch or a yawl, a schooner can have more than two masts, with the foremast always lower than the foremost main.
Traditional topsail schooners have topmasts allowing triangular topsails sails to be flown above their gaff sails, the most common modern sailboat is the sloop, which features one mast and two sails, typically a Bermuda rigged main, and a headsail. This simple configuration is very efficient for sailing into the wind, a smaller headsail is easier for a short-handed crew to manage. A yawl is similar to a ketch, with a mizzen mast carried astern the rudderpost more for balancing the helm than propulsion. Traditional sailboats are monohulls, but multi-hull catamarans and trimarans are gaining popularity, monohull boats generally rely on ballast for stability and usually are displacement hulls. This stabilizing ballast can, in boats designed for racing, be as much as 50% of the weight of the boat and it creates two problems, one, it gives the monohull tremendous inertia, making it less maneuverable and reducing its acceleration. Secondly, unless it has built with buoyant foam or air tanks, if a monohull fills with water.
Multihulls rely on the geometry and the stance of the multiple hulls for their stability. Indeed, multihulls are designed to be as light-weight as possible and this absence of ballast results in some very real performance gains in terms of acceleration, top speed, and maneuverability. The lack of ballast makes it easier to get a multihull on plane, reducing its wetted surface area and thus its drag. The absence of drag improves wind precision
The area takes its name from Peter Applebye, Christian VIs rope maker, who ran his manufactury from the site in the late 18th century, although no buildings remain from that time. The Danish Sugar Factories building along the waterfront dates from 1912 while the rest of the grounds have undergone redevelopment in years. The street Langebrogade, separating the area from Christianshavn Rampart to the south, the Olafur Eliasson-designed Circle Bridge which is currently under construction will provide a link between Applebys Plads and western Christianshavn across the mouth of Christianshavn Canal. Founded in the early 17th century, Christianshavn was originally smaller than at present. Up through the century, the area was sold off. In 1695 the entire site was acquired by Jan van Osten who established a shipyard there, with the foundation of Nyholm to the north of Christianshavn, the navys ships gradually left the Grønnegård harbour. In the 1750s Appleby carried out further reclamations on both sides of the canal, largely giving the area the layout it has today and he established a shipyard on the north side of the canal and was active as a shipowner.
Peter Applebys son Peter Appleby Jr. Holm converted Applebys long ropewalk building into 103 residences for workers at his shipyard and they were known as Holms Houses and are described as the first example of workers housing in Denmark. After a fire at one of their plants, the sugar factory constructed a new sugar refinery along the waterfront in 1912. The site served as headquarters for Danisco until the company was taken over by Nordzucker in 2009, a minor part of Holms Terraces was demolished in the 1930s to make way for Voldgården, a residential development, while the long row along Langebrogade survived until the late 1950s. A large portion of Applebys Plads was redeveloped between 1995 and 1996 when a development was built to designs by Hvidt & Mølgaard. It consists of buildings arranged in an open block structure around a garden complex with pergolas. Two boats are docked at the quay. It was adapted for its current use at a shipyard in Nyborg and was first opened as a restaurant at Applebys Plads by former TV-chef Paolo Guimaraes, the other boat, Hotel Cph Living, is a 12-room hotel ship.
Asiatisk Plads Wilders Plads Applebys Have
Church of Our Saviour, Copenhagen
It is noted for its carillon, which is the largest in northern Europe and plays melodies every hour from 8 am to midnight. When Christian IV planned Christianshavn in 1617, it was intended as an independent merchants town on the island of Amager, a temporary church was inaugurated in 1639 but construction of the present Church of Our Saviour, the design of Lambert van Haven, did not start until 1682. The church was inaugurated 14 years in 1695 but important interior features like the altar had a temporary character. The church got its permanent altar in 1732 but plans for construction of the spire was not revitalized until 1747 under the reign of Frederik V, the new architect on the project was Lauritz de Thurah. He soon abandoned van Havens original design in favour of his own project that was approved by the King in 1749, three years the spire was finished and the King climbed the tower at a ceremony on 28 August 1752. There is an urban legend stating that the architect killed himself by jumping from the top of the spire.
This is not about Lambert van Haven, since the spire was added to the church almost 50 years after his death, the church is built in a Dutch baroque style and its basic layout is a Greek cross. The walls rest on a foundation and are made of red and yellow tiles. The facade is segmented by pilasters in the giant order. The pilasters are of the Tuscan order with bases and capitals in sandstone, the cornice is in sandstone but with a frieze in tiles. Between the pilasters are tall round-arched windows with glass and iron cames. There are entrances at the gable of the cross arms except for the gable where the sacristy is added. The main entrance is in the gable below the tower and has a sandstone portal. All entrances are raised four steps from street level, at each side of the tower, there is a gate at street level leading to the two crypts of the church. The roof is vaulted and covered in black-glazed tiles, the altarpiece is the work of Nicodemus Tessins and is considered a masterpiece. It depicts a scene from the Garden of Gethsemane between two columns, where Jesus is comforted by an angel while another angel hangs in the air beside them, on each side, two figures of Pietas and Justitia illustrate the Kings motto.
The two columns carry a broken, curved architrave and gable, behind the opening of the broken gable is placed a pane with Jahves name in Hebrew inscribed and lit from behind. Around the pane is an arrangement of gilded beans and cloud formations, the huge organ with Christian V’s gilded monogram was built by the Botzen Brothers from 1698-1700 and is mounted on the wall and supported by two elephants
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets and cays. These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea, in a wider sense, the mainland countries of Belize, Guyana and French Guiana are often included due to their political and cultural ties with the region. Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are usually regarded as a subregion of North America and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies. From December 15,1954, to October 10,2010, there was a known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states. The West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations, the region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest.
The two most prevalent pronunciations of Caribbean are KARR-ə-BEE-ən, with the accent on the third syllable. The former pronunciation is the older of the two, although the variant has been established for over 75 years. It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer KARR-ə-BEE-ən while North American speakers more typically use kə-RIB-ee-ən, usage is split within Caribbean English itself. The word Caribbean has multiple uses and its principal ones are geographical and political. The Caribbean can be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation, the United Nations geoscheme for the Americas accords the Caribbean as a distinct region within the Americas. Physiographically, the Caribbean region is mainly a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea, to the north, the region is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico, the Straits of Florida and the Northern Atlantic Ocean, which lies to the east and northeast. To the south lies the coastline of the continent of South America, the Caribbean may be centred on socio-economic groupings found in the region.
For example, the known as the Caribbean Community contains the Co-operative Republic of Guyana. Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands, which are in the Atlantic Ocean, are members of the Caribbean Community. The Commonwealth of the Bahamas is in the Atlantic and is a member of the Caribbean Community. According to the ACS, the population of its member states is 227 million people. The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies, Some islands in the region have relatively flat terrain of non-volcanic origin and these islands include Aruba, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, and Antigua
Canals and navigations are human-made channels for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. In the vernacular, both are referred to as canals, and in most cases, the works will have a series of dams. These areas are referred to as water levels, often just called levels. In contrast, a canal cuts across a drainage divide atop a ridge, many canals have been built at elevations towering over valleys and others water ways crossing far below. Cities need a lot of water and many canals with sources of water at a higher level can deliver water to a destination where there is a lack of water. The Roman Empires Aqueducts were such water supply canals, a navigation is a series of channels that run roughly parallel to the valley and stream bed of an unimproved river. A navigation always shares the drainage basin of the river, a vessel uses the calm parts of the river itself as well as improvements, traversing the same changes in height. A true canal is a channel that cuts across a drainage divide, most commercially important canals of the first half of the 19th century were a little of each, using rivers in long stretches, and divide crossing canals in others.
This is true for many canals still in use, there are two broad types of canal, Waterways and navigations used for carrying vessels transporting goods and people. These can be subdivided into two kinds, Those connecting existing lakes, other canals or seas and oceans and those connected in a city network, such as the Canal Grande and others of Venice Italy, the gracht of Amsterdam, and the waterways of Bangkok. Aqueducts, water canals that are used for the conveyance and delivery of potable water for human consumption, municipal uses, hydro power canals. Historically canals were of importance to commerce and the development, growth. In 1855 the Lehigh Canal carried over 1.2 million tons of burning anthracite coal, by the 1930s the company which built. By the early 1880s, canals which had little ability to compete with rail transport, were off the map. In the next couple of decades, coal was diminished as the heating fuel of choice by oil. Later, after World War I when motor-trucks came into their own, Canals are built in one of three ways, or a combination of the three, depending on available water and available path, Human made streams A canal can be created where no stream presently exists.
Either the body of the canal is dug or the sides of the canal are created by making dykes or levees by piling dirt, the water for the canal must be provided from an external source, like streams or reservoirs. Where the new waterway must change elevation engineering works like locks, lifts or elevators are constructed to raise, examples include canals that connect valleys over a higher body of land, like Canal du Midi, Canal de Briare and the Panama Canal
Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV, sometimes colloquially referred to as Christian Firtal in Denmark and Christian Kvart or Quart in Norway, was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Holstein and Schleswig from 1588 to 1648. His 59-year reign is the longest of Danish monarchs, and of Scandinavian monarchies, a member of the house of Oldenburg, Christian began his personal rule of Denmark in 1596 at the age of 19. He is frequently remembered as one of the most popular, Christian IV obtained for his kingdom a level of stability and wealth that was virtually unmatched elsewhere in Europe. He engaged Denmark in numerous wars, most notably the Thirty Years War, which devastated much of Germany, undermined the Danish economy and he renamed the Norwegian capital Oslo as Christiania after himself, a name used until 1925. Christian was born at Frederiksborg Castle in Denmark on 12 April 1577 as the child and eldest son of King Frederick II of Denmark–Norway. He was descended, through his mothers side, from king John of Denmark, at the time, Denmark was still an elective monarchy, so in spite of being the eldest son Christian was not automatically heir to the throne.
However, in 1580, at the age of 3, his father had him elected Prince-Elect, at the death of his father on 4 April 1588, Christian was 11 years old. He succeeded to the throne, but as he was still under-age a regency council was set up to serve as the trustees of the power while Christian was still growing up. It was led by chancellor Niels Kaas and consisted of the Rigsraadet council members Peder Munk, Jørgen Ottesen Rosenkrantz and his mother Queen Dowager Sophie,30 years old, had wished to play a role in the government, but was denied by the Council. At the death of Niels Kaas in 1594, Jørgen Rosenkrantz took over leadership of the regency council, Christian continued his studies at Sorø Academy and received a good education with a reputation as a headstrong and talented student. In 1595, the Council of the Realm decided that Christian would soon be old enough to assume control of the reins of government. On 17 August 1596, at the age of 19, Christian signed his haandfæstning, twelve days later, on 29 August 1596, Christian IV was crowned at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen by the Bishop of Zealand, Peder Jensen Vinstrup.
He was crowned with a new Danish Crown Regalia which had made for him by Dirich Fyring. On 30 November 1597, he married Anne Catherine of Brandenburg, Christian took an interest in many and varied matters, including a series of domestic reforms and improving Danish national armaments. New fortresses were constructed under the direction of Dutch engineers, the Danish navy, which in 1596 had consisted of but twenty-two vessels, in 1610 rose to sixty, some of them built after Christians own designs. The formation of a national army proved more difficult, up until the early 1620s, Denmarks economy profited from general boom conditions in Europe. This inspired Christian to initiate a policy of expanding Denmarks overseas trade and he founded a number of merchant cities, and supported the building of factories. He built a number of buildings in Dutch Renaissance style
Christianshavns Torv is the central public square of the Christianshavn neighborhood in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is situated at the intersection of Torvegade and Christianshavn Canal, Christianshavns Torv traces its history back to Johan Semps 1617 plan for the layout of Christianshavn to be a fortified market town. It was originally known as Børnehustorv after Børnehuset, an orphanage which was established in 1622 on its east side. A blue-painted water post was installed in the square in 1633 and it was fed by a lead pipe which brought water all the way from Peblinge Lake on the other side of the harbour. The institution was converted into a prison. The old building was replaced by a new one designed in the Baroque style by Philip de Lange, a police station opened in the square in 1815. One of six new police stations, it covered the Christianshavn. It was based in Jacob Bastians Købmandsgård, at No,1, on the corner of the square and the canal. Langes building was demolished in the early 1860s to make way for a new building completed in 1864 to designs by Niels Sigfred Nebelong.
From 1870 it was known as Christianshavns Straffeanstalt and served as a prison for women, in 1868, the vegetable market at Amagertorv, where the Amager Women had sold their produce for centuries, was moved to Christianshavns Torv. It only existed for two decades and was in 1889 replaced by a new vegetable market which opened at Vendersgade. The coming of the new century brought change to the square, the buildings surrounding it were pulled down in the 1890s and early 1900s and replaced with new ones. Christianshavn Penitentiary was demolished in 1928 in connection with a widening of Torvegade, the Greenland Monument was created by Svend Rathsack in bluish granite from Bornholm and installed in the square in 1938. It consists of a Greenlandic hunter with his kayak, placed high on a plinth above two groups of working women, one of Copenhagens old telephone kiosks of the original model which was designed by Fritz Koch and first installed in 1896. It is hexagonal with a roof over richly decorated wooden friezes.
The square is dominated by the Modernist building Lagkagehuset, which was built on the site of the former penitentiary between 1929 and 1932 to a design by Edvard Thomsen and its name derrices from the yellow and white striped facade. Torvegården, at the corner, facing the canal, is in the Modernist style and was built between 1940 and 1941 to designs by Svend G. Høyrup. No.6 is from 1903 and was designed by an unknown architect, the building at the east side of the square, on the corner of Torvegade and Dronningensgade, is from 1900 and was designed by an unknown architect