1994 Winter Olympics
The 1994 Winter Olympics known as the XVII Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 12 to 27 February 1994 in and around Lillehammer, Norway. Lillehammer failed losing to Albertville. Lillehammer was awarded the 1994 Winter Olympics in 1988, after beating United States. Lillehammer is the northernmost city to host the Winter Games and the Olympic Games overall; the Games were the first to be held in a different year from the Summer Olympics, the first and only one to be held two years after the previous winter games. The Games were the second Winter Olympics hosted in Norway, after the 1952 Winter Olympics in Oslo, the fourth Olympics in the Nordic countries, after the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm and the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, Finland. Although many events took place in Lillehammer, skating took place in Hamar, some ice hockey matches were placed in Gjøvik, while Alpine skiing was held in Øyer and Ringebu. Sixty-seven countries and 1,737 athletes participated in sixty-one events.
Fourteen countries made their debut in the Winter Olympics, of which nine were former Soviet republics. The Games saw the introduction of stricter qualifying rules, reducing the number of under-performing participants from warm-weather countries. New events were two new distances in short track speed skating and aerials, while speed skating was moved indoors. Nearly two million people spectated the games, which were the first to have the Olympic truce in effect; the games were succeeded by the 1994 Winter Paralympics from 10 to 19 March. Manuela Di Centa and Lyubov Yegorova dominated women's cross-country skiing, taking five and four medals, respectively. A crowd of over 100,000 saw. Vreni Schneider won a complete set of medals in Alpine skiing, while Norway took a medal sweep in the men's combined. Nancy Kerrigan had, before the games, been clubbed by Tonya Harding's associate, but managed to take silver in ladies' singles. Johann Olav Koss won three speed skating events, while 13-year-old Kim Yoon-Mi became the youngest-ever Olympic gold medalist.
Sweden beat Canada in a dramatic penalty shootout in the ice hockey final. With 11 gold medals, Russia won the most events, while with 26, Norway collected the most medals overall. Planning of the Lillehammer bid started in 1981, following Falun, Sweden's failed bid for the 1988 Winter Olympics, losing to Calgary respectively, it was supported by the government to help stimulate the economy of the inland counties. Lillehammer bid for the 1992 Games, but came fourth in the voting with the games awarded to Albertville. In 1986, the International Olympic Committee voted to separate the Summer and Winter Games, held in the same year since the latter's inception in 1924, arrange them in alternating even-numbered years. A new bid was launched for the 1994 Games, modified with an indoor speed skating venue and an additional ice hall in Lillehammer. Additional government guarantees were secured. Three other locations bid for the games: Östersund and Sofia; the 94th IOC Session, held in Seoul on 15 September 1988, voted Lillehammer the host for the Games.
Until the 2018 Winter Olympics, the Lillehammer Olympics were the last Winter Games to date to be held in a town, rather than be centered in a city. 1.21 million tickets were sold for the games. LOOC estimated. In addition, 180,000 seats were used by the VIPs; the overall responsibility for the games was held by the Lillehammer Olympic Organizing Committee, created on 14 November 1988 and led by Gerhard Heiberg. It was reorganized several times with various subsidiaries, but from 1993 consisted of a single company owned 51% by Lillehammer Municipality, 24.5% by the Government of Norway and 24.5% by the Norwegian Olympic Committee. The government had issued a guarantee for the games, covered the expenses related to infrastructure; the total costs of the games was 7.4 billion Norwegian krone, of which NOK 0.95 billion was expenditure by the ministries, NOK 4.48 billion was for operations and event expenses, NOK 1.67 billion was for investments. The games had a revenue of NOK 2.71 billion, of which NOK 1.43 billion was from television rights, NOK 0.65 billion was from sponsors, NOK 0.15 billion was from ticket sales.
Production of the broadcasting, which costs NOK 462 million, was the responsibility of the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation, with assistance from the CTV Television Network and the European Broadcasting Union. NRK had 1,424 people working at the Olympics, while international broadcasters sent an additional 4,050 accredited broadcasting personnel; the transmission rights for the games were held by EBU in Europe, CBS in the United States, NHK in Japan, CTV in Canada, the Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union, Nine Network in Australia, as well as other broadcasters in other countries. The total transmission rights price was 350 million United States dollars. In part because of the Harding–Kerrigan affair, the viewship in the United States is still the highest for Winter Olympics. NOK 460 million was used on information technology, with the main system running on an IBM AS/400. 3,500 terminals were in use during the game based on the Info'94 system. Seiko delivered the time-keeping devices. Telecommunications were delivered including signal transmission.
This included a mobile radio network with nine base stations. As part of its promotional activities, the
House of Sverre
The House of Sverre was a royal house or dynasty which ruled, at various times in history, the Kingdom of Norway, hereunder the kingdom's realms, the Kingdom of Scotland. The house was founded with King Sverre Sigurdsson, it provided the rulers of Norway from 1184 to 1319. The house was founded with King Sverre Sigurdsson, who claimed to be an illegitimate son of King Sigurd Munn, when he was made King of Norway. After Sverre's death, his descendants would expand the influence and power of the dynasty. Under his grandson Haakon IV's rule, medieval Norway reached its peak, the civil war era ended, it was the start of a golden age in Norway. Margaret, Maid of Norway was a member of this family; the house replaced the Gille dynasty, was again replaced by the House of Bjelbo, which inherited Norway's throne. They were the last reigning family. See also: Coat of arms of NorwayThe main arms of the kings belonging to the House of Sverre, was a golden crowned lion on a red field; the lion was supplied with a silver axe symbolising Olaf the Holy.
This became the coat of arms of Norway. The rulers within the royal house or dynasty would have a "junior king" along with a "senior king". Here is a list of the rulers when the house held the power in Norway: Margaret, Maid of Norway Ingeborg of Norway List of Norwegian monarchs Norwegian Royal Family Norwegian nobility
Håkon, Kristin and Sondre
Håkon and Kristin are the official mascots of the 1994 Winter Olympics, which were held in Lillehammer, Norway in February 1994. The mascots are both dressed in Viking clothes. Although they wear medieval clothes referring to their historical roots, they are the children of today and express interests and visions of youth as environmental awareness; the mascots are created from an idea of Javier Ramirez Campuzano. Eight pairs of Norwegian children, each representing a region of the country, were selected from about 10,000 subscribers aged 10 to 11 years old to play the mascots. Two venues of the 1994 Winter Olympics located side by side, had the same name as the Mascots: the Håkons Hall and Kristins Hall. For the 1994 Winter Paralympic Games, LPOC subsequently requested Tor Lindrupsen and Janne Solem for the creation of a new mascot along the creative lines of Håkon and Kristin, he created "Sondre", an amputated troll to represent his Norse mythological origins. The mascots' names refer to historical figures from the thirteenth century whose fate is linked to Norway and the Lillehammer area: Håkon IV, the king of Norway between 1217 and 1263 and Princess Kristin Sverrisdottir, his aunt.
They lived in Norway during a time of a conflict between the Baglers. When Håkon Hakonson was a small child he had to escape Lillehammer through the mountains with his supporters due to threatening by the Baglers; the Princess of the Birkebeiner, Kristin Sverrisdottir, married meanwhile the chief of the Baglers Filippus Simonsson in the sake of peace between the two groups
Civil war era in Norway
The civil war era in Norway began in 1130 and ended in 1240. During this time in Norwegian history, some two dozen rival kings and pretenders waged wars to claim the throne. In the absence of formal laws governing claims to rule, men who had proper lineage and wanted to be king came forward and entered into peaceful, if still fraught, agreements to let one man be king, set up temporary lines of succession, take turns ruling, or share power simultaneously. In 1130, with the death of King Sigurd the Crusader, his possible half-brother, Harald Gillekrist, broke an agreement he and Sigurd had made to pass the throne to Sigurd's only son, the bastard Magnus. On bad terms before Sigurd's death, the two men and the factions loyal to them went to war. In the first decades of the civil wars, alliances shifted and centered on the person of a king or pretender. However, towards the end of the 12th century, two rival parties, the Birkebeiner and the Bagler, emerged. From this point, the civil wars were less about putting a particular "legitimate" king in power and more about ensuring and When they reconciled in 1217, a more ordered and codified governmental system freed Norway from wars to overthrow the lawful monarch.
In 1239, Duke Skule Bårdsson became the third pretender to wage war against King Håkon Håkonsson, but he was defeated in 1240, bringing more than 100 years of civil wars to an end. The unification of Norway into one kingdom is traditionally held to have been achieved by King Harald Fairhair at the Battle of Hafrsfjord in 872, but the process of unification took a long time to complete and consolidate. By the mid-11th century the process seems to have been completed. However, it was still not uncommon for several rulers to share the kingship; this seems to have been the common way of solving disputes in cases where two or more worthy candidates for the throne existed. The relationship between such co-rulers was tense, but open conflict was averted. Clear succession laws did not exist; the main criterion for being considered a worthy candidate for the throne was to be a descendant of Harald Fairhair through the male line—legitimate or illegitimate birth was not an issue. King Sigurd the Crusader had shared the kingdom with his brothers, King Øystein and King Olav, but when they both died without issue, Sigurd became sole ruler and his son, heir-apparent.
However, in the late 1120s a man called Harald Gille arrived in Norway from Ireland, claiming to be a son of King Sigurd's father, King Magnus Barefoot. King Magnus had spent some time campaigning in Ireland, Harald would thus be King Sigurd's half-brother. Harald proved his case through an ordeal of fire, the common way of settling such claims at the time, King Sigurd recognized him as his brother. However, Harald had to swear an oath that he would not claim the title of king as long as Sigurd or his son was alive; when Sigurd died in 1130, Harald broke his oath. Sigurd's son Magnus was proclaimed king, but Harald claimed the royal title, received much support. A settlement was reached whereby Harald would both be kings and co-rulers. Peace between them lasted until 1134. In 1135 Harald succeeded in capturing Magnus in Bergen. Magnus was blinded, castrated and imprisoned in a monastery, he was thereafter known as Magnus the Blind. At about the same time Sigurd Slembe, another man from Iceland, arrived claiming to be a son of Magnus Barefoot.
He claimed to have gone through an ordeal by fire in Denmark to prove his claim. Harald did not recognize him as his half-brother. In 1136 Sigurd murdered Harald in his sleep in Bergen, had himself proclaimed king. Harald's supporters would not accept him and had Harald's two infant sons, Sigurd Munn and Inge Crouchback, named king. Sigurd Slembe liberated Magnus the Blind from his enforced monastic life and allied himself with him; the war between Sigurd Slembe and Magnus the Blind on the one side, Harald Gille's old supporters with his young sons on the other, dragged on until 1139, when Magnus and Sigurd were defeated in Battle of Holmengrå fought near Hvaler. Magnus was killed in the battle, Sigurd was tortured to death; the power-sharing between Sigurd Munn and Inge Crouchback functioned well as long as they were both minors. In 1142, once again, a king's son arrived in Norway from west of the North Sea; this time it was a son of Harald Gille. Øystein claimed part of his father's inheritance and was given the title of king, with a third of the kingdom.
The three brothers ruled together in peace, until 1155. According to the sagas, Øystein and Sigurd Munn laid plans to depose their brother Inge and divide his share of the kingdom between them. At the urging of his mother Ingrid Ragnvaldsdotter and the influential lendmann Gregorius Dagsson, Inge decided to strike first, at a meeting among the three kings in Bergen. Sigurd Munn was killed by Inge's men before Øystein had had time to arrive in the city. Inge and Øystein reached a tenuous settlement, but conditions between them soon deteriorated into open warfare, ending with Øystein's capture and murder in Bohuslän in 1157. Whether or not Inge himself ordered the killing of his brother seems to have been disputed at the time; the followers of Inge's dead brothers, Øystein and Sigurd Munn, were not inclined to submit to Inge and instead chose a new pretender, Sigurd Munn's son, Håkon the Broadshouldered. This development has been seen as the first sign of a new stage in the civil wars: The warring parties no longer sprung up around a king or pretender but stayed together after the fall of their leader and elected a
Christina of Norway, Infanta of Castile
Christina of Norway was the daughter of Håkon IV and his wife, Margrete Skuledotter. She was born in Bergen; as part of an alliance she was betrothed to brother of Alfonso X of Castile. They married in 1258, she lived in Castile until her death four years later. Tradition states that Christina desired that a church dedicated to St Olaf should be built in Castile. 750 years "a modernized version of simple pre-Roman church" was built and dedicated in Covarrubias, Spain. The primary source on Christina is that of Icelander Sturla Þórðarson. Sturla was commissioned by Kristina's brother, Magnus Lagabøter, to write his father's saga shortly after King Haakon died in the Orkney Islands on 16 December 1263. In relating the stories in the saga, Sturla would have been able to interview contemporaries of the King and those that had taken the journey to Spain with Christina. In the 19th century, Norwegian historian Peter Andreas Munch related the story of King Haakon's daughter, Christina, in his work, A History of the Norwegian People, published in the 1850s.
The saga narrates how King Haakon sent a delegation to Castile in 1255 where they presented gifts to the court of falcons and leather. The Norwegian envoys were well received by the Spanish court and the next year when they returned to Norway, they were accompanied by representatives of Alfonso X, King of Castile, León and Galicia – headed by the royal notary, Sira Ferrant. Ferrant asked King Haakon if his daughter Christina could be betrothed to one of King Alfonso's brothers; the saga relates. He consulted with the archbishop, several wise men in making a decision. Haakon consented to the request under the condition that Christina be allowed to choose her husband from among the brothers of the King of Castile.. Christina left Tønsberg, Norway in the Summer of 1257 – the procession consisting of more than 100 people. After crossing the North Sea to Yarmouth, they crossed the English Channel to Normandy – continuing their journey across France on horseback to the Spanish border of Catalonia. In Barcelona, the party was met by King James I of Aragon, taken with Christina's beauty.
On Christmas Eve, 1257, the party lodged at the Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas at Burgos. At Palencia, the Norwegians were met by King Alfonso who accompanied them to the city of Valladolid on 3 January 1258, "where she was warmly welcomed by all the townspeople, the nobility, the clergy who were gathered there for the Cortes". There she met the King's brothers for the first time, chose the youngest, three years older than Christina. Although he had been trained for an ecclesiastical position and had charge of the church at Covarrubias, his greatest enjoyment was in hunting boars and bears.. Infante Philip and Christina of Norway were married on 31 March 1258 in the Santa Maria la Mayor church. There are not extant records, they did not have children, just four years Christina died at the age of 28 in Seville. Christina was carried to the abbey church in Covarrubias, 40 km south of Burgos. There, her wooden casket was placed within a simple limestone sarcophagus, ornamented with carved grape leaves.
In 1952, her sarcophagus was opened by craftsmen while in the midst of doing restoration work. The parish priest at Covarrubias, Father Rufino Vargas Blanco, was shown a piece of written parchment, found in the casket; the lid was replaced to be opened in 1958 based upon a 1757 church manuscript that indicated this as the resting place of Infanta Christina.. Archaeologists and historians, Manuel Ayala and Jose Luis Monteverde, were employed to interpret the data; the limestone is from Hontoria. The fabrics within the casket were shown to be from the 13th century; the report by doctors Maximiliano Gutierrez and Gabriel Escudero stated: A mummified skeleton with a length of 1.72 m – skull is small and all the teeth are well preserved with no evidence of caries... Everything points to a skeleton of a woman of high stature and strong... The cities of Tønsberg and Covarrubias have entered a friendship agreement as the result of this old connection. In 1978 a statue of Infanta Christina by artist Brit Sørensen was unveiled in Covarrubias and a copy was placed in Tønsberg.
The Princess Christina Foundation has been established to further the work to preserve and advance the cultural and historical ties. Tradition states. "A modernized version of the simple pre-Roman church" has been built in Spain. "Iceland and Norway have financed close to 40% of the total cost of the project. Local Spanish authorities as well as several Spanish and Norwegian companies are among the other contributors." 750 years a church was constructed and consecrate
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who