Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial
The Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial is located in West Potomac Park next to the National Mall in Washington, D. C. United States, it covers four acres and includes the Stone of Hope, a granite statue of Civil Rights Movement leader Martin Luther King carved by sculptor Lei Yixin. The inspiration for the memorial design is a line from King's "I Have A Dream" speech: "Out of the mountain of despair, a stone of hope." The memorial opened to the public on August 22, 2011, after more than two decades of planning, fund-raising, construction. This national memorial is the 395th unit in the United States National Park Service; the monumental memorial is located at the northwest corner of the Tidal Basin near the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, on a sightline linking the Lincoln Memorial to the northwest and the Jefferson Memorial to the southeast. The official address of the monument, 1964 Independence Avenue, S. W. commemorates the year the Civil Rights Act of 1964 became law. A ceremony dedicating the memorial was scheduled for Sunday, August 28, 2011, the 48th anniversary of the "I Have a Dream" speech that Martin Luther King Jr. delivered from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in 1963 but was postponed until October 16 due to Hurricane Irene.
Although this is not the first memorial to an African American in Washington, D. C. King is the first African American honored with a memorial on or near the National Mall and only the fourth non-President to be memorialized in such a way; the King Memorial is administered by the National Park Service. Martin Luther King Jr. an American clergyman and prominent leader in the Civil Rights Movement, was an iconic figure in the advancement of civil rights in the United States and around the world, advocated for using nonviolent resistance, inspired by Mahatma Gandhi. Although during his life he was monitored by the FBI for presumed communist sympathies, King is now presented as a heroic leader in the history of modern American liberalism. At the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, King imagined an end to racial inequality in his "I Have a Dream" speech; this speech has been canonized as one of the greatest pieces of American oratory. In 1964, King became the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for his work to end racial segregation and racial discrimination through civil disobedience and other nonviolent means.
At the time of his death, he had refocused his efforts on ending poverty and stopping the Vietnam War. King was backing the Memphis Sanitation Strike and organizing a mass occupation of Washington, D. C. – the Poor People's Campaign – when he was killed in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968. The official vision statement for the King Memorial notes: Dr. King championed a movement that draws from the deep well of America's potential for freedom and justice, his vision of America is captured in his message of hope and possibility for a future anchored in dignity and mutual respect. The vision of a memorial in honor of Martin Luther King Jr. is one that captures the essence of his message, a message in which he so eloquently affirms the commanding tenants of the American Dream – Freedom and Opportunity for All. Upon reflection, we are reminded that Dr. King's lifelong dedication to the idea of achieving human dignity through global relationships of well being has served to instill a broader and deeper sense of duty within each of us – a duty to be both responsible citizens and conscientious stewards of freedom and democracy.
Harry E. Johnson, the President and Chief Executive Officer of the memorial foundation, added these words in a letter posted on the memorial's website: The King Memorial is envisioned as a quiet and peaceful space, yet drawing from Dr. King's speeches and using his own rich language, the King Memorial will certainly change the heart of every person who visits. Against the backdrop of the Lincoln Memorial, with stunning views of the Tidal Basin and the Jefferson Memorial, the Memorial will be a public sanctuary where future generations of Americans, regardless of race, gender, ethnicity or sexual orientation, can come to honor Dr. King; the memorial is a result of an early effort of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. to erect a monument to King. King was a member of the fraternity, initiated into the organization via Sigma Chapter on June 22, 1952, while he was attending Boston University. King remained involved with the fraternity after the completion of his studies, including delivering the keynote speech at the fraternity's 50th anniversary banquet in 1956.
In 1968, after King's assassination, Alpha Phi Alpha proposed erecting a permanent memorial to King in Washington, D. C; the fraternity's efforts gained momentum in 1986, after King's birthday was designated a national holiday. In 1996, the United States Congress authorized the Secretary of the Interior to permit Alpha Phi Alpha to establish a memorial on Department of Interior lands in the District of Columbia, giving the fraternity until November 2003 to raise $100 million and break ground. In 1998, Congress authorized the fraternity to establish a foundation – the Washington, D. C. Martin Luther King Jr. National Memorial Project Foundation – to manage the memorial's fundraising and design, approved the building of the memorial on the National Mall. In 1999, the United States Commission of Fine Arts and the National Capital Planning Commission approved the site location for the memorial; the memor
O'Hare International Airport
O'Hare International Airport referred to as O'Hare Airport, Chicago O'Hare, or O'Hare, is an international airport located on the far Northwest Side of Chicago, Illinois, 14 miles northwest of the Loop business district, operated by the Chicago Department of Aviation and covering 7,627 acres. O'Hare has non-stop flights to 228 destinations in North America, South America, Africa and Oceania. Established to be the successor to Chicago’s "busiest square mile in the world", Midway Airport, O'Hare began as an airfield serving a Douglas manufacturing plant for C-54 military transports during World War II, it was named for Edward "Butch" O'Hare, the U. S. Navy's first Medal of Honor recipient during that war. At the height of the Cold War, O'Hare served as an active fighter base for the Air Force; as the first major airport planned post-war, O’Hare's innovative design pioneered concepts such as concourses, direct highway access to the terminal, jet bridges, underground refueling systems. It became famous as the first World’s Busiest Airport of the jet age, holding that distinction from 1963 to 1998.
O'Hare is unusual in that it serves a major hub for more than one of the three U. S. mainline carriers. It is a focus city for Frontier Airlines and Spirit Airlines. While Terminals 2 and 3 remain of the original design, the airport has been engaged in a massive modernization of the airfield, is beginning an expansion of passenger facilities that will remake it as North America’s first airport built around airline alliances. Not long after the opening of Midway Airport in 1926, the City of Chicago realized that additional airport capacity would be needed in the future; the city government investigated various potential airport sites during the 1930s, but made little progress prior to America's entry into World War II. O'Hare's place in aviation began with a manufacturing plant for Douglas C-54s during WWII; the site was known as Orchard Place, had been a small German farming community. The 2,000,000 square feet plant, located in the northeast corner of what is now the airport property, needed easy access to the workforce of the nation's second-largest city, as well as its extensive railroad infrastructure and location far from enemy threat.
Some 655 C-54s were built at the plant. The attached airfield, from which the completed planes were flown out, was known as Douglas Airport. Less known is the fact that it was the location of the Army Air Force’s 803rd Specialized Depot, a unit charged with storing many captured enemy aircraft. A few representatives of this collection would be transferred to the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum. Douglas Company's contract ended in 1945 and, though consideration was given to building commercial aircraft at Orchard, the company chose to concentrate commercial production at its original headquarters in Santa Monica, CA. With the departure of Douglas, the complex took the name of Orchard Field Airport, was assigned the IATA code ORD; the United States Air Force used the field extensively during the Korean War, at which time there was still no scheduled commercial service at the airport. Although not its primary base in the area, the Air Force used O'Hare as an active fighter base.
By 1960, the need for O'Hare as an active duty fighter base was diminishing, just as commercial business was picking up at the airport. The Air Force removed active-duty units from O'Hare and turned the station over to Continental Air Command, enabling them to base reserve and Air National Guard units there; as a result of a 1993 agreement between the City and the Department of Defense, the reserve based was closed on April 1, 1997, ending its career as the home of the 928th Airlift Wing. At that time, the 357 acre site came under the ownership of the Chicago Department of Aviation. In 1945, Chicago mayor Edward Kelly established a formal board to choose the site of a new facility to meet future aviation demands. After considering various proposals, the board decided upon the Orchard Field site, acquired most of the federal government property in March 1946; the military retained a small parcel of property on the site, the rights to use 25% of the airfield's operating capacity for free. Ralph H. Burke devised an airport master plan based on the pioneering idea of what he called "split finger terminals", allowing a terminal building to be attached to "airline wings", each providing space for gates and planes.
Other innovations Burke brought to the O'Hare design included underground refueling, direct highway access to the front of terminals, direct rail access, all of which are utilized at airports worldwide today. O'Hare was the site of the world's first jet bridge in 1958, adapted slip form paving, developed for the nation's new Interstate highway system, for seamless concrete runways. In 1949, the City renamed the facility O'Hare Field to honor Edward "Butch" O'Hare, the U. S. Navy's first flying ace and Medal of Honor recipient in World War II, its IATA code remained unchanged, resulting in O'Hare's being one of the few IATA codes bearing no connection to the airport's name or metropolitan area. Scheduled passenger service began in 1955. Although Chicago h
The Smithsonian Institution, founded on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. The institution is named after British scientist James Smithson. Organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967. Termed "the nation's attic" for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items, the Institution's nineteen museums, nine research centers, zoo include historical and architectural landmarks located in the District of Columbia. Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Massachusetts, New York City, Texas and Panama. More than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states, Puerto Rico, Panama are Smithsonian Affiliates; the Institution's thirty million annual visitors are admitted without charge. Its annual budget is around $1.2 billion with two-thirds coming from annual federal appropriations. Other funding comes from the Institution's endowment and corporate contributions, membership dues, earned retail and licensing revenue.
Institution publications include Air & Space magazines. The British scientist James Smithson left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford; when Hungerford died childless in 1835, the estate passed "to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase & diffusion of knowledge among men", in accordance with Smithson's will. Congress accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation, pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1, 1836; the American diplomat Richard Rush was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson to collect the bequest. Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns. Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithson's rather vague mandate "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge." The money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas, which soon defaulted.
After heated debate, Massachusetts Representative John Quincy Adams persuaded Congress to restore the lost funds with interest and, despite designs on the money for other purposes, convinced his colleagues to preserve it for an institution of science and learning. On August 10, 1846, President James K. Polk signed the legislation that established the Smithsonian Institution as a trust instrumentality of the United States, to be administered by a Board of Regents and a Secretary of the Smithsonian. Though the Smithsonian's first Secretary, Joseph Henry, wanted the Institution to be a center for scientific research, it became the depository for various Washington and U. S. government collections. The United States Exploring Expedition by the U. S. Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842; the voyage amassed thousands of animal specimens, an herbarium of 50,000 plant specimens, diverse shells and minerals, tropical birds, jars of seawater, ethnographic artifacts from the South Pacific Ocean.
These specimens and artifacts became part of the Smithsonian collections, as did those collected by several military and civilian surveys of the American West, including the Mexican Boundary Survey and Pacific Railroad Surveys, which assembled many Native American artifacts and natural history specimens. In 1846, the regents developed a plan for weather observation; the Institution became a magnet for young scientists from 1857 to 1866, who formed a group called the Megatherium Club. The Smithsonian played a critical role as the U. S. partner institution in early bilateral scientific exchanges with the Academy of Sciences of Cuba. Construction began on the Smithsonian Institution Building in 1849. Designed by architect James Renwick Jr. its interiors were completed by general contractor Gilbert Cameron. The building opened in 1855; the Smithsonian's first expansion came with construction of the Arts and Industries Building in 1881. Congress had promised to build a new structure for the museum if the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition generated enough income.
It did, the building was designed by architects Adolf Cluss and Paul Schulze, based on original plans developed by Major General Montgomery C. Meigs of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, it opened in 1881. The National Zoological Park opened in 1889 to accommodate the Smithsonian's Department of Living Animals; the park was designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. The National Museum of Natural History opened in June 1911 to accommodate the Smithsonian's United States National Museum, housed in the Castle and the Arts and Industries Building; this structure was designed by the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall. When Detroit philanthropist Charles Lang Freer donated his private collection to the Smithsonian and funds to build the museum to hold it, it was among the Smithsonian's first major donations from a private individual; the gallery opened in 1923. More than 40 years would pass before the next museum, the Museum of History and Technology, opened in 1964.
It was designed by the world-renowned firm of Mead & White. The Anacostia Community Museum, an "experimental store-front" museum created at the initiative of Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley, opened in the Anacostia neighborhood of
University of Maryland, College Park
The University of Maryland, College Park is a public research university in College Park, Maryland. Founded in 1856, UMD is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland, is the largest university in both the state and the Washington metropolitan area, with more than 41,000 students representing all fifty states and 123 countries, a global alumni network of over 360,000, its twelve schools and colleges together offer over 200 degree-granting programs, including 92 undergraduate majors, 107 master's programs, 83 doctoral programs. UMD is a member of the Association of American Universities and competes in intercollegiate athletics as a member of the Big Ten Conference; the University of Maryland's proximity to the nation's capital has resulted in many research partnerships with the federal government. It is classified as one of 115 first tier research universities in the country by the Carnegie Foundation, is labeled a "Public Ivy", denoting a quality of education comparable to the private Ivy League.
UMD is ranked among the top 100 universities both nationally and globally by several indices. In 2016, the University of Maryland, College Park and the University of Maryland, Baltimore formalized their strategic partnership after their collaboration created more innovative medical and educational programs, as well as greater research grants and joint faculty appointments than either campus has been able to accomplish on its own; as of 2017, the operating budget of the University of Maryland is $2.1 billion. For the 2018 fiscal year, the university received a total of over $545 million in external research funding. In October 2017, the university received a record-breaking donation of $219.5 million from the A. James & Alice B. Clark Foundation, ranking among the largest philanthropic gifts to a public university in the country. On March 6, 1856, the forerunner of today's University of Maryland was chartered as the Maryland Agricultural College. Two years Charles Benedict Calvert, a future U.
S. Representative from the sixth congressional district of Maryland, 1861-1863, during the American Civil War and descendent of the first Lord Baltimores, colonial proprietors of the Province of Maryland in 1634, purchased 420 acres of the Riversdale Mansion estate nearby today's College Park, Maryland; that year, Calvert founded the school and was the acting president from 1859 to 1860. On October 5, 1859, the first 34 students entered the Maryland Agricultural College; the school became a land grant college in February 1864. During the Civil War, Confederate soldiers under Brigadier General Bradley Tyler Johnson moved past the college on July 12, 1864 as part of Jubal Early's raid on Washington, D. C. By the end of the war, financial problems forced the administrators to sell off 200 acres of land, the continuing decline in enrollment sent the Maryland Agricultural College into bankruptcy. For the next two years the campus was used as a boys preparatory school. Following the Civil War, in February 1866 the Maryland legislature assumed half ownership of the school.
The college thus became in part a state institution. By October 1867, the school reopened with 11 students. In the next six years, enrollment grew and the school's debt was paid off. In 1873, Samuel Jones, a former Confederate Major General, became president of the college. Twenty years the federally funded Agricultural Experiment Station was established there. During the same period, state laws granted the college regulatory powers in several areas—including controlling farm disease, inspecting feed, establishing a state weather bureau and geological survey, housing the board of forestry. Morrill Hall was built the following year. On November 29, 1912, a fire destroyed the barracks where the students were housed, all the school's records, most of the academic buildings, leaving only Morrill Hall untouched. There were no injuries or fatalities, all but two students returned to the university and insisted on classes continuing. Students were housed by families in neighboring towns until housing could be rebuilt, although a new administration building was not built until the 1940s.
A large brick and concrete compass inlaid in the ground designates the former center of campus as it existed in 1912. The state took control of the school in 1916, the institution was renamed Maryland State College; that year, the first female students enrolled at the school. On April 9, 1920, the college became part of the existing University of Maryland, replacing St. John's College, Annapolis as the University's undergraduate campus. In the same year, the graduate school on the College Park campus awarded its first PhD degrees and the university's enrollment reached 500 students. In 1925 the university was accredited by the Association of American Universities. By the time the first black students enrolled at the university in 1951, enrollment had grown to nearly 10,000 students—4,000 of whom were women. Prior to 1951, many black students in Maryland were enrolled at the University of Maryland, Eastern Shore. In 1957, President Wilson H. Elkins made a push to increase academic standards at the university.
His efforts resulted in the creation of one of the first Academic Probation Plans. The first year the plan went into effect, 1,550 students (18% of the total student body
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Los Angeles Unified School District
The Los Angeles Unified School District is the largest public school system in the U. S. state of California and the 2nd largest public school district in the United States. Only the New York City Department of Education has a larger student population. During the 2016–2017 school year, LAUSD served around 734,641 students, including 107,142 students at independent charter schools and 69,867 adult students. During the same school year, it had 33,635 other employees, it is the second largest employer in Los Angeles County, after the county government. The total school district operating budget for 2016–2017 is $7.59 billion. The school district consists of Los Angeles and all or portions of several adjoining Southern California cities. LAUSD has its own police force, the Los Angeles School Police Department, established in 1948 to provide police services for LAUSD schools; the LAUSD enrolls a third of the preschoolers in Los Angeles County, operates as many buses as the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority.
The LAUSD school construction program rivals the Big Dig in terms of expenditures, LAUSD cafeterias serve about 500,000 meals a day, rivaling the output of local McDonald's restaurants. The LAUSD has been criticized in the past for crowded schools with large class sizes, high drop-out and expulsion rates, low academic performance in many schools, poor maintenance and incompetent administration. In 2007, LAUSD's dropout rate was 26 percent for grades 9 through 12, but more there are signs that the district is showing improvement, both in terms of dropout and graduation rates. An ambitious renovation program intended to help ease the overcrowded conditions has been completed; as part of its school-construction project, LAUSD opened two high schools in 2005 and four high schools in 2006. Los Angeles Unified School District is governed by a seven-member Board of Education, which appoints a superintendent, who runs the daily operations of the district. Members of the board are elected directly by voters from separate districts that encompass communities that the LAUSD serves.
The district's current superintendent is Austin Beutner. The district's former superintendents are Ramon Cortines; the Board of Education selected King for superintendent in January 2016. Vivian Ekchian became acting superintendent until the Board election of Beutner in May 2018. Cortines was appointed acting superintendent after the school board decided to buy out the contract of David L. Brewer III, a former Navy Vice-Admiral who served as head of the Navy's Education and Training Division and was in charge of the SeaLift Command. From 2001 until his retirement in October 2006, the district was led by former Governor of Colorado and Democratic Party chairman Roy Romer; the six current members of Board of Education include George McKenna, Board President Monica Garcia, Scott Schmerelson, Board Vice President Nick Melvoin, Kelly Fitzpatrick-Gonez, Richard Vladovic. District 5 is vacant following the resignation of Dr. Ref Rodriguez in July 2018. In the March 2015 Los Angeles City Council and School Board elections, voters approved Charter Amendment 2, which allows the Los Angeles Unified School District Board of Education to change their election dates to even-numbered years.
It will take effect with the March 2020 Primary election and the runoff in November 2020. Every LAUSD household or residential area is zoned to an elementary school, a middle school and a high school, in one of the eight local school districts; each local school district is run by an area superintendent and is headquartered within the district. The Los Angeles Unified School District was once composed of two separate districts: the Los Angeles City School District, formed on September 19, 1853, the Los Angeles City High School District, formed in 1890; the latter provided 9–12 educational services, while the former did so for K-8. On July 1, 1961 the Los Angeles City School District and the Los Angeles City High School District merged, forming the Los Angeles Unified School District. On January 31, 1957, a DC7B crashed into the schoolyard of Pacoima Junior High School in Pacoima in the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles, California following a midair collision with a US military plane, resulting in the deaths of the four crew members aboard the DC-7B, the pilot of the Scorpion jet, two students on the ground, a third died three days later.
Additionally seventy-eight students suffered injuries which ranged from minor to life-threatening. The annexation left the Topanga School District and the Las Virgenes Union School District as separate remnants of the high school district; the high school district changed its name to the West County Union High School District. LAUSD annexed the Topanga district on July 1, 1962. Since the Las Virgenes Union School District had the same boundary as the remaining West County Union High School District, on July 1, 1962 West County ceased to exist. In 1963, a lawsuit, Crawford v. Board of Ed. of Los Angeles was filed to end segregation in the district. The California Supreme Court required the district to come up with a plan in 1977; the board returned to court with what the court of appeal years would describe as "one of if not the most drastic plan of mandatory student reassignment in the nation." A desegregation busing plan was developed to be implemented in the 1978 school year. Two lawsuits to stop the enforced busing plan, both title
Benjamin Henry Latrobe
Benjamin Henry Boneval Latrobe was a British neoclassical architect who emigrated to the United States. He was one of the first formally trained, professional architects in the new United States, drawing on influences from his travels in Italy, as well as British and French Neoclassical architects such as Claude Nicolas Ledoux. In his thirties, he emigrated to the new United States and designed the United States Capitol, on "Capitol Hill" in Washington, D. C. as well as the Old Baltimore Cathedral or The Baltimore Basilica. It is the first Roman Catholic Cathedral constructed in the United States. Latrobe designed the largest structure in America at the time, the "Merchants' Exchange" in Baltimore. With extensive balconied atriums through the wings and a large central rotunda under a low dome which dominated the city, it was completed in 1820 after five years of work and endured into the early twentieth century. Latrobe emigrated in 1796 settling in Virginia where he worked on the Virginia State Penitentiary in Richmond.
Latrobe moved to Philadelphia where he established his practice. In 1803, he was hired as Surveyor of the Public Buildings of the United States, spent much of the next fourteen years working on projects in the new national capital of Washington, D. C. where he served as the second Architect of the Capitol. He was responsible for the design of the White House porticos. Latrobe spent the years of his life in New Orleans, Louisiana working on a waterworks project, died there in 1820 from yellow fever. Latrobe has been called the "father of American architecture", he was the uncle of Charles La Trobe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Victoria in Australia. Latrobe was born on May 1, 1764, at the Fulneck Moravian Settlement, near Pudsey in the city of Leeds, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, his parents were the Reverend Benjamin Latrobe, a leader of the Moravian Church, of Huguenot ancestry, Anna Margaretta Antes whose father was German father and whose maternal line was Dutch. Antes was born in the American colony of Pennsylvania, but was sent to England by her father, a wealthy landowner, to attend a Moravian school at Fulneck.
Latrobe's father, responsible for all Moravian schools and establishments in Britain, had an extensive circle of friends in the higher ranks of society. He stressed the importance of education and the value of social exchange. From a young age, Benjamin Henry Latrobe enjoyed drawing buildings, he was a brother of Moravian leader and musical composer Christian Ignatius Latrobe. In 1776, at the age of twelve, Latrobe was sent away to a Moravian School at Niesky in Upper Lusatia, near the border of the German principalities of Saxony and Prussia, where his brother was studying. At age eighteen, he spent several months traveling around Germany, joined the Royal Prussian Army, becoming close friends with a distinguished officer in the United States Army. Latrobe may have served in the Austrian Imperial Army, suffered some injuries or illness. After recovering, he embarked on a continental "Grand Tour", visiting eastern Saxony, Paris and other places. Through his education and travels, Latrobe mastered German, French and modern Greek, Latin.
He had some knowledge of Hebrew. Latrobe was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1815, his son, Benjamin Henry Latrobe, II worked as a civil engineer. In 1827, he joined the newly organized Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and designed the longest, most challenging bridge on its initial route: the curving Thomas Viaduct. Another son, John Hazlehurst Boneval Latrobe, was a noted civic leader, author, artist, inventor and social activist in Maryland. A grandson, Charles Hazlehurst Latrobe, Benjamin Henry Latrobe II's son, a Confederate soldier continued the tradition of architect and engineer, building bridges for the city and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Latrobe Park in south Baltimore is named for the family, as is Latrobe Park, New Orleans, in the French Quarter. Latrobe returned to England in 1784, was apprenticed to John Smeaton, an engineer known for designing Eddystone Lighthouse. In 1787 or 1788, he worked in the office of neoclassical architect Samuel Pepys Cockerell for a brief time.
In 1790, Latrobe was appointed Surveyor of the Public Offices in London, established his own private practice in 1791. Latrobe was commissioned in 1792 to design Hammerwood Lodge, near East Grinstead in Sussex, his first independent work, he designed nearby Ashdown House in 1793. Latrobe was involved in construction of the Basingstoke Canal in Surrey, together with engineers John Smeaton and William Jessop. In spring 1793, Latrobe was hired to plan improvements to the River Blackwater from Maldon to Beeleigh, so that the port of Maldon could compete with the Chelmer and Blackwater Navigation, which bypassed the town; the project lasted until early 1795. Latrobe had problems getting payment for his work on the project, faced bankruptcy. In February 1790, Latrobe married Lydia Sellon, they lived a busy social life in London; the couple had a daughter and a son, before she died giving birth during November 1793. Lydia had inherited her father's wealth, which in