Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1817, it is the oldest continuously operating law school in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world, it is ranked first in the world by the ARWU Shanghai Ranking. Each class in the three-year J. D. program has 560 students, among the largest of the top 150 ranked law schools in the United States. The first-year class is broken into seven sections of 80 students, who take most first-year classes together. Harvard's uniquely large class size and prestige have led the law school to graduate a great many distinguished alumni in the judiciary and the business world. According to Harvard Law's 2015 ABA-required disclosures, 95% of the Class of 2014 passed the Bar exam. Harvard Law School graduates have accounted for 568 judicial clerkships in the past three years, including one-quarter of all Supreme Court clerkships, more than any other law school in the United States.
Harvard Law School's founding is traditionally linked to the funding of Harvard's first professorship in law, paid for from a bequest from the estate of Isaac Royall, Jr. a colonial American landowner and a slaveholder. Today, it is home to the largest academic law library in the world; the current dean of Harvard Law School is John F. Manning, who assumed the role on July 1, 2017; the law school has 328 faculty members. Harvard Law School's founding is traced to the establishment of a "law department" at Harvard in 1817. Dating the founding to the year of the creation of the law department makes Harvard Law the oldest continuously-operating law school in the nation. William & Mary Law School opened first in 1779, but closed due to the American Civil War, reopening in 1920; the University of Maryland School of Law was chartered in 1816, but did not begin classes until 1824, closed during the Civil War. The founding of the law department came two years after the establishment of Harvard's first endowed professorship in law, funded by a bequest from the estate of wealthy slaveowner Isaac Royall, Jr. in 1817.
Royall left 1,000 acres of land in Massachusetts to Harvard when he died in exile in Nova Scotia, where he fled as a British loyalist during the American Revolution, in 1781, "to be appropriated towards the endowing a Professor of Laws... or a Professor of Physick and Anatomy, whichever the said overseers and Corporation shall judge to be best." The value of the land, when liquidated in 1809, was $2,938. The Royalls were so involved in the slave trade, that "the labor of slaves underwrote the teaching of law in Cambridge." The dean of the law school traditionally held the Royall chair, deans Elena Kagan and Martha Minow declined the Royall chair due to its origins in the proceeds of slavery. Royall’s legacy at Harvard is lasting, Harvard Law School adopted the Royall family crest as apart of its school crest; that crest features with three bushels of wheat. Until the connection of the seal to the slave owning Royalls was unknown to many. According to The Harvard Crimson "Most Law School alumni and faculty were unaware of the story behind the seal."
In response to its ties to slavery, Harvard Law School decided to stop using the Royalls seal. It has yet to design a replacement seal. Royall's Medford estate, the Isaac Royall House, is now a museum which features the only remaining slave quarters in the northeast United States; the Royall family coat-of-arms, which shows three stacked wheat sheaves, was adopted as the school crest in 1936, topped with the university motto. In March 2016, following requests by students, the school decided to remove the emblem because of its association with slavery. By 1827, the school, with one faculty member, was struggling. Nathan Dane, a prominent alumnus of the college endowed the Dane Professorship of Law, insisting that it be given to Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story. For a while, the school was called "Dane Law School." In 1829, John H. Ashmun, son of Eli Porter Ashmun and brother of George Ashmun, accepted a professorship and closed his Northampton Law School, with many of his students following him to Harvard.
Story's belief in the need for an elite law school based on merit and dedicated to public service helped build the school's reputation at the time, although the contours of these beliefs have not been consistent throughout its history. Enrollment remained low through the 19th century as university legal education was considered to be of little added benefit to apprenticeships in legal practice. After first trying lowered admissions standards, in 1848 HLS eliminated admissions requirements entirely. In 1869, HLS eliminated examination requirements. In the 1870s, under Dean Christopher Columbus Langdell, HLS introduced what has become the standard first-year curriculum for American law schools – including classes in contracts, torts, criminal law, civil procedure. At Harvard, Langdell developed the case method of teaching law, now the dominant pedagogical model at U. S. law schools. Langdell's notion that law could be studied as a "science" gave university legal education a reason for being distinct from vocational preparation.
Critics at first defended the old lecture method because it was faster and cheaper and made fewer demands on faculty and students. Advocates said the case method had a sounder theoretical basis in scientific research and the inductive method. Langdell's graduates became leading professors at other law schools where they introduced the case method; the metho
Columbus School of Law
The Columbus School of Law known as CUA Law, is the law school of The Catholic University of America, in Washington, D. C. More than 450 Juris Doctor students attend CUA Law. Incoming classes are composed of about 150 students, including day and evening programs. Around 1,900 students apply annually. CUA Law is located more than two miles north of the United States Capitol and is a five-minute walk from the Brookland-CUA metro station. According to CUA Law's 2013 ABA-required disclosures, 49% of the Class of 2013 obtained full-time, long-term, employment requiring bar passage nine months after graduation. Catholic University of America began offering instruction in law in 1895 as part of its decision to open "faculties for the laity." The department was turned into an official school in 1898. Catholic University’s law school has established a progressive history of inclusion, its first African-American student was enrolled in 1902. In 1919, the Knights of Columbus founded an educational program known as Columbus University which provided an evening education program for Catholic war veterans returning from World War I.
This institution was affiliated with Catholic University and shared faculty at both institutions' Washington, D. C. locations. In 1954 Columbus University merged with Catholic University's law school to form the Columbus School of Law; the law school has been accredited by the Association of American Law Schools since 1921 and the American Bar Association since 1925. Catholic University's J. D. program can be completed over three years of full-time day study or four years of part-time evening study. The first-year curriculum is prescribed for all students; the day-division curriculum consists of seven required courses totaling 29 credit hours. Evening-division students are required to complete the same basic courses within the first two years of their law school career. Revised for 2013, the new curriculum is designed to strengthen first-year doctrinal courses, to support the development of practice-area concentrations, to emphasize training that will help graduates transition to the real world of practice.
The upper-division curriculum comprises several requirements, courses that are recommended, elective options. CUA Law students must complete a minimum of 84 credits to earn the J. D. degree. Required upper division courses include Constitutional Law II, Professional Responsibility, Professional Skills, Upper-Level Writing; the law school is developing a Transition-to-Practice requirement for students. This new requirement is expected to be fulfilled by taking either a clinical course, or a capstone course. Foundational courses for all areas of legal practice—and thus recommended for all Upper Division students— include Evidence and Criminal Procedure. To respond to increasing demand for specialized legal services, the Law School has developed practice-area concentrations for upper division students in Civil Litigation, Criminal Litigation, Family Law, Intellectual Property and Employment Law and Securities Regulation. In addition to the J. D. program, the school offers LL. M. Programs in Law & Technology, Securities Law, Comparative and International Law.
The school offers an LL. M. program in American law with the Faculty of Law and Administration of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland. It allows Jagiellonian law students and students enrolled in the CUA-JU LL. M. program to study the essential substantive and procedural elements of the legal system of the United States. The school offers a M. L. S. degree program, which enhances the ability of professionals to work with lawyers and legal issues, to gain a deeper knowledge of a particular legal field, to understand laws and regulations. Students can choose to concentrate in the fields of Compliance and Corporate Responsibility and Human Resources, or Intellectual Property. Alternatively, students may choose a General U. S. Law option, which provides a broad overview of the law and legal practice. CUA Law had 42 full-time faculty members as of 2013; the school's student-faculty ratio was 10.27 to 1. CUA Law offers five opportunities for specialized legal study; the programs are designed to give students the opportunity to pursue a specified concentration of courses.
Each institute accepts 15 students each academic year. They are: Law and Technology Institute Comparative and International Law Institute Law and Public Policy Program Securities and Corporate Law Program Interdisciplinary Program in Law and Religion Founded in 1969, Columbus Community Legal Services offers four legal clinics that offer students hands-on learning; the Columbus Community Legal Services clinics include the General Practice Clinic. In addition, the school offers the Criminal Prosecution Clinic, the Immigration Litigation Clinic, the Innocence Project Clinic and Clemency Project, the Virginia Criminal Defense Clinic, an SEC Student Observer Program; the Columbus School of Law has an extensive legal externship program through which about 200 upperclass students per year earn course credits during the fall and summer by working in nonprofit organizations. C. area. The Columbus School of Law has two student-edited law journals: Catholic University Law Review Catholic University Journal of Law and Technology CUA Law enrolled a total of 519 students for the 2013-2014, 65.9% of whom were full-time students.
The school's incoming class included 161 students. CUA Law had the third
Waterboarding is a form of water torture in which water is poured over a cloth covering the face and breathing passages of an immobilized captive, causing the person to experience the sensation of drowning. Water is poured intermittently to prevent death. However, if the water is poured uninterruptedly it will lead to death by asphyxia called dry drowning. Waterboarding can cause extreme pain, damage to lungs, brain damage from oxygen deprivation, other physical injuries including broken bones due to struggling against restraints, lasting psychological damage. Adverse physical effects can last for months, psychological effects for years. In the most common method of waterboarding, the captive's face is covered with cloth or some other thin material, the subject is immobilized on their back at an incline of 10 to 20 degrees. Torturers pour water onto the face over the breathing passages, causing an immediate gag reflex and creating a drowning sensation for the captive; the term water board torture appeared in press reports as early as 1976.
In late 2007, it was reported that the United States Central Intelligence Agency was waterboarding extrajudicial prisoners and that the Office of Legal Counsel, Department of Justice, had authorized the procedure among enhanced interrogation techniques. The CIA confirmed having waterboarded three Al-Qaeda suspects: Abu Zubaydah, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri, in 2002 and 2003. In August 2002 and March 2003, in its war on terror, the George W. Bush administration, through Jay S. Bybee, the Office of Legal Counsel, Department of Justice, issued what became known as the Torture Memos after being leaked in 2004; these legal opinions argued for a narrow definition of torture under US law. The first three were addressed to the CIA, which took them as authority to use the described enhanced interrogation techniques on detainees classified as enemy combatants. Five days before the March 2003 invasion of Iraq, John Yoo, the acting Office of Legal Counsel, issued a fourth memo to the General Counsel of DOD, concluding his legal opinion by saying that federal laws related to torture and other abuse did not apply to interrogations overseas.
The legal opinions were withdrawn by Jack Goldsmith of the OLC in June 2004 but reaffirmed by the succeeding head of the OLC in December 2004. US government officials at various times said they did not believe waterboarding to be a form of torture. In 2006, the Bush administration banned torture including waterboarding on detainees, but only for the US Military, not the CIA; when an amendment by Senator Dianne Feinstein passed that restricted its use on the CIA, President Bush vetoed the bill. In January 2009, U. S. President Barack Obama issued a similar ban on the use of waterboarding and other forms of torture in interrogations of detainees. In April 2009, the U. S. Department of Defense refused to say whether waterboarding is still used for training US military personnel in resistance to interrogation. In December 2014, the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence issued a declassified 500 page summary of its still classified 6,700 page report on the Central Intelligence Agency Detention and Interrogation Program.
The report concluded that "the CIA's use of Enhanced Interrogation Techniques was not effective for acquiring intelligence or gaining cooperation from detainees." According to the report, the CIA had presented no credible proof that information obtained through waterboarding or the other harsh interrogation methods that the CIA employed prevented any attacks or saved any lives. There was no evidence that information obtained from the detainees through EIT was not or could not have been obtained through conventional interrogation methods. In June 2015, in response to a critical assessment of China in the U. S. State Department's annual human rights report, China noted that the U. S. among other alleged human rights abuses, engaged in torture of terrorism suspects by waterboarding. While the technique has been used in various forms for centuries, the term water board was recorded first in a 1976 UPI report: "A Navy spokesman admitted use of the'water board' torture... to'convince each trainee that he won't be able to physically resist what an enemy would do to him.'"
The verb-noun waterboarding dates from 2004. First appearance of the term in the mass media was in a New York Times article on 13 May 2004: In the case of Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, a high-level detainee, believed to have helped plan the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, C. I. A. Interrogators used graduated levels of force, including a technique known as'water boarding', in which a prisoner is strapped down, forcibly pushed under water and made to believe he might drown. U. S. attorney Alan Dershowitz is reported to have shortened the term to a single word in a Boston Globe article two days later: "After all, the administration did approve rough interrogation methods for some high valued detainees. These included waterboarding, in which a detainee is pushed under water and made to believe he will drown unless he provides information, as well as sensory deprivation, painful stress positions, simulated dog attacks". Dershowitz told the New York Times columnist William Safire that, "when I first used the word, nobody knew what it meant."Techniques using forcible drowning to extract information had hitherto been referred to as "water torture", "water treatment", "water cure" or "torture".
Professor Darius Rejali of Reed College, author of Torture and Democracy, speculates that the term waterboarding has its origin in the need for a euphemism. There is a special vocabulary for torture; when people use tortures that are old, they rename them and alter them a we
Computers, Freedom and Privacy Conference
The Computers and Privacy Conference is an annual academic conference held in the United States or Canada about the intersection of computer technology and privacy issues. The conference was founded in 1991, since at least 1999, it has been organized under the aegis of the Association for Computing Machinery, it was sponsored by CPSR. The first CFP was held in 1991 in California; the Computers and Privacy 99 Conference, sponsored by the Association for Computing Machinery, the 9th annual CFP, was held in Washington, DC from 6 April 1999 to 8 April 1999. CFP99 focused on international Internet privacy protection. There were close to 500 registered participants and attendees included high-level government officials, grassroots advocates and programmers; the conference chair for CFP99 was Marc Rotenberg and the program coordinator was Ross Stapleton-Gray. Keynote speakers at CFP99 were Tim Berners-Lee, director of the World Wide Web Consortium,Vint Cerf, president of the Internet Society and FTC Commissioner Mozelle Thompson.
Others who spoke at CFP99 included: David Banisar, policy director at the Electronic Privacy Information Center. Topics covered at CFP99 included: Anonymity; the awards were made by the London-based Privacy International to recognize "the government and private sector organizations which have done the most to invade personal privacy in the United States." Simon Davies, managing director of Privacy International, presented the awards, otherwise known as Orwells. There were five categories of award: Greatest Corporate Invader, Lifetime Menace, Most Invasive Program, People's Choice, Worst Public Official. At CFP99 Electronic Frontier Foundation made the 1999 EFF Pioneer Awards to Drazen Pantic, Director of OpenNet, Internet provider to Belgrade radio station B92. US Representative Edward Markey, said that to ensure companies post clear and enforcable privacy policies, federal legislation is required, that he would re-introduce a privacy bill of rights. At CFP99 Microsoft, the Electronic Frontier Foundation and Truste announced that they had developed a "Privacy Wizard" to assist webmasters create a Privacy Preferences Project statement for their websites.
The CFP2000 conference chair was Lorrie Faith Cranor. The fifteenth iteration of the conference was held in Seattle; the theme of this conference was the balance between surveillance and sousveillance. The equiveillance theme was reflected in the Opening Keynote Address, a panel discussion on equiveillance, a pre-keynote sousveillance workshop, as well as a sousveil
International Bar Association
The International Bar Association, founded in 1947, is a bar association of international legal practitioners, bar associations and law societies. The IBA has a membership of more than 80,000 individual lawyers and 190 bar associations and law societies, its global headquarters are located in London, it has regional offices in Washington, D. C. United States, South Korea and São Paulo, Brazil. Representatives of 34 national bar associations gathered in New York City, New York on 17 February 1947 to create the IBA. Initial membership was limited to bar associations and law societies, but in 1970, IBA membership was opened to individual lawyers. Members of the legal profession including barristers, solicitors, members of the judiciary, in-house lawyers, government lawyers and law students comprise the membership of the IBA; the IBA has held Special Consultative status before the UN General Assembly and the UN Economic and Social Council since 1947. On 9 October 2012, the IBA signed a memorandum of understanding with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
The IBA partners with the OECD and United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime in the Anti-Corruption Strategy for the Legal Profession, an anti-corruption initiative for lawyers. The IBA has partnered with other organisations including the International Federation of Accountants and the International Organisation of Employers; the IBA is divided into two divisions – the Legal Practice Division and the Public and Professional Interest Division. Each Division houses various fora that are dedicated to specific practice areas; these committees and fora issue regular publications. The PPID houses Human Rights Institute; the BIC was established in 2004 and consists of representatives from bar associations and law societies around the world. The current Executive Director of the IBA is Mark Ellis; the International Bar Association's Human Rights Institute was established in 1995 under the honorary presidency of Nelson Mandela. The mission statement of the IBAHRI is "to promote and enforce human rights under a just rule of law".
IBAHRI undertakes a variety of projects in the field of human rights and rule of law concerning the independence of the judiciary and fair trial rights. The IBA issues codes and guidance on international legal practice; the IBA Rules on the Taking of Evidence in International Arbitration, adopted in 1999 and revised in 2010, are used by parties in international commercial arbitration. The IBA has issued: IBA Guidelines on Conflicts of Interest in International Arbitration, IBA Guidelines for Drafting International Arbitration Clauses, IBA Principles on Conduct for the Legal Profession. Rule of Law Action GroupTask Force on the Financial Crisis Task Force on International Terrorism The IBA has an award, given to an outstanding female lawyer judged to be most deserving of that recognition, it is sponsored by LexisNexis. It includes a US$5,000 donation to a charity of the winner’s choice. Past recipients of the award include the following: Helvi Sipilä of Finland in 2001 Navi Pillay of South Africa in 2003 Dianna Kempe of Bermuda in 2006 Anne-Marie Hutchinson of England in 2010 Olufolake Solanke of Nigeria in 2012 Tukiya Kankasa-Mabula of Zambia in 2014 Carol Xueref of France in 2016 Eloísa Machado de Almeida of Brazil in 2018 2018–2019: Horacio Bernardes Neto, Brazil 2017–2018: Martin Šolc, Czech Republic 2015–2017: David W. Rivkin, United States 2013–2014: Michael Reynolds, United Kingdom 2011–2012: Akira Kawamura, Japan 2009–2010: Fernando Pelaez-Pier, Venezuela 2007–2008: Fernando Pombo, Spain 2005–2006: Francis Neate, United Kingdom 2003–2004: Emilio Cardenas, Argentina 2001–2002: Dianna Kempe, Bermuda 1999–2000: Klaus Böhlhoff, Germany 1997–1998: Desmond Fernando, Sri Lanka International Bar Association official website
The Washington Post
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper published in Washington, D. C. with a particular emphasis on national politics and the federal government. It has the largest circulation in the Washington metropolitan area, its slogan "Democracy Dies in Darkness" began appearing on its masthead in 2017. Daily broadsheet editions are printed for the District of Columbia and Virginia; the newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes. This includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in 2008, second only to The New York Times' seven awards in 2002 for the highest number awarded to a single newspaper in one year. Post journalists have received 18 Nieman Fellowships and 368 White House News Photographers Association awards. In the early 1970s, in the best-known episode in the newspaper's history, reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein led the American press' investigation into what became known as the Watergate scandal, their reporting in The Washington Post contributed to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.
In years since, the Post's investigations have led to increased review of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. In October 2013, the paper's longtime controlling family, the Graham family, sold the newspaper to Nash Holdings, a holding company established by Jeff Bezos, for $250 million in cash; the Washington Post is regarded as one of the leading daily American newspapers, along with The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The Wall Street Journal. The Post has distinguished itself through its political reporting on the workings of the White House and other aspects of the U. S. government. Unlike The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post does not print an edition for distribution away from the East Coast. In 2009, the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition, which combined stories from the week's print editions, due to shrinking circulation; the majority of its newsprint readership is in the District of Columbia and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia.
The newspaper is one of a few U. S. newspapers with foreign bureaus, located in Beirut, Beijing, Bogotá, Hong Kong, Jerusalem, London, Mexico City, Nairobi, New Delhi and Tokyo. In November 2009, it announced the closure of its U. S. regional bureaus—Chicago, Los Angeles and New York—as part of an increased focus on "political stories and local news coverage in Washington." The newspaper has local bureaus in Virginia. As of May 2013, its average weekday circulation was 474,767, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, making it the seventh largest newspaper in the country by circulation, behind USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Daily News, the New York Post. While its circulation has been slipping, it has one of the highest market-penetration rates of any metropolitan news daily. For many decades, the Post had its main office at 1150 15th Street NW; this real estate remained with Graham Holdings when the newspaper was sold to Jeff Bezos' Nash Holdings in 2013.
Graham Holdings sold 1150 15th Street for US$159 million in November 2013. The Washington Post continued to lease space at 1150 L Street NW. In May 2014, The Washington Post leased the west tower of One Franklin Square, a high-rise building at 1301 K Street NW in Washington, D. C; the newspaper moved into their new offices December 14, 2015. The Post has its own exclusive zip code, 20071. Arc Publishing is a department of the Post, which provides the publishing system, software for news organizations such as the Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times; the newspaper was founded in 1877 by Stilson Hutchins and in 1880 added a Sunday edition, becoming the city's first newspaper to publish seven days a week. In 1889, Hutchins sold the newspaper to Frank Hatton, a former Postmaster General, Beriah Wilkins, a former Democratic congressman from Ohio. To promote the newspaper, the new owners requested the leader of the United States Marine Band, John Philip Sousa, to compose a march for the newspaper's essay contest awards ceremony.
Sousa composed "The Washington Post". It became the standard music to accompany the two-step, a late 19th-century dance craze, remains one of Sousa's best-known works. In 1893, the newspaper moved to a building at 14th and E streets NW, where it would remain until 1950; this building combined all functions of the newspaper into one headquarters – newsroom, advertising and printing – that ran 24 hours per day. In 1898, during the Spanish–American War, the Post printed Clifford K. Berryman's classic illustration Remember the Maine, which became the battle-cry for American sailors during the War. In 1902, Berryman published another famous cartoon in the Post—Drawing the Line in Mississippi; this cartoon depicts President Theodore Roosevelt showing compassion for a small bear cub and inspired New York store owner Morris Michtom to create the teddy bear. Wilkins acquired Hatton's share of the newspaper in 1894 at Hatton's death. After Wilkins' death in 1903, his sons John and Robert ran the Post for two years before selling it in 1905 to John Roll McLean, owner of the Cincinnati Enquirer.
During the Wilson presidency, the Post was credited with the "most famous newspaper typo" in D. C. history according to Reason magazine. When John McLean died in 1916, he put the newspap
Central Intelligence Agency
The Central Intelligence Agency is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States, tasked with gathering and analyzing national security information from around the world through the use of human intelligence. As one of the principal members of the United States Intelligence Community, the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is focused on providing intelligence for the President and Cabinet of the United States. Unlike the Federal Bureau of Investigation, a domestic security service, the CIA has no law enforcement function and is focused on overseas intelligence gathering, with only limited domestic intelligence collection. Though it is not the only agency of the Federal government of the United States specializing in HUMINT, the CIA serves as the national manager for coordination of HUMINT activities across the U. S. intelligence community. Moreover, the CIA is the only agency authorized by law to carry out and oversee covert action at the behest of the President.
It exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division. Before the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, the CIA Director concurrently served as the head of the Intelligence Community. Despite transferring some of its powers to the DNI, the CIA has grown in size as a result of the September 11 attacks. In 2013, The Washington Post reported that in fiscal year 2010, the CIA had the largest budget of all IC agencies, exceeding previous estimates; the CIA has expanded its role, including covert paramilitary operations. One of its largest divisions, the Information Operations Center, has shifted focus from counter-terrorism to offensive cyber-operations; when the CIA was created, its purpose was to create a clearinghouse for foreign policy intelligence and analysis. Today its primary purpose is to collect, analyze and disseminate foreign intelligence, to perform covert actions. According to its fiscal 2013 budget, the CIA has five priorities: Counterterrorism, the top priority Nonproliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction.
Warning/informing American leaders of important overseas events. Counterintelligence Cyber intelligence; the CIA has an executive office and five major directorates: The Directorate of Digital Innovation The Directorate of Analysis The Directorate of Operations The Directorate of Support The Directorate of Science and Technology The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation and reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence. The Deputy Director is formally appointed by the Director without Senate confirmation, but as the President's opinion plays a great role in the decision, the Deputy Director is considered a political position, making the Chief Operating Officer the most senior non-political position for CIA career officers; the Executive Office supports the U. S. military by providing it with information it gathers, receiving information from military intelligence organizations, cooperates on field activities. The Executive Director is in charge of the day-to-day operation of the CIA.
Each branch of the military service has its own Director. The Associate Director of military affairs, a senior military officer, manages the relationship between the CIA and the Unified Combatant Commands, who produce and deliver to the CIA regional/operational intelligence and consume national intelligence produced by the CIA; the Directorate of Analysis, through much of its history known as the Directorate of Intelligence, is tasked with helping "the President and other policymakers make informed decisions about our country's national security" by looking "at all the available information on an issue and organiz it for policymakers". The Directorate has four regional analytic groups, six groups for transnational issues, three that focus on policy and staff support. There is an office dedicated to Iraq; the Directorate of Operations is responsible for collecting foreign intelligence, for covert action. The name reflects its role as the coordinator of human intelligence activities between other elements of the wider U.
S. intelligence community with their own HUMINT operations. This Directorate was created in an attempt to end years of rivalry over influence and budget between the United States Department of Defense and the CIA. In spite of this, the Department of Defense organized its own global clandestine intelligence service, the Defense Clandestine Service, under the Defense Intelligence Agency; this Directorate is known to be organized by geographic regions and issues, but its precise organization is classified. The Directorate of Science & Technology was established to research and manage technical collection disciplines and equipment. Many of its innovations were transferred to other intelligence organizations, or, as they became more overt, to the military services. For example, the development of the U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft was done in cooperation with the United States Air