Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde
Fermentation in winemaking
The process of fermentation in winemaking turns grape juice into an alcoholic beverage. During fermentation, yeasts transform sugars present in the juice into carbon dioxide. In winemaking, the temperature and speed of fermentation are important considerations as well as the levels of oxygen present in the must at the start of the fermentation; the risk of stuck fermentation and the development of several wine faults can occur during this stage, which can last anywhere from 5 to 14 days for primary fermentation and another 5 to 10 days for a secondary fermentation. Fermentation may be done in stainless steel tanks, common with many white wines like Riesling, in an open wooden vat, inside a wine barrel and inside the wine bottle itself as in the production of many sparkling wines; the natural occurrence of fermentation means it was first observed long ago by humans. The earliest uses of the word "fermentation" in relation to winemaking was in reference to the apparent "boiling" within the must that came from the anaerobic reaction of the yeast to the sugars in the grape juice and the release of carbon dioxide.
The Latin fervere means to boil. In the mid-19th century, Louis Pasteur noted the connection between yeast and the process of the fermentation in which the yeast act as catalyst and mediator through a series of a reaction that convert sugar into alcohol; the discovery of the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway by Gustav Embden, Otto Fritz Meyerhof and Jakub Karol Parnas in the early 20th century contributed more to the understanding of the complex chemical processes involved in the conversion of sugar to alcohol. In winemaking, there are distinctions made between ambient yeasts which are present in wine cellars, vineyards and on the grapes themselves and cultured yeast which are isolated and inoculated for use in winemaking; the most common genera of wild yeasts found in winemaking include Candida, Klöckera/Hanseniaspora, Metschnikowiaceae and Zygosaccharomyces. Wild yeasts can produce unique-flavored wines. Few yeast, lactic and acetic acid bacterial colonies live on the surface of grapes, but traditional wine makers in Europe, advocate use of ambient yeast as a characteristic of the region's terroir.
The cultured yeasts most used in winemaking belong to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae species. Within this species are several hundred different strains of yeast that can be used during fermentation to affect the heat or vigor of the process and enhance or suppress certain flavor characteristics of the varietal; the use of different strains of yeasts is a major contributor to the diversity of wine among the same grape variety. Alternative, non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yeasts are being used more prevalently in the industry to add greater complexity to wine. After a winery has been in operation for a number of years, few yeast strains are involved in the fermentation process; the use of active dry yeasts reduces the variety of strains that appear in spontaneous fermentation by outcompeting those strains that are present. The addition of cultured yeast occurs with the yeast first in a dried or "inactive" state and is reactivated in warm water or diluted grape juice prior to being added to the must.
To thrive and be active in fermentation, the yeast needs access to a continuous supply of carbon, sulfur, phosphorus as well as access to various vitamins and minerals. These components are present in the grape must but their amount may be corrected by adding nutrients to the wine, in order to foster a more encouraging environment for the yeast. Newly formulated time-release nutrients manufactured for wine fermentations, offer the most advantageous conditions for yeast. Oxygen is needed as well, but in wine making, the risk of oxidation and the lack of alcohol production from oxygenated yeast requires the exposure of oxygen to be kept at a minimum. Upon the introduction of active yeasts to the grape must, phosphates are attached to the sugar and the six-carbon sugar molecules begin to be split into three-carbon pieces and go through a series of rearrangement reactions. During this process, the carboxylic carbon atom is released in the form of carbon dioxide with the remaining components becoming acetaldehyde.
The absence of oxygen in this anaerobic process allows the acetaldehyde to be converted, by reduction, to ethanol. During the conversion of acetaldehyde, a small amount is converted, by oxidation, to acetic acid which, in excess, can contribute to the wine fault known as volatile acidity. After the yeast has exhausted its life cycle, they fall to the bottom of the fermentation tank as sediment known as lees. Yeast ceases its activity whenever all of the sugar in must has been converted into other chemicals or whenever the alcohol content has reached 15% alcohol per unit volume; the metabolism of amino acids and breakdown of sugars by yeasts has the effect of creating other biochemical compounds that can contribute to the flavor and aroma of wine. These compounds can be considered "volatile" like aldehydes, ethyl acetate, fatty acids, fusel oils, hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans or "non-volatile" like glycerol, acetic acid and succinic acid. Yeast has the effect during fermentation of releasing glycoside hydrolase which can hydrolyse the
A winemaker or vintner is a person engaged in winemaking. They are employed by wineries or wine companies, where their work includes: Cooperating with viticulturists Monitoring the maturity of grapes to ensure their quality and to determine the correct time for harvest Crushing and pressing grapes Monitoring the settling of juice and the fermentation of grape material Filtering the wine to remove remaining solids Testing the quality of wine by tasting Placing filtered wine in casks or tanks for storage and maturation Preparing plans for bottling wine once it has matured Making sure that quality is maintained when the wine is bottledToday, these duties require an increasing amount of scientific knowledge, since laboratory tests are supplementing or replacing traditional methods. Winemakers can be referred to as oenologists as they study oenology – the science of wine. A vintner is a wine merchant. In some modern use in American English, the term is used as a synonym for "winemaker"; the term started in Middle English.
Due to the close political and commercial ties between Bordeaux and England during the 14th and early 15th centuries, vintners were among the more important people in London with winemakers being four times mayor of the city under the reign of Edward II. The Worshipful Company of Vintners is one of the oldest livery companies in London. A vigneron is someone; the word connotes or emphasizes the critical role that vineyard placement and maintenance has in the production of high-quality wine. The term, French for someone who grows grapes or makes wine, is used in Australia to describe a winemaker, involved as an owner or manager as opposed to a person, employed only to make wine, referred to as a winemaker, it is used when referring to a winemaker from France. Vincent of Saragossa is the patron saint of vignerons. A négociant is the French term for a wine merchant who assembles the produce of smaller growers and winemakers and sells the result under its own name. Négociants buy everything from grapes to grape must to wines in various states of completion.
In the case of grapes or must, the négociant performs all the winemaking. If he buys fermented wine in barrels or en-vrac—basically in bulk containers, he may age the wine further, blend in other wines or bottle and sell it as is; the result is sold under the name of the négociant, not the name of the original grape or wine producer. Some négociants have a recognizable house style. Négociants, who are called wine merchants/traders, were the dominant force in the wine trade until the last 25 years for various reasons: Historically the owners of vineyards and producers of wine had no direct access to buyers, it was too expensive for growers to purchase the wine presses and bottling lines necessary to produce a finished wine. Owning only a small portion of a particular high-quality single vineyard meant that a grower had insufficient wine from a parcel to vinify on its own. Under French inheritance laws, vineyard holdings were split until offspring owned no more than a single row of grapes, not enough to fill a barrel.
Since prices for a premier cru are higher than for wines from a larger area like a village or region, the grower could make more money selling off the production as the premier cru rather than blending it into a less specific appellation. Many négociants are vineyard owners in their own right. In Burgundy for instance, négociants as Bouchard Père et Fils and Faiveley are among the largest owners of vineyards. Well-known négociants in Burgundy are Maison Louis Jadot, Joseph Drouhin, Vincent Girardin. Muse Oenology Vignerons indépendants de France Viticulture Wine fraud Winemaking cooperative Media related to Winemakers at Wikimedia Commons The new vignerons: a new generation of Spanish viticulteurs Luis Gutiérrez, Wine Advocate
Dryland farming and dry farming encompass specific agricultural techniques for the non-irrigated cultivation of crops. Dryland farming is associated with drylands, areas characterized by a cool wet season, followed by a warm dry season, they are associated with arid conditions or areas prone to drought or having scarce water resources. Additionally, arid-zone agriculture is being developed for this purpose. Dryland farming is used in the Great Plains, the Palouse plateau of Eastern Washington, other arid regions of North America such as in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, the Middle East and in other grain growing regions such as the steppes of Eurasia and Argentina. Dryland farming was introduced to southern Russia and Ukraine by Ukrainian Mennonites under the influence of Johann Cornies, making the region the breadbasket of Europe. In Australia, it is practiced in all states but the Northern Territory. Dryland farmed crops may include winter wheat, beans, sunflowers or watermelon.
Successful dryland farming is possible with as little as 230 millimetres of precipitation a year. Native American tribes in the arid Southwest survived for hundreds of years on dryland farming in areas with less than 250 millimetres of rain; the choice of crop is influenced by the timing of the predominant rainfall in relation to the seasons. For example, winter wheat is more suited to regions with higher winter rainfall while areas with summer wet seasons may be more suited to summer growing crops such as sorghum, sunflowers or cotton. Dryland farming has evolved as a set of techniques and management practices used by farmers to continually adapt to the presence or lack of moisture in a given crop cycle. In marginal regions, a farmer should be financially able to survive occasional crop failures for several years in succession. Survival as a dryland farmer requires careful husbandry of the moisture available for the crop and aggressive management of expenses to minimize losses in poor years.
Dryland farming involves the constant assessing of the amount of moisture present or lacking for any given crop cycle and planning accordingly. Dryland farmers know that to be financially successful they have to be aggressive during the good years in order to offset the dry years. Dryland farming is dependent on natural rainfall, which can leave the ground vulnerable to dust storms if poor farming techniques are used or if the storms strike at a vulnerable time; the fact that a fallow period must be included in the crop rotation means that fields cannot always be protected by a cover crop, which might otherwise offer protection against erosion. Some of the theories of dryland farming developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries claimed to be scientific but were in reality pseudoscientific and did not stand up to empirical testing. For example, it was alleged that tillage would seal in moisture, but such "dust mulching" ideas are based on what people imagine should happen, or have been told, rather than what testing confirms.
The book Bad Land: An American Romance explores the effects that this had on people who were encouraged to homestead in an area with little rainfall. Capturing and conservation of moisture – In regions such as Eastern Washington, the average annual precipitation available to a dryland farm may be as little as 220 millimetres. Moisture must be captured until the crop can utilize it. Techniques include summer fallow rotation, preventing runoff by terracing fields. "Terracing" is practiced by farmers on a smaller scale by laying out the direction of furrows to slow water runoff downhill by plowing along either contours or keylines. Moisture can be conserved by leaving crop residue to shade the soil. Effective use of available moisture – Once moisture is available for the crop to use, it must be used as as possible. Seed planting depth and timing are considered to place the seed at a depth at which sufficient moisture exists, or where it will exist when seasonal precipitation falls. Farmers tend to use crop varieties which are heat-stress tolerant.
Thus the likelihood of a successful crop is hedged. Soil conservation – The nature of dryland farming makes it susceptible to erosion wind erosion; some techniques for conserving soil moisture are at odds with techniques for conserving topsoil. Since healthy topsoil is critical to sustainable dryland agriculture, its preservation is considered the most important long-term goal of a dryland farming operation. Erosion control techniques such as windbreaks, reduced tillage or no-till, spreading straw, strip farming are used to minimize topsoil loss. Control of input costs – Dryland farming is practiced in regions inherently marginal for non-irrigated agriculture; because of this, there is an increased risk of crop failure and poor yields which may occur in a dry year. Dryland farmers must evaluate the potential yield of a crop throughout the growing season and be prepared to decrease inputs to the crop such as fertilizer and weed control if it appears that it is to have a poor yield due to insufficient moisture.
Conversely, in years when moisture is abundant, farmers may increase their inpu
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Sutter Home Winery
Sutter Home Winery is one of the largest family-run independent wineries in the United States, is the estate known for the creation of White Zinfandel. It is located in St. Helena and owned by Trinchero Family Estates; the Trinchero Family Estates portfolio encompasses over 50 other wine brands, including Ménage à Trois, Napa Cellars, Folie à Deux, Terra d'Oro, Joel Gott and Trinchero Napa Valley. In 1874 the Swiss-German immigrant John Thomann established a small winery and distillery in St. Helena in central Napa County, California. After his death, the winery and Victorian home beside it were sold to another Swiss family, the Leunbergers, who renamed the estate Sutter Home; as with most Napa Valley wineries, Sutter Home was shut down during Prohibition. The winery remained abandoned until 1948, when it was purchased by John and Mario Trinchero, immigrant brothers from New York City whose family had been active in the Italian wine business; the Trincheros refurbished the winery and began producing Napa Valley wines scraping by making generic jug wines.
For years they operated “mom-and-pop” style, selling to their Napa Valley neighbors, who filled their barrels and bottles at the winery’s back door. In 1968 Louis “Bob” Trinchero began vinifying Amador County Zinfandel. In 1972, another of Bob Trinchero’s innovations provided the American wine consumer with a new style of premium wine known as White Zinfandel. Labeled as an Oeil de Perdrix, the Federal Bureau of Alcohol and Firearms demanded something in English on the label, the name, "A White Zinfandel Wine" was added. By 1975 the name Oeil de Perdrix was removed. A fortunate accident occurred during the making of the 1975 vintage, as some 1,000 gallons of bleed-off juice from red Zinfandel refused to ferment to dryness, retaining a substantial amount of sugar, Trinchero put the wine aside for the time, he said, "Two weeks I tasted that wine and it was sweet, had a pink color, I thought,'Darn, that's pretty good. We bottled it, the rest is history."By 1987, Sutter Home White Zinfandel had become the best-selling premium wine in the United States.
In 1994, Wine Spectator gave Trinchero its Distinguished Service Award for "having introduced more Americans to wine on the table than anyone in history". Still family-run, Bob Trinchero, Roger Trinchero and Vera Trinchero Torres, along with Vera’s sons and Robert Torres, manage a large winemaking organization, overseeing operations from grapegrowing and production and sales; the Trincheros are noted for their industry leadership, commitment to sustainable agriculture and preserving the environment. Today, Sutter Home is the second largest family-owned winery in the world and the fourth largest winery in the United States. All winemaking, bottling and warehousing operations are concentrated in three modern facilities in Napa County; the original winery site on Highway 29 houses the winery’s Visitors Center. White Zinfandel production was increased from 25,000 cases in 1981 to 1.3 million in 1986, while producing about 20 million cases a year, with Sutter Home White Zinfandel making up a good percent of the sales.
Sutter Home Winery produces 18 varietal wines including Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc, White Zinfandel, White Merlot, Gewürztraminer, Chenin blanc, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Red, Pinot noir, Pinot grigio, Pink Moscato, Sweet Red, Sweet White and the new Sangria, as of 2017. Footnotes Sutter Home Winery official site