Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
The sabre is a type of backsword with a curved blade associated with the light cavalry of the Early Modern and Napoleonic periods. Originally associated Central-Eastern European cavalry such as the Hussars, the sabre became widespread in Western Europe in the Thirty Years War, lighter sabres became popular with infantry of the late 17th century. In the 19th century, models with less curving blades became common and were used by heavy cavalry. The last sabre issued to US cavalry was the Patton saber of 1913, Szabla wz.34 was the last sabre issued to the Polish cavalry, in 1934. English sabre is recorded from the 1670s, as a loan from French, where the sabre is an alteration of sable. The German word is on record from the 15th century, loaned from Polish szabla, the spread of the Hungarian word to neighboring European languages took place in the context of the Ottoman wars in Europe of the 15th to 17th centuries. The spelling saber becomes common in American English in the half of the 19th century.
The origin of the Hungarian word is unclear and it may itself be a loan from South Slavic, from a Common Slavic *sablja, which would ultimately derives from a Turkic source. These oldest sabres had a curve, down-turned quillons, the grip facing the opposite direction to the blade. The adoption of the term is connected to the employment of Hungarian Hussar cavalry by Western armies at the time, Hungarian hussars were employed as light cavalry, with the role of harassing enemy skirmishers, overrunning artillery positions, and pursuing fleeing troops. In the late 17th and 18th centuries, many Hungarian hussars fled to other Central and Western European countries, the Hungarian term szablya is ultimately traced to the Northwestern Turkic selebe, with contamination from the Hungarian verb szab to cut. The original type of sabre, or Polish szabla, was used as a cavalry weapon, the Karabela was a type of szabla popular in the late 17th century, worn by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth nobility class, the Szlachta.
While designed as a weapon, it came to replace various types of straight-bladed swords used by infantry. The Swiss sabre originates as a sword with a single-edged blade in the early 16th century. In the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth a specific type of melee weapon. Richly decorated sabres were popular among the Polish nobility, who considered it to be one of the most important pieces of traditional attire. With time, the design of the sabre greatly evolved in the Commonwealth and gave birth to a variety of sabre-like weapons, intended for many tasks. The sabre saw extensive use in the early 19th century, particularly in the Napoleonic Wars
Edward Korfanty is a Polish-born American fencing master, U. S. National Womens saber coach, Olympic saber coach, and a former Mens Veterans Saber World Champion. Korfanty was a member of the Polish national fencing team from 1972 to 1984, during his eight years on the Polish national team, he won numerous national and international medals and was a finalist at numerous World Cup and international competitions. He took second place three times in the Polish national championships and was team captain of the winning team four times. He was an alternate for one of the Olympic Games, and he became head coach at the Polish Olympic Center in Katowice in 1984. Korfanty moved to the University of Notre Dame in the U. S. in 1990 as assistant fencing coach, during his tenure at Notre Dame, he coached Canadian fencer Leszek Nowosielski to represent Canada at the 1992 Olympic Games in Barcelona, Spain. He was appointed the US National Womens saber coach, and coached the first US Womens team to win the championship in 2000.
Under Korfantys direction in 2005, the US womens saber team won the medal at the world championships for the second time. Ed Korfanty is coach to Mariel Zagunis, who won the medal in the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens - the first American to win fencing gold in 100 years. The change shortened the time in which the light could fire from 300 milliseconds to 120 milliseconds,180 milliseconds faster than the previous rule. The change was implemented in October 2004, immediately following the Athens Olympics, in 2005 Korfantys students made up 75% of the U. S. Div.1 National Womens Saber Team. In 2006, student Rebecca Ward became the only fencer in history to win three World Cup titles in one season. Korfanty continues to compete internationally as a member of the U. S. National Veterans team, in 2004 and 2005 he won the silver medals at the Veterans World Championships. Korfanty was named the U. S. Olympic Committees Coach of the Year in 2001,2003, Fencing Coaches Association presented Korfanty with the 2005 Outstanding Coach of the Year award for his outstanding results at the international level.
Korfanty currently resides in Portland, where he is the coach of the Oregon Fencing Alliance. Ed Korfanty earned his fencing master diploma at the Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Poland and he is certified as a fencing master by the U. S. Fencing Coaches Association and the Academie dArmes Internationale, ed Korfanty profile from Oregon Fencing Alliance
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network