Clinton Clint Eastwood Jr. is an American actor, filmmaker and political figure. These roles, among others, have made Eastwood an enduring icon of masculinity. For his work in the Western film Unforgiven and the sports drama Million Dollar Baby, Eastwood won Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Picture, as well as receiving nominations for Best Actor. Eastwoods greatest commercial successes have been the adventure comedy Every Which Way But Loose and its sequel, the war drama biopic American Sniper set box office records for the largest January release ever and was the largest opening ever for an Eastwood film. Eastwood received considerable praise in France for several films, including some that were not well received in the United States. Eastwood has been awarded two of Frances highest honors, in 1994 he became a recipient of the Commander of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, in 2000, Eastwood was awarded the Italian Venice Film Festival Golden Lion for lifetime achievement. Since 1967, Eastwood has run his own company, Malpaso.
Starting in 1986, Eastwood served for two years as Mayor of Carmel-by-the-Sea, California, a non-partisan office, Eastwood was born Clinton Eastwood Jr. May 31,1930, in San Francisco, the son of Clinton Eastwood Sr. and he has one younger sister, Jeanne Bernhardt. Eastwood is of English, Irish and Dutch ancestry and he is descended from Mayflower passenger William Bradford, and through this line is the 12th generation of his family born in North America and the 13th generation to live in North America. His family moved often as his father worked at jobs along the West Coast, settled in Piedmont, the Eastwoods lived in a very wealthy part of town, had a swimming pool, belonged to the country club, and each parent drove their own car. Clint attended Piedmont Junior High School, shortly before he was to enter Piedmont High School, he rode his bike on the schools sports field and tore up the wet turf, this resulted in his being asked not to enroll. Clint graduated from the airplane shop, I think that was his major, joked classmate Don Kincaid.
Another high school friend, Don Loomis, echoed I dont think he was spending much time at school because he was having a pretty good time elsewhere. I think what happened is he just went off and started having a good time, I just dont think he finished high school, explained Fritz Manes, a boyhood friend two years younger than Eastwood, who remained associated with him until their falling out in the mid-1980s. Biographer Patrick McGilligan notes that high school records are a matter of strict legal confidentiality. Eastwood worked at a number of jobs, including lifeguard, paper carrier, grocery clerk, forest firefighter, Eastwood has said that he tried to enroll at Seattle University but was drafted into the United States Army during the Korean War. He always dropped the Korean War reference, hoping everyone would conclude that he was in combat, hed been a lifeguard at Fort Ord in northern California for his entire stint in the military, commented Eastwoods former longtime companion, Sondra Locke
Thomas Edwin Mix was an American film actor and the star of many early Western movies between 1909 and 1935. Mix appeared in 291 films, all but nine of which were silent movies and he was Hollywoods first Western megastar and helped define the genre as it emerged in the early days of the cinema. Thomas Hezikiah Mix was born January 6,1880 in Mix Run, about 40 miles north of State College, Pennsylvania, to Edwin Elias Mix and Elizabeth Heistand. He grew up in nearby DuBois, where his father and he spent time working on a local farm owned by John DuBois, a lumber businessman. He had dreams of being in the circus and was rumored to have been caught by his parents practicing knife-throwing tricks against a wall, in April 1898, during the Spanish–American War, he enlisted in the Army under the name Thomas E. Mix. His unit never went overseas, and Mix failed to return for duty after an extended furlough when he married Grace I, Mix was listed as AWOL on November 4,1902, but was never court-martialed nor apparently even discharged.
His marriage to Allin was annulled after one year, in 1905, Mix married Kitty Jewel Perinne, but this marriage ended within a year. He next married Olive Stokes on January 10,1909, in Medora, on July 13,1912, Olive gave birth to their daughter Ruth. In 1905, Mix rode in a parade led by Seth Bullock with a group of 50 horsemen. Years later, Hollywood publicists would muddle this event to imply that Mix had been a Rough Rider himself, Mix was appointed the Town Marshal of Dewey, Oklahoma in 1912. The ranch had its own touring Wild West show in which Mix appeared and he stood out as a skilled horseman and expert shot, winning national riding and roping contests at Prescott, Arizona in 1909, and Canon City, Colorado in 1910. Tom Mix began his career as a supporting cast member with the Selig Polyscope Company. His first appearance was in a film titled The Cowboy Millionaire. In 1910 he appeared as himself in a documentary film titled Ranch Life in the Great Southwest in which he displayed his skills as a cattle wrangler.
Shot at the Selig studio in the Edendale district of Los Angeles, Mix performed in more than 100 films for Selig, many of which were filmed in Las Vegas, New Mexico. While with Selig he co-starred in several films with Victoria Forde and he divorced Olive Stokes in 1917. By then, Selig Polyscope had encountered severe financial difficulties, and Mix and they married in 1918 and had a daughter, Thomasina Mix, in 1922. Mix went on to more than 160 cowboy films throughout the 1920s
Angelina Jolie Pitt, DCMG is an American actress and humanitarian. She has received an Academy Award, two Screen Actors Guild Awards, and three Golden Globe Awards, and has cited as Hollywoods highest-paid actress. Jolie made her debut as a child alongside her father, Jon Voight. Her film career began in earnest a decade with the low-budget production Cyborg 2, followed by her first leading role in a major film, Hackers. She starred in the critically acclaimed biographical cable films George Wallace and Gia, Jolies starring role as the video game heroine Lara Croft in Lara Croft, Tomb Raider established her as a leading Hollywood actress. Beginning in the 2010s, she expanded her career into directing and her biggest commercial success came with the fantasy picture Maleficent. Her personal life is the subject of wide publicity, divorced from actors Jonny Lee Miller and Billy Bob Thornton, she separated from her third husband, actor Brad Pitt, in September 2016. They have six children together, three of whom were adopted internationally, born in Los Angeles, Jolie is the daughter of actors Jon Voight and Marcheline Bertrand.
She is the sister of actor James Haven and niece of singer-songwriter Chip Taylor and her godparents are actors Jacqueline Bisset and Maximilian Schell. On her fathers side, Jolie is of German and Slovak descent, and on her mothers side, she is of primarily French Canadian, like her mother, Jolie has stated that she is part Iroquois, although her only known indigenous ancestors were 17th-century Hurons. After her parents separation in 1976, Jolie and her brother lived with their mother, when Jolie was six years old and her live-in partner, filmmaker Bill Day, moved the family to Palisades, New York, they returned to Los Angeles five years later. Jolie decided she wanted to act and enrolled at the Lee Strasberg Theatre Institute, Jolie first attended Beverly Hills High School, where she felt isolated among the children of some of the areas affluent families because her mother survived on a more modest income. She was teased by other students, who targeted her for being extremely thin and her early attempts at modeling, at her mothers insistence, proved unsuccessful.
She dropped out of her classes and aspired to become a funeral director. She struggled with insomnia and an eating disorder, and began experimenting with drugs, by age 20, she had used just about every drug possible, particularly heroin. Jolie suffered episodes of depression and twice planned to commit suicide—at age 19 and again at 22, when she was 24, she experienced a nervous breakdown and was admitted for 72 hours to UCLA Medical Centers psychiatric ward. Two years later, after adopting her first child, Jolie found stability in her life, stating, I knew once I committed to Maddox, I would never be self-destructive again. Jolie has had a dysfunctional relationship with her father, which began when Voight left the family when his daughter was less than a year old
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times, commonly referred to as the Times or LA Times, is a paid daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It was the largest metropolitan newspaper in circulation in the United States in 2008, the Times is owned by tronc. The Times was first published on December 4,1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and it was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Unable to pay the bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. Mathes had joined the firm, and it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication, in July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the papers editor. Otis made the Times a financial success, in an era where newspapers were driven by party politics, the Times was directed at Republican readers. As was typical of newspapers of the time, the Times would sit on stories for several days, historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment.
Otiss editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles, the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1,1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people. Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged, the American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who eventually pleaded guilty. Upon Otiss death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios, the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980, Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his familys paper, often forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance.
He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nations most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times, believing that the newsroom was the heartbeat of the business, Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with the Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times-Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for news organizations. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined, eventually the coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies went public, or split apart, thats the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family. The papers early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big and it has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades.
In 2000, the Tribune Company acquired the Times, placing the paper in co-ownership with then-WB -affiliated KTLA, which Tribune acquired in 1985
Universal Pictures is an American film studio owned by Comcast through the Universal Filmed Entertainment Group division of its wholly owned subsidiary NBCUniversal. The company was founded in 1912 by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley and its studios are located in Universal City and its corporate offices are located in New York City. Universal Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America and is one of Hollywoods Big Six studios. Universal Studios was founded by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane, one story has Laemmle watching a box office for hours, counting patrons and calculating the days takings. Within weeks of his Chicago trip, Laemmle gave up dry goods to buy the first several nickelodeons, for Laemmle and other such entrepreneurs, the creation in 1908 of the Edison-backed Motion Picture Trust meant that exhibitors were expected to pay fees for Trust-produced films they showed.
Soon and other disgruntled nickelodeon owners decided to avoid paying Edison by producing their own pictures, in June 1909, Laemmle started the Yankee Film Company with partners Abe Stern and Julius Stern. Laemmle broke with Edisons custom of refusing to give billing and screen credits to performers, by naming the movie stars, he attracted many of the leading players of the time, contributing to the creation of the star system. In 1910, he promoted Florence Lawrence, formerly known as The Biograph Girl, the Universal Film Manufacturing Company was incorporated in New York on April 30,1912. Laemmle, who emerged as president in July 1912, was the figure in the partnership with Dintenfass, Kessel, Swanson, Horsley. Eventually all would be out by Laemmle. Following the westward trend of the industry, by the end of 1912 the company was focusing its efforts in the Hollywood area. On March 15,1915, Laemmle opened the worlds largest motion picture production facility, Universal City Studios, studio management became the third facet of Universals operations, with the studio incorporated as a distinct subsidiary organization.
Unlike other movie moguls, Laemmle opened his studio to tourists, Universal became the largest studio in Hollywood, and remained so for a decade. However, it sought an audience mostly in towns, producing mostly inexpensive melodramas, westerns. In its early years Universal released three brands of feature films — Red Feather, low-budget programmers, more ambitious productions, and Jewel, their prestige motion pictures. Directors included Jack Conway, John Ford, Rex Ingram, Robert Z. Leonard, George Marshall and Lois Weber, despite Laemmles role as an innovator, he was an extremely cautious studio chief. Unlike rivals Adolph Zukor, William Fox, and Marcus Loew and he financed all of his own films, refusing to take on debt. Character actor Lon Chaney became a card for Universal in the 1920s
Los Angeles Public Library
The Los Angeles Public Library system serves the residents of the City of Los Angeles. With more than six million volumes, it serves the largest population of any publicly funded system in the United States. The system is overseen by a Board of Library Commissioners with five members appointed by the mayor of Los Angeles in staggered terms in accordance with the city charter, Library cards are free to California residents. Circulating books, computer access and audiovisual materials are available to patrons, Library materials are loaned for 3 weeks. Fines are charged only if materials are returned late, there is a loan limit of 10 books,10 magazines, and 4 DVDs or videos at one time up to maximum of 30 items on the patron’s record. Items checked out from Los Angeles Public Library may be returned to any of its 72 branches or to the Central Library, most items may be renewed a maximum of two times. Entertainment DVDs and videos may be renewed one time, the Los Angeles Public Library has many community support organizations which work with the library to raise funds and sponsor programs to enhance library service throughout the community.
The Librarys Rare Books Department is located in its downtown Los Angeles location, there is an extensive selection of databases covering a wide variety of topics, many of which are available to remote users who hold an LAPL library card. Examples include full-text databases of periodicals, business directories, and language learning tools, the library offers an online program that allows adult patrons who have not completed high school to earn their high school diploma. Aggressive expansion and growth of the began in the 1920s. Under Library Board of Commissioners Chairman Orra E. Monnette, the system was improved with a network of branch libraries with new buildings. Thelma Jackman founded the Business & Economics section of the library prior to 1970. The historic Central Library Goodhue building was constructed in 1926 and is a Downtown Los Angeles landmark, the Richard Riordan Central Library complex is the third largest public library in the United States in terms of book and periodical holdings.
The new wing of Central Library, completed in 1993, was named in honor of former mayor Tom Bradley, the complex was subsequently renamed in 2001 for former Los Angeles Mayor Richard Riordan, as the Richard Riordan Central Library. The Los Angeles Public Library received the National Medal for Museum and Library Service, City Librarian John F. Szabo and community member Sergio Sanchez accepted the award on behalf of the library from First Lady Michelle Obama during a White House Ceremony on May 20,2015. Architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue designed the original Los Angeles Central Library with influences of ancient Egyptian and Mediterranean Revival architecture, the central tower is topped with a tiled mosaic pyramid with suns on the sides with a hand holding a torch representing the Light of Learning at the apex. Other elements include sphinxes and celestial mosaics and it has sculptural elements by the preeminent American architectural sculptor Lee Lawrie, similar to the Nebraska State Capitol in Lincoln, designed by Goodhue.
The building is a designated Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, and is on the National Register of Historic Places and it included an enormous, eight-story atrium wing dedicated to former mayor Tom Bradley
When, she tries to demonstrate this to the police and city authorities, she is vilified as delusional and an unfit mother. Straczynski spent a year researching the story after hearing about the Wineville Chicken Coop case from a contact at Los Angeles City Hall, almost all of the films script was drawn from thousands of pages of documentation. His first draft became the script and his first film screenplay to be produced. Ron Howard had meant to direct the film, but scheduling conflicts led to his replacement by Eastwood, instead and his Imagine Entertainment partner Brian Grazer produced Changeling alongside Malpaso Productions Robert Lorenz and Eastwood. Universal Pictures financed and distributed the film, several actors campaigned for the leading role, the key factor in Eastwoods decision to cast Jolie was his feeling that her face would suit the 1920s period setting. The film stars Jeffrey Donovan, Jason Butler Harner, John Malkovich, Michael Kelly, while some characters are composites, most are based on actual people.
Principal photography, which began on October 15,2007 and concluded a few weeks in December, took place in Los Angeles, Eastwoods low-key direction led actors and crew to note the calmness of the set and the short working days. In post-production, scenes were supplemented with computer-generated skylines, vehicles, Changeling premiered to critical acclaim at the 61st Cannes Film Festival on May 20,2008. Critical reaction was more mixed than at Cannes, while the acting and story were generally praised, the films conventional staging and lack of nuance were criticized. In Los Angeles in 1928, single mother Christine Collins returns home to discover her nine-year-old son, several months after Walters disappearance, the LAPD tells Christine that he has been found alive. Believing the positive publicity will negate recent criticism of the department, although Walter claims he is Christines son, she says he is not. Captain J. J. Jones, the head of the LAPDs Juvenile Division, insists the boy is Walter, after Christine confronts Jones with physical discrepancies between Walter and her son, Jones arranges for a medical doctor to visit her.
He tells Christine that Walter is three inches shorter than before his disappearance because trauma has shrunk his spine, and that the man who took Walter had him circumcised. A newspaper prints a story that implies Christine is an unfit mother, Walters teacher and dentist give Christine signed letters confirming Walter is an impostor. Christine tells her story to the press, as a result and she befriends inmate Carol Dexter, who tells Christine she is one of several women who were sent there for challenging police authority. Dr. Steele deems Christine delusional and forces her to take mood-regulating pills, Steele says he will release Christine if she admits she was mistaken about Walter, she refuses. Detective Ybarra travels to a ranch in Wineville, Riverside County, the boys uncle, Gordon Northcott, has fled after a chance encounter with Ybarra, who mentions his business there being a juvenile matter. Clark tells Ybarra that Northcott forced him to kidnap and murder around twenty children
The Daily Mirror is a British national daily tabloid newspaper founded in 1903. It is owned by parent company Trinity Mirror, from 1985 to 1987, and from 1997 to 2002, the title on its masthead was simply The Mirror. It had a daily print circulation of 716,923 in December 2016. Its Sunday sister paper is the Sunday Mirror, originally pitched to the middle class reader, it was transformed into a working-class newspaper after 1934, in order to reach a large, lowbrow audience. The Mirror has had a number of owners and it was founded by Alfred Harmsworth, who sold it to his brother Harold Harmsworth in 1913. In 1963 a restructuring of the interests of the Harmsworth family led to the Mirror becoming a part of International Publishing Corporation. The Mirror was owned by Robert Maxwell between 1984 and 1991, the paper went through a protracted period of crisis after his death before merging with the regional newspaper group Trinity in 1999 to form Trinity Mirror. The paper has supported the Labour Party since the 1945 general election.
The Daily Mirror was launched on 2 November 1903 by Alfred Harmsworth as a newspaper for women, hence the name, he said, I intend it to be really a mirror of feminine life as well on its grave as on its lighter sides. To be entertaining without being frivolous, and serious without being dull and it was not an immediate success and in 1904 Harmsworth decided to turn it into a pictorial newspaper with a broader focus. Harmsworth appointed Hamilton Fyfe as editor and all of the female journalists were fired. The masthead was changed to The Daily Illustrated Mirror, which ran from 26 January to 27 April 1904, when it reverted to The Daily Mirror. The first issue of the paper did not have advertisements on the front page as previously. Two days later, the price was dropped to one halfpenny and to the masthead was added, circulation grew to 466,000 making it the second-largest morning newspaper. Alfred Harmsworth sold the newspaper to his brother Harold Harmsworth in 1913, in 1917, the price was increased to one penny.
Circulation continued to grow, in 1919, some issues more than a million copies a day. Lord Rothermere was a friend of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler, the Mirror was the first British paper to adopt the appearance of the New York tabloids. By 1939, the publication was selling 1.4 million copies a day, in 1937, Hugh McClelland introduced his wild Western comic strip Beelzebub Jones in the Daily Mirror
Folsom State Prison
Folsom State Prison is a California State Prison in Folsom, California, U. S. approximately 20 mi northeast of the state capital of Sacramento. It is one of 33 prisons operated by the California Department of Corrections, opened 137 years ago in 1880, Folsom is the states second-oldest prison, after San Quentin, and the first in the United States to have electricity. Folsom was one of the first maximum security prisons, Folsom is probably best known in popular culture for concerts performed at the facility by musician Johnny Cash, particularly in 1968, when the two shows of January 13 were made into a live album. He had written and recorded the song Folsom Prison Blues over a decade earlier, both FSP and California State Prison, Sacramento share the mailing address, Represa, CA95671. Represa is the name given in 1892 to the State Prison post office because of its proximity to a dam on the American River that was under construction at the time, the dam was replaced in 1955 by the Folsom Dam.
As of March 2012, the total population was 2,912. The facility includes five housing units within the perimeter, including the original two-tiered structure. Unit 1 is the most populous cellblock in the United States, all cells include a toilet, sink and storage space for inmate possessions. Prison facilities include two dining halls, a central prison exercise yard, and two smaller exercise yards. The visiting room includes an attached patio as well as space for non-contact visits, FSP is Californias second-oldest prison, long known for its harsh conditions in the decades following the California Gold Rush. Although FSP now houses primarily medium security prisoners, it was one of Americas first maximum-security prisons, construction of the facility began in 1878, on the site of the Stony Bar mining camp along the American River. Air holes were drilled into the doors in the 1940s. FSP was the first prison in the world to have electric power, after the state of California took sole control of the death penalty in 1891, executions were held at Folsom and San Quentin.
A total of 93 prisoners were hanged at FSP between December 13,1895, and December 3,1937, subsequent executions were carried out in the gas chamber at San Quentin. Additionally, Californias vehicle license plates have been manufactured at FSP since the 1930s, in 1968, Johnny Cash played a concert at the prison. Each attending prisoner lived in his own cell and nearly all were in a program or learning a trade. Most of the prisoners who were released did not return to prison after being released. Laura Sullivan of National Public Radio said that the costs of housing prisoners barely registered in the states budget, in 2009, Folsom was overcrowded, with 4,427 inmates
DeKalb /dᵻˈkælb/ is a city in DeKalb County, United States. The population was 43,862 according to the 2010 census, the city is named after decorated German war hero Johann de Kalb, who died during the American Revolutionary War. DeKalb was originally called DeKalb Centre, and under the name was platted in 1853. The name is for Baron Johann de Kalb, a general in the American Revolutionary War. A post office has been in operation at DeKalb since 1849, DeKalb is located at 41°55′53″N 88°45′1″W. According to the 2010 census, DeKalb has an area of 14.812 square miles. The Kishwaukee River flows northward through the city of DeKalb, on August 24,2007, the Kishwaukee River at DeKalb crested at 15.27 feet causing major flooding. This was only the time the river has risen above 15 feet since the level of the river has been recorded. DeKalb has a continental climate typical of northern Illinois, with four distinct seasons. Summers can be hot, while winters are cold and snowy, precipitation is somewhat uniform year-round, although it can be heavier in the spring and summer when the area is prone to strong thunderstorms.
DeKalb is governed by a Council-Manager government, policy is developed by an elected City Council implemented by an appointed professional City Manager. DeKalbs City Council is made up of a Mayor, elected at-large, each serves a four-year term, with half the council being elected every two years. A City Clerk is elected every four years who serves as the record keeper of the city. The Clerk is the primary Freedom of Information Act officer for the city, City council meetings are held the second and fourth Mondays of every month. DeKalb is home to Northern Illinois University, the citys largest employer, DeKalb is home to warehouses for several major companies, including Target, 3M, Nestlé, and Panduit, in part due to Dekalbs proximity to major highways such as I-88 and I-39. 3Ms complex serves as the hub for five of 3M’s six business units and export operations to North America, Africa. In 1984, the intersection of two streets in a popular NIU housing district in Dekalb begot the name of a consulting firm called Greenbrier & Russel.
In 2011, DeKalb was the broadcast base of Up and In, The Baseball Prospectus Podcast with Kevin Goldstein, the DeKalb Park District is responsible for the 44 parks and recreation facilities in DeKalb
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565