Broadway theatre known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world; the Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2017–2018 season total attendance was 13,792,614 and Broadway shows had US$1,697,458,795 in grosses, with attendance up 3.9%, grosses up 17.1%, playing weeks up 2.8%. The majority of Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the Western Hemisphere.
New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager, they established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida; the Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street. The Bowery Theatre opened followed by others. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere nightspots.
The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre; the Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class."The plays of William Shakespeare were performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth, internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, would revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, Charles Fechter. Theatre in New York moved from downtown to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. In the beginning of the 19th century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street. Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s.
New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866; the production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy". Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham.
These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of questionable repute who had starred in earlier m
Fraternities and sororities
Fraternities and sororities, or Greek letter organizations, are social organizations at colleges and universities. A form of the social fraternity, they are prominent in the United States, with small numbers of non-residential fraternities existing in France and the Philippines. Similar organizations exist in other countries as well, including the Studentenverbindungen of German-speaking countries. Similar, but much less common, organizations exist for secondary school students, as do fraternal orders for other adults. In modern usage, "Greek letter organization" is synonymous with the terms "fraternity" and "sorority". Two additional types of fraternities, professional fraternities and honor societies, incorporate some limited elements of traditional fraternity organization, but are considered a different type of association. Traditional fraternities of the type described in this article are called "social fraternities". Membership in a fraternity or sorority is obtained as an undergraduate student but continues, for life.
Some of these organizations can accept graduate students as well as undergraduates, per constitutional provisions. Individual fraternities and sororities vary in organization and purpose, but most share five common elements: Secrecy Single-sex membership Selection of new members on the basis of a two-part vetting and probationary process known as rushing and pledging Ownership and occupancy of a residential property where undergraduate members live A set of complex identification symbols that may include Greek letters, armorial achievements, badges, hand signs, passwords and colorsFraternities and sororities engage in philanthropic activities, host parties, provide "finishing" training for new members such as instruction on etiquette and manners, create networking opportunities for their newly graduated members; the first fraternity in North America to incorporate most of the elements of modern fraternities was Phi Beta Kappa, founded at the College of William and Mary in 1775. The founding of Phi Beta Kappa followed the earlier establishment of two other secret student societies that had existed at that campus as early as 1750.
In 1779 Phi Beta Kappa expanded to include chapters at Yale. By the early 19th century, the organization transformed itself into a scholastic honor society and abandoned secrecy. In 1825, Kappa Alpha Society, the oldest extant fraternity to retain its social characteristic, was established at Union College. In 1827, Sigma Phi and Delta Phi were founded at the same institution, creating the Union Triad; the further birthing of Psi Upsilon, Chi Psi and Theta Delta Chi collectively established Union College as the Mother of Fraternities. It should be noted that the social fraternity Chi Phi, although formed in 1854, traces its roots to 1824, oldest.org considers it the oldest social fraternity. Fraternities represented the intersection between dining clubs, literary societies and secret initiatory orders such as Freemasonry, their early growth was opposed by university administrators, though the increasing influence of fraternity alumni, as well as several high-profile court cases, succeeded in muting opposition by the 1880s.
The first fraternity meeting hall, or lodge, seems to have been that of the Alpha Epsilon chapter of Chi Psi at the University of Michigan in 1845, leading to a tradition in that fraternity to name its buildings "lodges". As fraternity membership was punishable by expulsion at many colleges at this time, the house was located deep in the woods; the first residential chapter home, built by a fraternity, is believed to have been Alpha Delta Phi's chapter at Cornell, with groundbreaking dated to 1878. Alpha Tau Omega became the first fraternity to own a residential house in the South when, in 1880, its chapter at the University of the South acquired one. Chapters of many fraternities followed suit and less building them with support of alumni. Phi Sigma Kappa's chapter home at Cornell, completed in 1902, is the oldest such house still occupied by its fraternal builders. Sororities began to develop in 1851 with the formation of the Adelphean Society Alpha Delta Pi, though fraternity-like organizations for women didn't take their current form until the establishment of Pi Beta Phi in 1867 and Kappa Alpha Theta in 1870.
The term "sorority" was invented by a professor of Latin who felt the word "fraternity" was inappropriate for a group of ladies. The first organization to use the term "sorority" was Gamma Phi Beta, established in 1874; the development of "fraternities for women" during this time was a major accomplishment in the way of women's rights and equality. By mere existence, these organizations were defying the odds; the first "Women's Fraternities" not only had to overcome "restrictive social customs, unequal status under the law and the underlying presumption that they were less able than men," but at the same time had to deal with the same challenges as fraternities with college administrations. Today, both social and multicultural sororities are present on more than 650 college campuses across the United States and Canada; the National Panhellenic Conference serves as the "umbrella organization" for 26 national sororities. Founded in 1902, the NPC is one of the oldest and largest women's membership organizations, representing more than 4 million women at 655 college/university campuses and 4,500 local alumnae chapters in the U.
S. and Canada. In 1867, the Chi Phi fraternity established its Theta chapter at the University of Edi
Alfredo James Pacino is an American actor and filmmaker who has had a career spanning more than five decades. He has received numerous accolades and honors both competitive and honorary, among them an Academy Award, two Tony Awards, two Primetime Emmy Awards, a British Academy Film Award, four Golden Globe Awards, the Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Film Institute, the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award and the National Medal of Arts, he is one of few performers to have won a competitive Oscar, an Emmy and a Tony Award for acting, dubbed the "Triple Crown of Acting". A method actor and former student of the HB Studio and the Actors Studio in New York City, where he was taught by Charlie Laughton and Lee Strasberg, Pacino made his feature film debut with a minor role in Me, Natalie and gained favorable notice for his lead role as a heroin addict in The Panic in Needle Park, he achieved international acclaim and recognition for his breakthrough role as Michael Corleone in Francis Ford Coppola's The Godfather receiving his first Oscar nomination and would reprise the role in the successful sequels The Godfather Part II and The Godfather Part III.
Pacino's performance as Michael Corleone in these films is regarded as one of the greatest screen performances in film history. Pacino received his first Best Actor Oscar nomination for Serpico, and Justice for All and won the award in 1993 for his performance as blind Lieutenant Colonel Slade in Scent of a Woman. For his performances in The Godfather, Dick Tracy and Glengarry Glen Ross, Pacino was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Other notable roles include Tony Montana in Scarface, Carlito Brigante in Carlito's Way, Lieutenant Vincent Hanna in Heat, Benjamin Ruggiero in Donnie Brasco, Lowell Bergman in The Insider and Detective Will Dormer in Insomnia. In television, Pacino has acted in several productions for HBO, including the miniseries Angels in America and the Jack Kevorkian biopic You Don't Know Jack. In addition to his work in film, Pacino has had an extensive career on stage, he is a two-time Tony Award winner, in 1969 and 1977, for his performances in Does a Tiger Wear a Necktie? and The Basic Training of Pavlo Hummel, respectively.
A lifelong fan of Shakespeare, Pacino directed and starred in Looking for Richard, a documentary film about the play Richard III, a role which Pacino had earlier portrayed on stage in 1977. He has acted as Shylock in a 2004 feature film adaptation and a 2010 stage production of The Merchant of Venice. Having made his filmmaking debut with Looking for Richard, Pacino has directed and starred in the independent film Chinese Coffee and the films Wilde Salomé and Salomé, about the play Salomé by Oscar Wilde. Since 1994, Pacino has been the joint president of the Actors Studio with Ellen Burstyn and Harvey Keitel. In 2016, he received the Kennedy Center Honor. Pacino was born in East Harlem, New York City, to Italian American parents Salvatore and Rose Pacino, his parents divorced. His mother took him to The Bronx where they lived with her parents and James Gerardi who were immigrants from Corleone, Sicily, his father, from San Fratello in the Province of Messina, moved to Covina, California to work as an insurance salesman and restaurateur.
In his teenage years, Pacino was known as "Sonny" to his friends. He had ambitions to become a baseball player and was nicknamed "The Actor". Pacino attended Herman Ridder Junior High School, but by secondary school he had dropped out of most of his classes except for English, he subsequently attended the High School of Performing Arts, after gaining admission by audition. His mother disagreed with his decision and, after an argument, he left home. To finance his acting studies, Pacino took low-paying jobs as messenger, busboy and postal clerk, once worked in the mailroom for Commentary magazine. Pacino began smoking and drinking at age nine, used marijuana casually at age 13, but he abstained from hard drugs, his two closest friends died from drug abuse at the ages of 19 and 30. Growing up in the Bronx, Pacino got into occasional fights and was considered somewhat of a troublemaker at school, he acted in basement plays in New York's theatrical underground but was rejected as a teenager by the Actors Studio.
Pacino joined the Herbert Berghof Studio, where he met acting teacher Charlie Laughton, who became his mentor and best friend. In this period, he was unemployed and homeless, sometimes slept on the street, in theaters, or at friends' houses. In 1962, his mother died at the age of 43; the following year, Pacino's grandfather James Gerardi died. Pacino recalled it as "the lowest point of my life". After four years at HB Studio, Pacino auditioned for the Actors Studio; the Actors Studio is a membership organization of professional actors, theatre directors, playwrights in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood of Manhattan. Pacino studied "method acting" under acting coach Lee Strasberg, who appeared with Pacino in the films The Godfather Part II and in... And Justice for All. During interviews he spoke about Strasberg and the Studio's effect on his career. "The Actors Studio meant so much to me in my life. Lee Strasberg hasn't been given the credit he deserves
Present Laughter is a comic play written by Noël Coward. The play's title comes from a song in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night, which urges carpe diem, so the word present in the title should be pronounced as the adjective, not the verb; the plot follows a few days in the life of the successful and self-obsessed light comedy actor Garry Essendine as he prepares to travel for a touring commitment in Africa. Amid a series of events bordering on farce, Garry has to deal with women who want to seduce him, placate both his long-suffering secretary and his estranged wife, cope with a crazed young playwright, overcome his impending mid-life crisis; the story was described by Coward as "a series of semi-autobiographical pyrotechnics". Coward starred as Garry Essendine in Present Laughter during the original run. Productions have featured actors such as Clifton Webb, Nigel Patrick, Albert Finney, Donald Sinden, Peter O'Toole, Simon Callow, Victor Garber, Ian McKellen and Kevin Kline in the lead role; the play has enjoyed numerous revivals in Europe and North America – including a US tour in 1958 with Coward reprising the Essendine role.
Coward wrote: "Present Laughter is a light comedy and was written with the sensible object of providing me with a bravura part". He completed the playscript in 1939, before the outbreak of World War II, but did not produce the plays until 1942. Given the hero's repeated laments over his own ageing and mortality, the title can be seen as ironic. Coward acknowledged that the central character, the egocentric actor Garry Essendine, was a self-caricature. Coward repeats one of his signature theatrical devices at the end of the play, where the main characters tiptoe out as the curtain falls – a device that he used in Private Lives, Hay Fever and Blithe Spirit. Coward had served the British government in intelligence work in the early years of the war. Winston Churchill advised Coward that he could do more for the war effort by entertaining the troops and the home front: "Go and sing to them when the guns are firing – that's your job!" Though disappointed, Coward followed this advice. He toured and sang indefatigably in Europe, Africa and America.
The play was first produced in Blackpool in September 1942, during Coward's wartime tour of Britain after he returned to the theatre. Sets and costumes were designed by Gladys Calthrop; the notices were excellent, with The Observer writing: "Mr Coward’s production is so inventive, his own performance so adroit in its mockery of the vain and yet self-scrutinising and self-amused matinee idol, that Present Laughter is to be future mirth for as long as Mr Coward cares to run it." The Manchester Guardian added: "One is tempted to cast discretion to the winds and predict that this will be remembered as the best comedy of its kind and generation...one of those rare occasions when the critic must claim the privilege of his fellow-playgoers to marvel and enjoy wholeheartedly." Coward brought the play to the Haymarket Theatre, London, in April 1947, where The Times praised it as "a wittily impudent and neatly invented burlesque of a French farce." Coward played in a French translation, Joyeux Chagrins, in Paris in 1948.
The play is published in Methuen's Noël Coward: Collected Plays Volume Four. Daphne Stillington – Jennifer Gray Miss Erikson – Molly Johnson Fred – Billy Thatcher Monica Reed – Beryl Measor Garry Essendine – Noël Coward Liz Essendine – Joyce Carey Roland Maule – James Donald Henry Lyppiatt – Gerald Case Morris Dixon – Dennis Price Joanna Lyppiatt – Judy Campbell Lady Saltburn – Gwen Floyd The play has been revived; the first major West End revival was with Nigel Patrick as Garry. The Times wrote: "plays as funny as this are no longer being written in England." Notable successors in the role of Garry include Albert Finney, Peter O'Toole, Terrence Hardiman, Donald Sinden, Tom Conti, Peter Bowles, Ian McKellen, David Threlfall, Rik Mayall, Simon Callow, Robert Bathurst. The Royal National Theatre revived the play in 2008 with Alex Jennings as Garry; as many of the star actors have been older than the fortyish Garry when they played the part, the text has sometimes been changed to refer to his recent fiftieth birthday.
In September 1956, a radio production was broadcast by the BBC with John Gielgud as Garry, Nora Swinburne as Liz and Mary Wimbush as Joanna. As part of Play of the Week in August 1964 four Coward plays directed and produced by Joan Kemp-Welch were transmitted on ITV, including Present Laughter, with Peter Wyngarde as Garry Essendine, Ursula Howells as Liz Essendine, Barbara Murray as Joanna Lyppiatt and James Bolam as Roland Maule. In 1974, Paul Scofield broadcast the lead role for the BBC, with Fenella Fielding as Joanna, Patricia Routledge as Monica, Miriam Margolyes as Daphne, Joy Parker as Liz. In April 2013, a radio adaptation directed by Celia de Wolff was broadcast on BBC Radio 4. Present Laughter was first staged in the United States on 29 October 1946 at the Plymouth Theatre on Broadway, it featured Clifton Webb as Garry. It closed in March 1947 after 158 performances. In 1958 Coward appeared in New York, San Francisco, Los Angeles as Garry with Eva Gabor as Joanna. In 1982 George C. Scott directed and starred in a revival at Circle in the Square Theatre, which featured the Broadway début of Nathan Lane as Roland Maule.
Napalm is an incendiary mixture of a gelling agent and a volatile petrochemical. The title is a portmanteau of the names of two of the constituents of the original thickening and gelling agents: co-precipitated aluminium salts of naphthenic and palmitic acids. Napalm B is the more modern version of napalm and, although distinctly different in its chemical composition, is referred to as "napalm". Napalm was developed in 1942 in a secret laboratory at Harvard University, by a team led by chemist Louis Fieser under the United States Chemical Warfare Service. Of immediate first interest was its viability as an incendiary device to be used in fire bombing campaigns during World War II, but its ability to be coherently projected into a solid stream that would carry for distance resulted in widespread adoption in infantry/combat engineer flamethrowers as well. Napalm burns at the same temperature as gasoline, for a greater duration, as well as being more dispersed and sticking tenaciously to its targets.
It has been used in both the air and ground role, with the largest used to date being via air-dropped bombs in World War II, close air support roles in Korea and Vietnam. Napalm has fueled most of the flamethrowers used since World War II, giving them much greater range, was used in this role as a common weapon of urban combat by both the Axis and Allies in World War II. Multiple nations maintain large stockpiles of napalm-based weapons of various types. Napalm was used in flamethrowers and tanks in World War II, it is believed to have been formulated to burn at a specific rate and to adhere to surfaces to increase its stopping power. During combustion, napalm deoxygenates the available air and generates large amounts of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Alternative compositions exist for different uses, e.g. triethylaluminium, a pyrophoric compound that aids ignition. Use of fire in warfare has a long history. Greek fire described as "sticky fire", is believed to have had a petroleum base; the development of napalm was precipitated by the use of jellied gasoline mixtures by the Allied forces during World War II.
Latex, used in these early forms of incendiary devices, became scarce, since natural rubber was impossible to obtain after the Japanese army captured the rubber plantations in Malaya, Indonesia and Thailand. This shortage of natural rubber prompted chemists at US companies such as DuPont and Standard Oil, researchers at Harvard University, to develop factory-made alternatives—artificial rubber for all uses, including vehicle tires, tank tracks, hoses, medical supplies and rain clothing. A team of chemists led by Louis Fieser at Harvard University was the first to develop synthetic napalm, during 1942. "The production of napalm was first entrusted to Nuodex Products, by the middle of April 1942 they had developed a brown, dry powder, not sticky by itself, but when mixed with gasoline turned into an sticky and inflammable substance." One of Fieser's colleagues suggested adding phosphorus to the mix which increased the "ability to penetrate deeply...into the musculature, where it would continue to burn day after day."On 4 July 1942, the first test occurred on the football field near the Harvard Business School.
Tests under operational conditions were carried out at Jefferson Proving Ground on condemned farm buildings, subsequently at Dugway Proving Ground on buildings designed and constructed to represent those to be found in German and Japanese towns. This new mixture of chemicals was used in the Second World War in incendiary bombs and in flamethrowers. From 1965 to 1969, the Dow Chemical Company manufactured napalm B for the American armed forces. After news reports of napalm B's deadly and disfiguring effects were published, Dow Chemical experienced boycotts of its products, its recruiters for new chemists, chemical engineers, etc. graduating from college were subject to campus boycotts and protests. The management of the company decided that its "first obligation was the government." Meanwhile, napalm B became a symbol for the Vietnam War. Napalm went on to be used as fuel for flamethrowers; the first recorded strategic use of napalm incendiary bombs occurred in an attack by the US Army Air Force on Berlin on 6 March 1944, using American AN-M76 incendiary bombs with PT-1 filler.
The first known tactical use by the USAAF was by the 368th Fighter Group, 9th Air Force Northeast of Compeigne, France 27 May 1944 and the British De Havilland Mosquito FB Mk. VIs of No. 140 Wing RAF, Second Tactical Air Force on 14 July 1944, which employed the AN-M76 incendiary in a reprisal attack on the 17th SS Panzergrenadier Division „Götz von Berlichingen“ in Bonneuil-Matours. Soldiers of this Waffen SS unit had captured and killed a British SAS prisoner-of-war, Lt. Tomos Stephens, taking part in Operation Bulbasket, seven local Resistance fighters. Although it was not known at the time of the air strike, 31 other POWs from the same SAS unit, an American airman who had joined up with the SAS unit, had been executed. Further use of napalm by American forces occurred in the Pacific theater of operations, where in 1944 and 1945, napalm was used as a tactical weapon against Japanese bu
The Heidi Chronicles
The Heidi Chronicles is a 1988 play by Wendy Wasserstein. The play won the 1989 Pulitzer Prize for Drama. A workshop production at Seattle Repertory Theatre was held in April 1988, directed by Daniel J. Sullivan; the play premiered Off-Broadway at Playwrights Horizons on November 18, 1988 and closed on February 19, 1989 after 99 performances. It transferred to Broadway at the Plymouth Theatre, opening on March 9, 1989 and closing on September 1, 1990, after 622 performances. Both productions were directed by Sullivan; the set design was by Thomas Lynch, costume design by Jennifer von Mayrhauser and lighting design by Pat Collins. The cast starred Joan Allen as Heidi, Boyd Gaines as Peter, Peter Friedman as Scoop. Sarah Jessica Parker was featured in three small roles off-Broadway. Replacement actors on Broadway included Christine Lahti, Brooke Adams, Mary McDonnell as Heidi, David Hyde Pierce as Peter, Tony Shalhoub as Scoop. Two Broadway Heidis married the actor who played opposite them as Scoop: Joan Allen and Peter Friedman and Brooke Adams and Tony Shalhoub.
The first major production mounted after Wasserstein's death in January 2006 was at the Berkshire Theatre Festival in August and September 2006, featuring Kate Jennings Grant. On September 30, 2011, produced by The English Theatre of Rome and directed by Gaby Ford, the play premiered in Italy, at Rome's Teatro dell'Arciliuto near Piazza Navona, to wide acclaim. A revival began Broadway previews on February 2015, at the Music Box Theatre; the cast featured Elisabeth Moss in the title role, Bryce Pinkham as Peter Patrone and Jason Biggs as Scoop Rosenbaum, directed by Pam MacKinnon. The play opened on March 19; the production was scheduled to play through August 9, 2015 but closed on May 3 due to low ticket sales. The plot follows Heidi Holland from high school in the 1960s to her career as a successful art historian more than twenty years later; the play's main themes deal with the changing role of women during this time period, describing both Heidi's ardent feminism during the 1970s and her eventual sense of betrayal during the 1980s.
Though most of the characters are women, there are two important male characters. Heidi meets Scoop at a Eugene McCarthy rally where he tries to woo her with wit, she seems unenthused and lies about her name to Scoop but is soon convinced as she realizes Scoop is a intelligent, attractive man despite his egotistical ways. The scene in which they first meet ends with night together, it is ambiguously implied. Although they don't work out romantically, the chemistry between Scoop and Heidi is insatiable and they go on to be lifelong friends. Heidi realizes that not marrying does not mean she cannot be a mother and takes matters into her own hands, she chooses to adopt a child on her own. The New York Times critic Mel Gussow wrote of the Playwrights Horizon production: "Ms. Wasserstein has always been a clever writer of comedy; this time she has been exceedingly watchful about not settling for easy laughter, the result is a more penetrating play. This is not to suggest, that The Heidi Chronicles is lacking in humor."The new Jerry Seinfeld sitcom pilot that premiered on NBC in July 1989 was entitled The Seinfeld Chronicles as an homage to Wasserstein's zeitgeist-dominating play.
The show's title was shortened to Seinfeld. In 1995, the play was adapted as a television film, it starred Jamie Lee Curtis and Tom Hulce in the leading roles. Source:playbillvault.com The Heidi Chronicles at the Internet Broadway Database The Heidi Chronicles at the Internet Off-Broadway Database The Heidi Chronicles on IMDb