Caerphilly is a town and community in South Wales, at the southern end of the Rhymney Valley. It is the largest town in Caerphilly County Borough, within the historic borders of Glamorgan, on the border with Monmouthshire. At the 2001 Census, the town had a population of 30,388, it is a commuter town for Cardiff and Newport, 7.5 miles and 12 miles away and is separated from the Cardiff suburbs of Lisvane and Rhiwbina by Caerphilly mountain and gives its name to Caerphilly cheese. The town's site has long been of strategic significance. Around AD 75 a fort was built by the Romans during their conquest of Britain. An excavation of the site in 1963 showed that the fort was occupied by Roman forces until the middle of the 2nd century. Tradition states that a monastery was built in the area by St Cenydd. Nonetheless, the district was named Senghenydd after him, Cenydd's son, St Ffili, is said to have built a fort in the area and thus gave the town its name. Another explanation is that it is named after Philip de Braose.
Following the Norman invasion of Wales in the late 11th century, the area of Sengenhydd remained in Welsh hands. By the middle of the 12th century the area was under the control of the Welsh chieftain Ifor Bach, his grandson Gruffydd ap Rhys was the final Welsh lord of Sengenhydd, falling to the English nobleman Gilbert de Clare, the Red Earl, in 1266. In 1267 Henry III was forced to recognise Llywelyn ap Gruffudd as Prince of Wales, by September 1268 Llywelyn had secured northern Sengenhydd. Gilbert de Clare had begun to take steps to consolidate his own territorial gains, beginning the construction of Caerphilly Castle on 11 April 1268; the castle would act as a buffer against Llewelyn's own territorial ambitions and was attacked by the Prince of Wales' forces before construction was halted in 1270. Construction recommenced in 1271 and was continued under the Red Earl's son, Gilbert de Clare, 8th Earl of Gloucester. With only interior remodelling carried out to the castle by Hugh le Despenser in the 1320s, Caerphilly Castle remains a pure example of 13th century military architecture and is the largest castle in Wales, the second largest in Britain.
The original town of Caerphilly grew up as a small settlement raised just south of the castle by De Clare. After the death of Gilbert de Clare at the battle of Bannockburn in 1314, Edward II became guardian of De Clare's three sisters and heiresses. In 1315 he replaced de Badlesmere with a new English administrator, Payn de Turberville of Coity, who persecuted the people of Glamorgan. Like many in northern Europe at the time, the region was in the throes of a serious famine. In coming to the defence of his people, Llywelyn Bren, the great grandson of Ifor Bach and Welsh Lord of Senghenydd incurred the wrath of de Turberville, who charged him with sedition. Llywelyn appealed to Edward II to call off or control his self-interested agent, but Edward ordered Llywelyn to appear before Parliament to face the charge of treason; the King promised Llywelyn. Llywelyn prepared for war. On 28 January 1316, Llywelyn began the revolt by a surprise attack on Caerphilly Castle, he captured the constable outside the castle and the outer ward but could not break into the inner defences.
They started a siege. The town was rebuilt but remained small throughout the Middle Ages; the first evidence of its emerging importance was the construction of a court house in the 14th century, the only pre-19th century building remaining in the town. At the beginning of the 15th century the castle was again attacked, this time by Owain Glyndŵr, who took control of the castle around 1403-05. Repairs to the castle continued until at least 1430, but just a century the antiquary John Leland recorded that the castle was a ruin set in marshland, with a single tower being used as a prison. In the mid-16th century the 2nd Earl of Pembroke used the castle as a manorial court, but in 1583 the castle was leased to Thomas Lewis, who accelerated the castle's dilapidation by removing stonework to build his nearby manor, The Van; the Lewis family, who claimed descent from Ifor Bach, left the manor in the mid-18th century when they purchased St Fagans Castle, The Van falling into decay. During the 1700s, Caerphilly began to grow into a market town, during the 19th century, as the South Wales valleys underwent massive growth through industrialisation, so too the town's population grew.
Caerphilly railway station was opened in 1871, in 1899 the Rhymney Railway built their Caerphilly railway works maintenance facilities. Caerphilly is featured in the Fury. Protests and a prayer meeting were held outside the Castle Cinema on the evening of 14 December 1976, when the Pistols were playing a concert there. However, at this point in time, Caerphilly was one of the few councils that would allow the group to perform; the castle of Caerphilly was used as a filming location for Merlin and the Doctor Who episodes The Rebel Flesh and The Almost People. Caerphilly hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1950. Caerphilly is the birthplace of comedian Tommy Cooper, Newport County midfielder David Pipe and Arsenal midfielder Aaron Ramsey, it was home to Cardiff City F. C. and Wales footballer Robert Earnshaw, following his family's move from Zambia. The town has a rugby union club, Caerphilly RFC, who play in Division Three East of t
Cardiff is the capital of Wales, its largest city. The eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom, it is Wales's chief commercial centre, the base for most national cultural institutions and Welsh media, the seat of the National Assembly for Wales. At the 2011 census, the unitary authority area population was estimated to be 346,090, the wider urban area 479,000. Cardiff is a significant tourist centre and the most popular visitor destination in Wales with 21.3 million visitors in 2017. In 2011, Cardiff was ranked sixth in the world in National Geographic's alternative tourist destinations. Cardiff is the county town of the historic county of Glamorgan. Cardiff is part of the Eurocities network of the largest European cities. A small town until the early 19th century, its prominence as a major port for the transport of coal following the arrival of industry in the region contributed to its rise as a major city. In 1905, Cardiff was made a city and proclaimed the capital of Wales in 1955. At the 2011 Census the population was 346,090.
The Cardiff Built-up Area covers a larger area outside the county boundary and includes the towns of Dinas Powys and Penarth. Since the 1980s, Cardiff has seen significant development. A new waterfront area at Cardiff Bay contains the Senedd building, home to the Welsh Assembly and the Wales Millennium Centre arts complex. Current developments include the continuation of the redevelopment of the Cardiff Bay and city centre areas with projects such as the Cardiff International Sports Village, a BBC drama village, a new business district in the city centre. Sporting venues in the city include the Principality Stadium—the national stadium and the home of the Wales national rugby union team—Sophia Gardens, Cardiff City Stadium, Cardiff International Sports Stadium, Cardiff Arms Park and Ice Arena Wales; the city hosted Commonwealth Games. The city was awarded the title of European City of Sport twice, due to its role in hosting major international sporting events: first in 2009 and again in 2014.
The Principality Stadium hosted 11 football matches as part of the 2012 Summer Olympics, including the games' opening event and the men's bronze medal match. Caerdydd derives from the earlier Welsh form Caerdyf; the change from -dyf to -dydd shows the colloquial alteration of Welsh f and dd, was also driven by folk etymology. This sound change had first occurred in the Middle Ages. Caerdyf has its origins in post-Roman Brythonic words meaning "the fort of the Taff"; the fort refers to that established by the Romans. Caer is Welsh for fort and -dyf is in effect a form of Taf, the river which flows by Cardiff Castle, with the ⟨t⟩ showing consonant mutation to ⟨d⟩ and the vowel showing affection as a result of a genitive case ending; the anglicised form Cardiff is derived from Caerdyf, with the Welsh f borrowed as ff, as happens in Taff and Llandaff. As English does not have the vowel the final vowel has been borrowed as; the antiquarian William Camden suggested that the name Cardiff may derive from *Caer-Didi, a name given in honour of Aulus Didius Gallus, governor of a nearby province at the time when the Roman fort was established.
Although some sources repeat this theory, it has been rejected on linguistic grounds by modern scholars such as Professor Gwynedd Pierce. Archaeological evidence from sites in and around Cardiff: the St Lythans burial chamber near Wenvoe,. A group of five Bronze Age tumuli is at the summit of the Garth, within the county's northern boundary. Four Iron Age hill fort and enclosure sites have been identified within Cardiff's present-day county boundaries, including Caerau Hillfort, an enclosed area of 5.1 hectares. Until the Roman conquest of Britain, Cardiff was part of the territory of the Silures – a Celtic British tribe that flourished in the Iron Age – whose territory included the areas that would become known as Breconshire and Glamorgan; the 3.2-hectare fort established by the Romans near the mouth of the River Taff in AD 75, in what would become the north western boundary of the centre of Cardiff, was built over an extensive settlement, established by the Romans in the 50s AD. The fort was one of a series of military outposts associated with Isca Augusta that acted as border defences.
The fort may have been abandoned in the early 2nd century. However, by this time a civilian settlement, or vicus, was established, it was made up of traders who made a living from the fort, ex-soldiers and their families. A Roman villa has been discovered at Ely. Contemporary with the Saxon Shore Forts of th
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism, which traces its origins to Britain Scotland. Presbyterian churches derive their name from the presbyterian form of church government, governed by representative assemblies of elders. A great number of Reformed churches are organized this way, but the word Presbyterian, when capitalized, is applied uniquely to churches that trace their roots to the Church of Scotland, as well as several English dissenter groups that formed during the English Civil War. Presbyterian theology emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures, the necessity of grace through faith in Christ. Presbyterian church government was ensured in Scotland by the Acts of Union in 1707, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. In fact, most Presbyterians found in England can trace a Scottish connection, the Presbyterian denomination was taken to North America by Scots and Scots-Irish immigrants; the Presbyterian denominations in Scotland hold to the Reformed theology of John Calvin and his immediate successors, although there is a range of theological views within contemporary Presbyterianism.
Local congregations of churches which use presbyterian polity are governed by sessions made up of representatives of the congregation. The roots of Presbyterianism lie in the Reformation of the 16th century, the example of John Calvin's Republic of Geneva being influential. Most Reformed churches that trace their history back to Scotland are either presbyterian or congregationalist in government. In the twentieth century, some Presbyterians played an important role in the ecumenical movement, including the World Council of Churches. Many Presbyterian denominations have found ways of working together with other Reformed denominations and Christians of other traditions in the World Communion of Reformed Churches; some Presbyterian churches have entered into unions with other churches, such as Congregationalists, Lutherans and Methodists. Presbyterians in the United States came from Scottish immigrants, Scotch-Irish immigrants, from New England Yankee communities, Congregational but changed because of an agreed-upon Plan of Union of 1801 for frontier areas.
Along with Episcopalians, Presbyterians tend to be wealthier and better educated than most other religious groups in United States, are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business and politics. Presbyterian tradition that of the Church of Scotland, traces its early roots to the Church founded by Saint Columba, through the 6th century Hiberno-Scottish mission. Tracing their apostolic origin to Saint John, the Culdees practiced Christian monasticism, a key feature of Celtic Christianity in the region, with a presbyter exercising "authority within the institution, while the different monastic institutions were independent of one another." The Church in Scotland kept the Christian feast of Easter at a date different from the See of Rome and its monks used a unique style of tonsure. The Synod of Whitby in 664, ended these distinctives as it ruled "that Easter would be celebrated according to the Roman date, not the Celtic date." Although Roman influence came to dominate the Church in Scotland, certain Celtic influences remained in the Scottish Church, such as "the singing of metrical psalms, many of them set to old Celtic Christianity Scottish traditional and folk tunes", which became a "distinctive part of Scottish Presbyterian worship".
Presbyterian history is part of the history of Christianity, but the beginning of Presbyterianism as a distinct movement occurred during the 16th-century Protestant Reformation. As the Catholic Church resisted the reformers, several different theological movements splintered from the Church and bore different denominations. Presbyterianism was influenced by the French theologian John Calvin, credited with the development of Reformed theology, the work of John Knox, a Scotsman and a Roman Catholic Priest, who studied with Calvin in Geneva, Switzerland, he brought back Reformed teachings to Scotland. The Presbyterian church traces its ancestry back to England and Scotland. In August 1560 the Parliament of Scotland adopted the Scots Confession as the creed of the Scottish Kingdom. In December 1560, the First Book of Discipline was published, outlining important doctrinal issues but establishing regulations for church government, including the creation of ten ecclesiastical districts with appointed superintendents which became known as presbyteries.
In time, the Scots Confession would be supplanted by the Westminster Confession of Faith, the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, which were formulated by the Westminster Assembly between 1643 and 1649. Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by doctrine, institutional organization and worship; the origins of the Presbyterian churches are in Calvinism. Many branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups; some of the splits have been due to doctrinal controversy, while some have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Westminster Confession of Faith, which serves as an important confessional document – second only to the Bible, yet directing particularities in the standardization and translation of the Bible – in Presbyterian churches. Presbyteria
A stipend is a regular fixed sum of money paid for services or to defray expenses, such as for scholarship, internship, or apprenticeship. It is distinct from an income or a salary because it does not represent payment for work performed. Stipends are lower than what would be expected as a permanent salary for similar work; this is because the stipend is complemented by other benefits such as accreditation, food, and/or accommodation. Some graduate schools make stipend payments to help students have the time and funds to earn their academic degree. Universities refer to money paid to graduate students as a stipend, rather than wages, to reflect complementary benefits. Stipends can be used to compensate interns at non-profits, however they are discouraged to be used for volunteers as this may require that they be reported as employees and therefore tax paid on the stipend; this type of stipend is temporary and lasts for less than a year. In the Catholic Church, a Mass Stipend is a payment made by members of the church, nominal, to a priest for saying a Mass, not part of his normal course of work.
It is considered simony to demand payment for a sacrament, thus, stipends are seen as gifts. In the Church of England, a stipend refers to the salary of a stipendiary minister, one who receives payment directly from the diocese. A self-supporting minister is therefore one, licensed to perform clerical duties but without receiving any kind of payment from the diocese — although non-stipendiary ministers receive reimbursement of expenses incurred in pursuit of their duties, e.g. travel and telephone costs. Non-stipendiary ministers depend on secular employment or pensions for their income and are unavailable for pastoral duties when they are fulfilling their obligations to their employer. Stipends have been used to erode employee-employer relationship and to hire junior teaching and research staff with lower pay and worse working conditions. Compulsory Rotatory Residential Internship Graduate assistant Honorarium - sometimes referred to as a stipend in the UK
William Roos was a Welsh artist and engraver. Several of Roos' portraits of notable Welsh figures, are owned by the National Library of Wales. Roos was born in 1808 to Mary Roose of Bodgadfa, Amlwch on the Isle of Anglesey. Although no exact date of birth exists, he was christened on 30 April 1808. In 1858, at the National Eisteddfod at Llangollen, Roos' paintings The Death of Owen Glyndwr and The Death of Captain Wynn at Alma won the second place prize. Although based in Wales, he spent periods of time in London and travelled in order to sustain his potrair work. A popular portrait painter, several of his portraits are now held at the National Museum of Wales, including oils of preacher Christmas Evans, Thomas Charles, John Cox, poet John Jones; the Museum houses several mezzotints and lithograph portraits by him. Roos, William Welsh Biography Online
John Bunyan was an English writer and Puritan preacher best remembered as the author of the Christian allegory The Pilgrim's Progress. In addition to The Pilgrim's Progress, Bunyan wrote nearly sixty titles, many of them expanded sermons. Bunyan came near Bedford, he had some schooling and at the age of sixteen joined the Parliamentary Army during the first stage of the English Civil War. After three years in the army he returned to Elstow and took up the trade of tinker, which he had learned from his father, he became interested in religion after his marriage, attending first the parish church and joining the Bedford Meeting, a nonconformist group in Bedford, becoming a preacher. After the restoration of the monarch, when the freedom of nonconformists was curtailed, Bunyan was arrested and spent the next twelve years in jail as he refused to give up preaching. During this time he wrote a spiritual autobiography, Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners, began work on his most famous book, The Pilgrim's Progress, not published until some years after his release.
Bunyan's years, in spite of another shorter term of imprisonment, were spent in relative comfort as a popular author and preacher, pastor of the Bedford Meeting. He is buried in Bunhill Fields; the Pilgrim's Progress became one of the most published books in the English language. He is remembered in the Church of England with a Lesser Festival on 30 August, on the liturgical calendar of the United States Episcopal Church on 29 August; some other churches of the Anglican Communion, such as the Anglican Church of Australia, honour him on the day of his death. John Bunyan was born in 1628 to Thomas and Margaret Bunyan at Bunyan's End in the parish of Elstow, Bedfordshire. Bunyan's End is about halfway between the hamlet of Elstow High Street. Bunyan's date of birth is not known, but he was baptised on 30 November 1628, the baptismal entry in the parish register reading "John the sonne of Thomas Bunnion Jun. the 30 November". The name Bunyan had its origins in the Norman-French name Buignon. There had been Bunyans in north Bedfordshire since at least 1199.
Bunyan's father was a brazier or tinker who travelled around the area mending pots and pans, his grandfather had been a chapman or small trader. The Bunyans owned land in Elstow, so Bunyan's origins were not quite as humble as he suggested in his autobiographical work Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners when he wrote that his father's house was "of that rank, meanest and most despised in the country"; as a child Bunyan was given some rudimentary schooling. In Grace Abounding Bunyan recorded few details of his upbringing, but he did note how he picked up the habit of swearing, suffered from nightmares, read the popular stories of the day in cheap chap-books. In the summer of 1644 Bunyan lost both his sister Margaret; that autumn, shortly before or after his sixteenth birthday, Bunyan enlisted in the Parliamentary army when an edict demanded 225 recruits from the town of Bedford. There are few details available about his military service, which took place during the first stage of the English Civil War.
A muster roll for the garrison of Newport Pagnell shows him as private "John Bunnian". In Grace Abounding, he recounted an incident from this time, as evidence of the grace of God: When I was a Souldier, I, with others, were drawn out to go to such a place to besiege it. Bunyan's army service provided him with a knowledge of military language which he used in his book The Holy War, exposed him to the ideas of the various religious sects and radical groups he came across in Newport Pagnell; the garrison town gave him opportunities to indulge in the sort of behaviour he would confess to in Grace Abounding: "So that until I came to the state of Marriage, I was the ringleader of all the Youth that kept me company, in all manner of vice and ungodliness". Bunyan spent nearly three years in the army, leaving in 1647 to return to Elstow and his trade as a tinker, his father had remarried and had more children and Bunyan moved from Bunyan's End to a cottage in Elstow High Street. Within two years of leaving the army, Bunyan married.
The name of his wife and the exact date of his marriage are not known, but Bunyan did recall that his wife, a pious young woman, brought with her into the marriage two books that she had inherited from her father: Arthur Dent's Plain Man's Pathway to Heaven and Lewis Bayly's Practice of Piety. He recalled that, apart from these two books, the newly-weds possessed little: "not having so much household-stuff as a Dish or a Spoon betwixt us both"; the couple's first daughter, was born in 1650, it soon became apparent that she was blind. They would have three more children, Elizabeth and John. By his own account, Bunyan had as a youth enjoyed bell-ringing and playing games including on Sunday, forbidden by the Puritans, who held a high view of Sunday, called the Lord's Day. One Sunday the vicar of Elstow preached a sermon against Sabbath breaking, Bunyan took this sermon to heart; that afternoon, as he was playing tip-cat (a game in which a small piece of wood is hit with a
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC