A preschool known as nursery school, pre-primary school, playschool or kindergarten, is an educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education at primary school. It may be publicly or operated, may be subsidized from public funds. Terminology varies by country. In some European countries the term "kindergarten" refers to formal education of children classified as ISCED level 0 - with one or several years of such education being compulsory - before children start primary school at ISCED level 1; the following terms may be used for educational establishments for this age group: Pre-Primary from 6 weeks old to 6 years old- is an educational childcare service a parent can enroll their child in before primary school. May be used to define services for children younger than kindergarten age in countries where kindergarten is compulsory; the Pre-Primary program takes place in a Nursery School. Nursery School from 0 months to 5 years old- is a pre-primary educational child care institution which includes Preschool.
Daycare from 0 months to 2½ years old- held in a Nursery School, but can be called "a child care service" or a "crèche". Preschool from 3 to 4 years old- held in a Nursery School. Preschool education is important and beneficial for any child attending nursery school because it gives the child a head start through social interactions. Through Cognitive and Physical developments based learning a child in preschool will learn about their environment and how to verbal communicate with others. Children who attend Preschool learns how the world works around them through communication. During this school year children will learn how to properly express themselves, communicate with their classroom, follow classroom rules, proper hygiene and how to sleep during naptime, they will learn simple English like how to identify all the letters in the alphabet, write their full name, the beginnings of phonics and how to trace all the letters in the alphabet. In Math class they will learn how to identify basic shapes, recognize size difference, count to 100, how to trace numbers 1-10 and simple adding & subtracting.
In Science class they do simple things learning the name's of different types of weather, the names of the season and animals name, environmental habits & sounds. In Social Studies they'll learn about places that teenager or adult see/visit in everyday life, how things work in certain public places and what are the names & jobs of the people who work in our communities. During recesses-playtime-lunchtime, children will interact with their peers playing dress-up, interacting on the playground, eating lunch/snack together and how to play certain games with others. Children can express themselves creativity during Arts & Crafts class by learning the names of the colors, creating an craft projects using their imagination, listening to music and learning the different sounds of an instrument; some nursery schools do immersion programs or dual language programs were a child can learn to understand and speak different languages at this age too. *By the end of preschool children will know how to recite their full name, home phone number, know their parents/guardian full name, the names of the days of the week & month.
Pre-K from 4 to 5 years old- held in Nursery School and is an initiative to improve access to pre-primary schools for children in the USA. There is much more than teaching a child colors, shapes and so on; the children need to learn how to follow rules, feed themselves with minimal assistance, learning how hygiene skills, learn how to use the bathroom without needing as much help. The teachers are there to help guide children into the right path making sure he/she is sharing, retaining information learned in the classroom and helping make sure the child becomes be a model citizen by teaching them to treat others with respect & kindness. In Pre-K children will recap all that they learned in Preschool and expand on what they know. In English class children will learn basic phonics on how to sound out words, how to write their name, write all the letters in the alphabet and how to read & write simple sight words. In Math class children will learn how to tell time, learn all the 2D/3D shapes, count into 3-digits numbers, be able to add & subtract 2 digit numbers, count by ones, tens and what is a minute, hour, day and year is.
In Social Studies class they will have to be able to identify places on a map such as the country they live in, the name os the continents, learn the names of different ethnic-racial groups, their cultures & customs and where people originate on the map. In Science class they learn how weather works and impacts the environment, how food is harvested and how it gets to the supermarket, how to plant seeds in a garden, reduce/reuse/recycle, how to group animals based on habit and environment on a map. During recesses-playtime-lunchtime children learn how to follow step by step instructions in many extra curricular activities, use their imagination to problem solve puzzles or during a game, play dress up to create stories, learn how to share with others. Children can express themselves creatively during Arts & Crafts time by learning about secondary colors, using their imagination to create step-by-step art projects, doing certain dances to music, reading music to play an instrument. By the end of Pre-K the child should have the basic knowledge to enter Kindergarten and excel and shoul
Mixed-sex education known as mixed-gender education, co-education or coeducation, is a system of education where males and females are educated together. Whereas single-sex education was more common up to the 19th century, mixed-sex education has since become standard in many cultures in Western countries. Single-sex education, remains prevalent in many Muslim countries; the relative merits of both systems have been the subject of debate. The world's oldest co-educational day and boarding school is Dollar Academy, a junior and senior school for males and females from ages 5 to 18 in Scotland, United Kingdom. From its opening in 1818 the school admitted both boys and girls of the parish of Dollar and the surrounding area; the school continues in existence to the present day with around 1,250 pupils. The first co-educational college to be founded was Oberlin Collegiate Institute in Ohio, it opened on December 3, 1833, including 29 men and 15 women. Equal status for women did not arrive until 1837, the first three women to graduate with bachelor's degrees did so in 1840.
By the late 20th century, many institutions of higher learning, for people of one sex had become coeducational. In early civilizations, people were educated informally: within the household; as time progressed, education became more formal. Women had few rights when education started to become a more important aspect of civilization. Efforts of the ancient Greek and Chinese societies focused on the education of males. In ancient Rome, the availability of education was extended to women, but they were taught separately from men; the early Christians and medieval Europeans continued this trend, single-sex schools for the privileged classes prevailed through the Reformation period. In the 16th century, at the Council of Trent, the Roman Catholic church reinforced the establishment of free elementary schools for children of all classes; the concept of universal elementary education, regardless of sex, had been created. After the Reformation, coeducation was introduced in western Europe, when certain Protestant groups urged that boys and girls should be taught to read the Bible.
The practice became popular in northern England and colonial New England, where young children, both male and female, attended dame schools. In the late 18th century, girls were admitted to town schools; the Society of Friends in England, as well as in the United States, pioneered coeducation as they did universal education, in Quaker settlements in the British colonies and girls attended school together. The new free public elementary, or common schools, which after the American Revolution supplanted church institutions, were always coeducational, by 1900 most public high schools were coeducational as well. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, coeducation grew much more accepted. In Great Britain and the Soviet Union, the education of girls and boys in the same classes became an approved practice. In Australia there is a trend towards increased coeducational schooling with new coeducational schools opening, few new single sex schools opening and existing single sex schools combining or opening their doors to the opposite gender.
The first mixed-sex institution of higher learning in China was the Nanjing Higher Normal Institute, renamed National Central University and Nanjing University. For millennia in China, public schools public higher learning schools, were for men. Only schools established by zongzu were for both male and female students; some schools such as Li Zhi's school in Ming Dynasty and Yuan Mei's school in Qing Dynasty enrolled both male and female students. In the 1910s women's universities were established such as Ginling Women's University and Peking Girls' Higher Normal School, but there were no coeducation in higher learning schools. Tao Xingzhi, the Chinese advocator of mixed-sex education, proposed The Audit Law for Women Students at the meeting of Nanjing Higher Normal School held on December seventh, 1919, he proposed that the university recruit female students. The idea was supported by the president Guo Bingwen, academic director Liu Boming, such famous professors as Lu Zhiwei and Yang Xingfo, but opposed by many famous men of the time.
The meeting decided to recruit women students next year. Nanjing Higher Normal School enrolled eight Chinese female students in 1920. In the same year Peking University began to allow women students to audit classes. One of the most notable female students of that time was Jianxiong Wu. In 1949, the People's Republic of China was founded; the Chinese government has provided more equal opportunities for education since and all schools and universities have become mixed-sex. In recent years, many female and/or single-sex schools have again emerged for special vocational training needs but equal rights for education still apply to all citizens. In China Muslim Hui and Muslim Salars are against coeducation, due to Islam, Uyghurs are the only Muslims in China that do not mind coeducation and practice it. Admission to the Sorbonne was opened to girls in 1860; the baccalaureat became gender-blind in 1924, giving equal chances to all girls in applying to any universities. Mixed-sex education became mandatory for primary schools in 1957 and for all universities in 1975.
St. Paul's Co-educational College was the first mixed-sex secondary school in Hong Kong, it was founded in 1915 as St. Paul's Girls' College. At the end of World War II it was temporarily merged with St. Paul's College, a boys' school; when classes at the campus of St. Paul'
A primary school is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about five to eleven, coming after preschool, infant school and before secondary school. In most parts of the world, primary education is the first stage of compulsory education, is available without charge, but may be offered in a fee-paying independent school; the term grade school is sometimes used in the US, although this term may refer to both primary education and secondary education. The term primary school is derived from the French école primaire, first used in 1802. Primary school is the preferred term in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth nations, in most publications of the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization. Elementary school is preferred in some countries in the United States and Canada. In some parts of the United States, "primary school" refers to a school with grades Kindergarten through second grade or third grade. In these locations, the "elementary school" includes grades four to six.
In some places, primary schooling has further been divided between lower primary schools, which were the elementary schools, higher primary schools, which were established to provide a more practical instruction to poorer classes than what was provided in the secondary schools. Blab school Early childhood education Elementary school Elementary school Elementary school Elementary schools in Japan Educational stage Secondary school School Virtual reality in primary education National Center for Education Statistics Elementary Schools with Education and Crime Statistics
Green sea turtle
The green sea turtle known as the green turtle, black turtle or Pacific green turtle, is a species of large sea turtle of the family Cheloniidae. It is the only species in the genus Chelonia, its range extends throughout tropical and subtropical seas around the world, with two distinct populations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but it is found in the Indian Ocean. The common name refers to the green fat found beneath its carapace, not to the color of its carapace, olive to black; this sea turtle's dorsoventrally flattened body is covered by a teardrop-shaped carapace. It is lightly colored, although in the eastern Pacific populations parts of the carapace can be black. Unlike other members of its family, such as the hawksbill sea turtle, C. mydas is herbivorous. The adults inhabit shallow lagoons, feeding on various species of seagrasses; the turtles bite off the tips of the blades of seagrass. Like other sea turtles, green sea turtles migrate long distances between feeding grounds and hatching beaches.
Many islands worldwide are known as Turtle Island due to green sea turtles nesting on their beaches. Females dig nests and lay eggs during the night. Hatchlings emerge and scramble into the water; those that reach maturity may live to 80 years in the wild. C. Mydas is listed as endangered by the IUCN and CITES and is protected from exploitation in most countries, it is illegal to harm or kill them. In addition, many countries have ordinances to protect nesting areas. However, turtles are still in danger due to human activity. In some countries and their eggs are hunted for food. Pollution indirectly harms turtles at both population and individual scales, as well as light pollution. Many turtles die after being caught in fishing nets. Real estate development causes habitat loss by eliminating nesting beaches; the green sea turtle is a member of the tribe Chelonini. A 1993 study clarified the status of genus Chelonia with respect to the other marine turtles; the carnivorous Eretmochelys and Lepidochelys were assigned to the tribe Carettini.
Herbivorous Chelonia warranted their status as a genus, while Natator was further removed from the other genera than believed. The species was described by Linnaeus in 1758 as Testudo mydas. In 1868, Marie Firmin Bocourt named a particular species of sea turtle Chelonia agassizii; this "species" was referred to as the "black sea turtle". Research determined Bocourt's "black sea turtle" was not genetically distinct from C. mydas, thus taxonomically not a separate species. These two "species" were united as Chelonia mydas and populations were given subspecies status: C. mydas mydas referred to the described population, while C. mydas agassizi referred only to the Pacific population known as the Galápagos green turtle. This subdivision was determined to be invalid and all species members were designated Chelonia mydas; the oft-mentioned name C. agassizi remains an invalid junior synonym of C. mydas. Other authorities claim that the two populations are phenotypically distinct and treat the East Pacific form as a full species.
The species' common name does not derive from any particular green external coloration of the turtle. Its name comes from the greenish color of the turtles' fat, only found in a layer between their inner organs and their shell; as a species found worldwide, the green turtle has many local names. In the Hawaiian language it is called honu, it is locally known as a symbol of good luck and longevity, its appearance is that of a typical sea turtle. C. mydas has a dorsoventrally flattened body, a beaked head at the end of a short neck, paddle-like arms well-adapted for swimming. Adult green turtles grow to 1.5 metres long. The average weight of mature individuals is 68–190 kg and the average carapace length is 78–112 cm. Exceptional specimens can weigh 315 kg or more, with the largest known C. mydas having weighed 395 kg and measured 153 cm in carapace length. Anatomically, a few characteristics distinguish the green turtle from the other members of its family. Unlike its close relative the hawksbill turtle, the green turtle's snout is short and its beak is unhooked.
The neck cannot be pulled into the shell. The sheath of the turtle's upper jaw possesses a denticulated edge, while its lower jaw has stronger, more defined denticulation; the dorsal surface of the turtle's head has a single pair of prefrontal scales. Its carapace is composed of five central scutes flanked by four pairs of lateral scutes. Underneath, the green turtle has four pairs of inframarginal scutes covering the area between the turtle's plastron and its shell. Mature C. mydas front appendages have only a single claw, although a second claw is sometimes prominent in young specimens. The carapace of the turtle has various color patterns. Hatchlings of Chelonia mydas, like those of other marine turtles, have black carapaces and light-colored plastrons. Carapaces of juveniles turn dark brown to olive, while those of mature adults are either brown, spotted or marbled with variegated rays. Underneath, the turtle's plastron is hued yellow. C. mydas limbs are dark-colored and lined with yellow, are marked with a large dark brown spot in the center of each appendage.
The range of the green sea turtle extends throughout subtropical oceans worldwide. The two major subpopulations are the eastern Pacific subpopulations; each populat
Governor-General of Australia
The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative of the Australian monarch Queen Elizabeth II. As the Queen is shared with the 15 other Commonwealth realms, resides in the United Kingdom, she, on the advice of her prime minister, appoints a governor-general to carry out constitutional duties within the Commonwealth of Australia; the governor-general has formal presidency over the Federal Executive Council and is commander-in-chief of the Australian Defence Force. The functions of the governor-general include appointing ministers and ambassadors. In general, the governor-general observes the conventions of the Westminster system and responsible government, maintaining a political neutrality, has always acted only on the advice of the prime minister or other ministers or, in certain cases, parliament; the governor-general has a ceremonial role: hosting events at either of the two official residences—Government House in the capital and Admiralty House in Sydney—and travelling throughout Australia to open conferences, attend services and commemorations, provide encouragement to individuals and groups who are contributing to their communities.
When travelling abroad, the governor-general is seen as the representative of Australia, the Queen of Australia. The governor-general is supported by a staff headed by the official secretary to the governor-general. A governor-general is not appointed for a specific term, but is expected to serve for five years subject to a possible short extension. Since 28 March 2014, the Governor-General has been General Sir Peter Cosgrove. From Federation in 1901 until 1965, 11 out of the 15 governors-general were British aristocrats. Since all but one of the governors-general have been Australian-born. Only one Governor-General, Dame Quentin Bryce, has been a woman. On 16 December 2018 it was announced that General Sir Peter Cosgrove would be replaced with General David Hurley the Governor of New South Wales. To provide continuity through general elections both federally and in New South Wales, Hurley would succeed Cosgrove, who had planned to retire in March 2019, on 28 June 2019; the selection of a Governor-General is a responsibility for the Prime Minister of Australia, who may consult with staff or colleagues, or with the monarch.
The candidate is approached to confirm whether they are willing to accept the appointment. Having agreed to the appointment, the monarch permits it to be publicly announced in advance several months before the end of the current Governor-General's term. During these months, the person is referred to as the Governor-General-designate; the actual appointment is made by the monarch. After receiving his or her commission, the Governor-General takes an Oath of Allegiance to the Australian monarch, an Oath of Office, undertaking to serve Australia's monarch "according to law, in the office of Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia", issues a proclamation assuming office; the oaths are taken in a ceremony on the floor of the Senate and are administered by the Chief Justice of Australia in the presence of the Prime Minister of Australia, the Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives, the President of the Australian Senate. In 1919, Prime Minister Billy Hughes sent a memorandum to the Colonial Office in which he requested "a real and effective voice in the selection of the King's representative".
He further proposed that the Dominions be able to nominate their own candidates and that "the field of selection should not exclude citizens of the Dominion itself". The memorandum met with strong opposition within the Colonial Office and was dismissed by Lord Milner, the Colonial Secretary; the following year, as Ronald Munro Ferguson's term was about to expire, Hughes cabled the Colonial Office and asked that the appointment be made in accordance with the memorandum. To mollify Hughes, Milner offered him a choice between three candidates. After consulting his cabinet he chose 1st Baron Forster. In 1925, under Prime Minister Stanley Bruce, the same practice was followed for the appointment of Forster's successor Lord Stonehaven, with the Australian government publicly stating that his name "had been submitted, with others, to the Commonwealth ministry, who had selected him"; the Prime Minister now advises the monarch to appoint their nominee. This has been the procedure since November 1930, when James Scullin's proposed appointment of Sir Isaac Isaacs was fiercely opposed by the British government.
This was not because of any lack of regard for Isaacs but because the British government considered that the choice of Governors-General was, since the 1926 Imperial Conference, a matter for the monarch's decision alone. Scullin was insistent that the monarch must act on the relevant prime minister's direct advice. Scullin cited the precedents of the Prime Minister of South Africa, J
The Territory of Christmas Island is an Australian external territory comprising the island of the same name. Christmas Island is located in the Indian Ocean, around 350 kilometres south of Java and Sumatra and around 1,550 kilometres north-west of the closest point on the Australian mainland, it has an area of 135 square kilometres. Christmas Island had a population of 1,843 residents as of 2016, the majority of whom live in settlements on the northern tip of the island; the main settlement is Flying Fish Cove. Around two-thirds of the island's population is estimated to have Malaysian Chinese origin, with significant numbers of Malays and European Australians as well as smaller numbers of Malaysian Indians and Eurasians. Several languages are in use, including English and various Chinese dialects. Islam and Buddhism are major religions on the island, though a vast majority of the population does not declare a formal religious affiliation and may be involved in ethnic Chinese religion; the first European to sight the island was Richard Rowe of the Thomas in 1615.
The island was named on Christmas Day 1643 by Captain William Mynors but only settled in the late 19th century. Its geographic isolation and history of minimal human disturbance has led to a high level of endemism among its flora and fauna, of interest to scientists and naturalists; the majority of the island is included in the Christmas Island National Park, which features several areas of primary monsoonal forest. Phosphate, deposited as guano, has been mined on the island since 1899; the first European to sight the island was Richard Rowe of the Thomas in 1615. Captain William Mynors of the Royal Mary, an English East India Company vessel, named the island when he sailed past it on Christmas Day, in 1643; the island was included on English and Dutch navigation charts as early as the beginning of the 17th century, but it was not until 1666 that a map published by Dutch cartographer Pieter Goos included the island. Goos labelled the island "Mony" or "Moni", the meaning of, unclear. English navigator William Dampier, aboard the English ship Cygnet, made the earliest recorded visit to the sea around the island in March 1688.
He found. Dampier gave an account of the visit. Dampier was trying to reach Cocos from New Holland, his ship was blown off course in an easterly direction, arriving at Christmas Island twenty-eight days later. Dampier landed at the Dales. Two of his crewmen became the first Europeans to set foot on Christmas Island. Captain Daniel Beeckman of the Eagle passed the island on 5 April 1714, chronicled in his 1718 book, A Voyage to and from the Island of Borneo, in the East-Indies; the first attempt at exploring the island was in 1857 by the crew of the Amethyst. They found the cliffs impassable. During the 1872–76 Challenger expedition to Indonesia, naturalist John Murray carried out extensive surveys. In 1886, Captain John Maclear of HMS Flying Fish, having discovered an anchorage in a bay that he named "Flying Fish Cove", landed a party and made a small collection of the flora and fauna. In the next year, Pelham Aldrich, on board HMS Egeria, visited the island for ten days, accompanied by J. J. Lister, who gathered a larger biological and mineralogical collection.
Among the rocks obtained and submitted to Murray for examination were many of nearly pure phosphate of lime. This discovery led to annexation of the island by the British Crown on 6 June 1888. Soon afterwards, a small settlement was established in Flying Fish Cove by G. Clunies Ross, the owner of the Cocos Islands some 900 kilometres to the southwest, to collect timber and supplies for the growing industry on Cocos. Phosphate mining began in 1899 using indentured workers from Singapore and China. John Davis Murray, a mechanical engineer and recent graduate of Purdue University, was sent to supervise the operation on behalf of the Phosphate Mining and Shipping Company. Murray was known as the "King of Christmas Island" until 1910, when he married and settled in London; the island was administered jointly by the British Phosphate commissioners and district officers from the United Kingdom Colonial Office through the Straits Settlements, the Crown Colony of Singapore. Hunt provides a detailed history of Chinese indentured labor on the island during those years.
In 1922, scientists attempted unsuccessfully to view a solar eclipse from the island to test Einstein's Theory of Relativity. From the outbreak of the South-East Asian theatre of World War II in December 1941, Christmas Island was a target for Japanese occupation because of its rich phosphate deposits. A naval gun was installed under four NCOs and 27 Indian soldiers; the first attack was carried out on 20 January 1942, by Japanese submarine I-59, which torpedoed a Norwegian freighter, the Eidsvold. The vessel drifted and sank off West White Beach. Most of the European and Asian staff and their families were evacuated to Perth. In late February and early March 1942, there were two aerial bombing raids. Shelling from a Japanese naval group on 7 March led the district officer to hoist the white flag, but after the Japanese naval group sailed away, the British officer raised the Union Flag once more. During the night of 10–11 March, a mutiny of the Indian troops, abetted by Sikh policemen, led to the killing of the five British soldiers and the imprisonment of the remaining 21 Europeans.
At dawn on 31 March 1942, a dozen Japanese bombers launched the attack, destroying the radio station. The same day, a Japanese fleet of nine vessels arrived, an
Department of Education (Western Australia)
The Department of Education is the government body responsible for education in Western Australia as well as on Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands. Its head office is in East Perth. School Curriculum and Standards Authority Statewide Services Leadership Institute Schools of Special Educational Needs School of Isolated and Distance Education General Board of Education, 31 August 1847 – 17 August 1871 Central Board of Education, 18 August 1871 – 12 October 1893 Education Department, 13 October 1893 – 1 July 1988 Ministry of Education, 1 July 1988 – 1 January 1994 Education Department of Western Australia, 1 January 1994 – 3 February 2003 Department of Education and Training, 3 February 2003 – 30 October 2009 Official website