Ming the Merciless
Ming the Merciless is a character who first appeared in the Flash Gordon comic strip in 1934. He has since been the main villain of the strip and its related movie serials, television series and film adaptation. Ming is depicted as a ruthless tyrant. In the comic strip, when the heroic Flash Gordon and his friends land on the fictional planet Mongo, they found it was ruled by an evil Emperor, a despot who becomes their enemy, he was not named at first, only being known as "the Emperor" until several issues when his name was revealed to be Ming. The capital of his empire is named Mingo City in his honour. In addition to his army, Ming is shown to have access to a wide variety of science fiction gadgets, ranging from rocket ships to death rays to robots. Though evil, he has his weaknesses, which include a desire to marry Flash's beautiful companion, Dale Arden. Ming's daughter Princess Aura is as evil as he is when the series begins, but is reformed by her love for Flash, for Prince Barin of Arboria.
Flash and his companions escape from Ming's clutches and find allies among the peoples of Mongo, including Barin, Prince Vultan, Prince Thun and Queen Fria. They organise a resistance movement against Ming's rule. Ming was overthrown, Raymond pitted Flash against other enemies in the 1940s. During Austin Briggs's run on the Flash Gordon strip, he introduced Ming's son. Kang became Flash's main antagonist during Briggs' run. In the 1956 story "Return to Mongo", Dan Barry introduced Ming's identical son, Ming II; this Ming behaved to his father, became a semi-regular antagonist for Flash in Barry's strips. In the 1957 story "The Time Pendulum", a descendent of Ming from the future, Ming XIII, travels back in time to kill Flash and thus ensure the victory of his ancestor. Jim Keefe used Ming as Flash's main opponent during his run on the Flash Gordon comic strip. In the 2011 Dynamite Comics Flash Gordon: Zeitgeist, Ming is shown as attempting to invade Earth in the year 1934; as in the 1980 film, Ming's main henchman is the masked Klytus.
In this version Klytus has the full name Klytus Ra Djaaran, is described as Ming's Grand Vizer and head of Ming's secret police. Ming is shown as working with the Third Reich to conquer the planet; the prequel, Merciless: The Rise of Ming depicts Ming's ascent to power over Mongo. Merciless depicts Ming as the son of Emperor Krang, the husband of Auranae, who becomes Princess Aura's mother. In the Dynamite Flash Gordon comic, King's Watch Ming uses a dimensional portal to send his troops to the planet Earth. Flash and Zarkov travel to Mongo to stop Ming's attack. In the sequel story, Dale Arden learns that Ming uses special "Quantum Crystals" to expand his lifespan, to travel to and conquer other star systems. Ming forces some of Prince Barin's subjects to be enslaved and turned into "Beastmen" warriors for Ming's army. Flash witnesses a Mongo propaganda video which reveals Ming's full title as "Ming Gorzon-Hydraxus of Seledarqu". In the 1935 adaption, The Amazing Interplanetary Adventures of Flash Gordon, Bruno Wick played Ming the Merciless.
In the Flash Gordon serials of the late 1930s-era, Ming was portrayed by actor Charles B. Middleton. In the first serial, he is killed in a crematorium, in a possible suicide, he returns in league with a Martian Queen, using a Nitron Lamp to cause disasters on Earth. In Flash Gordon Conquers the Universe, he is once again ruler of Mongo, but is killed when he is locked inside his tower and Flash crashes a ship into it. Ming takes on a Hitler-like persona in this pre WWII 1940 serial with references to him as "Dictator" and his wearing of elaborate military uniforms, he is mocked with ridiculous plumed headwear. In the 1980 theatrical film, complaining of boredom, discovers Earth and unleashes various attacks on the planet; the film gives Ming a second-in-command, General Klytus, masked at all times and has an attraction towards Ming's daughter, Princess Aura. As in most versions, Ming is infatuated with Dale. Ming's cruelty extends to his own daughter: in an effort to find Flash, he allows Klytus to continue torturing her, since she knows of his whereabouts.
When Klytus is killed in the Hawkman city, Ming orders it to be destroyed. He offers Flash a chance to join him, rule a kingdom, save Earth. Flash declines. Ming leaves him there to die. At the climax of the film, Ming is impaled by his own war rocket, Ajax, of which Flash had taken control. After a vain attempt to stop Flash attacking him, he points his ring at himself and he vanishes. However, just before the credits begin, his ring is retrieved by an unknown individual, the words "The End?" appear, as his evil laughter plays in the background, hinting he is not dead. Queen's soundtrack album includes "Ming's Theme". In this 1979 animated version of Flash Gordon. Ming's voice was provided by Vic Perrin in the pilot movie. In this version, Ming's panoply is vividly displayed in the form of his vast fleet of battleships, drone rockets, armored trains, his army of robots, he employs Mongo's race of Lizard-Women as his enforcers in the mines of Mongo, as well as guards in his harem, the primitive Beast-Men of Mongo not only serve him, but revere him as a god.
In the fourth episode, "To Save Earth", Ming claims to be immortal. Ming served as the principal adversary in the 1980s
Wizards is a 1977 American animated post-apocalyptic science fantasy film written and produced by Ralph Bakshi and distributed by 20th Century Fox. The film follows a battle between two wizards of opposing powers, one representing the forces of magic and the other representing the forces of industrial technology. Wizards is notable for being the first fantasy film by Bakshi, a filmmaker, known only for "urban films" such as Fritz the Cat, Heavy Traffic and Coonskin; the film grossed US$9 million theatrically with a $2 million budget, has since become a cult classic. Earth has been devastated by a nuclear war instigated by five terrorists, it has taken two million years for the radioactive clouds to once again allow sunlight to reach the surface. Only a handful of humans have survived the apocalypse, while the rest have changed into mutants who roam the radioactive wastelands. Humanity's true ancestors – fairies and dwarves – resurfaced and live in the idyllic land of Montagar in peace for three millennia.
While her people celebrated 3,000 years of peace, their ruler Delia, queen of the fairies, fell into a trance and left the party. Puzzled, the fairies discover that she has given birth to twin wizards, they were the kindhearted Avatar who spent much of his boyhood entertaining his ailing mother with beautiful visions and his mutated brother Blackwolf, pure-evil, never visiting his mother, but spending his time torturing small animals. When Blackwolf learned of their mother's death, he attempted to usurp her leadership, being defeated in duel against a grief-stricken Avatar. Blackwolf left Montagar with a vow to return and "make this a planet where mutants rule". Years Blackwolf has risen to lead the dark land of Scortch, where he and his vast army of goblins and mutants salvage and restore ancient technology, he tries to attack Montagar twice, but is foiled both times when his mutant warriors become bored or sidetracked in the midst of battle. Blackwolf discovers an old projector and reels of Nazi propaganda footage, using his magic to enhance it for psychological warfare: Inspiring his own soldiers while horrifying enemy troops into submission.
Meanwhile, in Montagar, Avatar has become a tutor tasked with training the president's daughter, Elinore, to become a full-fledged fairy. The president is assassinated by Necron 99, a robot sent by Blackwolf to kill believers in magic. Avatar battles it using brain reading. Necron 99 loses the desire for war and Avatar changes his name to Peace "in the hopes that he will bring it". Avatar learns from the robot that the "dream machine" – the projector – is Blackwolf's secret weapon, inspiring his armies with images of ancient warfare. Avatar, Elinore and the elf berserker Weehawk set out to destroy the projector and save the world from another Holocaust. In a forest inhabited by fairies, Peace has an intuition that something is amiss shortly before the group is accosted by the leader of the fairies, Sean. Weehawk realizes that Peace is missing, when an unseen assassin kills kidnaps Elinore. Avatar and Weehawk begin to search for Elinore in the forbidden Fairy Sanctuary, but Weehawk falls into a chasm and insists that Avatar leave him and find the girl.
He locates her, captured by fairies and small human-like creatures, just as she is about to be killed. Avatar attempts to explain that they did not kill Sean, but the fairies don't believe him and shoot him with an arrow. Wounded in the shoulder, Avatar refuses to fight back. Instead of executing them, he teleports Avatar and Elinore to a snowy mountaintop. Avatar and Elinore resume their journey, despite the poor conditions, but they soon realize that they are wandering in circles. Peace having saved Weehawk from a vicious monster in the chasm, the two find Avatar and Elinore. Together, they find their way out of the mountains. Soon and the others encounter the encamped army of an elf General, preparing to attack Scortch the following day, but Blackwolf launches a sneak attack that night. Elinore is outside with Peace when she accidentally disturbs his internal conflict with one of Blackwolf's demons, which Avatar dispatches when it attempts to hurt Elinore, but when one of Blackwolf's battle tanks arrives to destroy the camp, Elinore kills Peace manages to disable the crew before she climbs into the tank as it drives off with Avatar and Weehawk watching in confusion.
The next day and Weehawk enter Scortch by ship and make for Blackwolf's castle while the General leads his elf warriors in a bloody battle to distract Blackwolf's forces. The pair split up, Weehawk tracking Elinore. Weehawk nearly kills Elinore, but she explains that Blackwolf had been controlling her mind since she first touched Peace. Blackwolf declares his magic superior to Avatar's and demands his surrender, Avatar admitting that he hasn't practiced magic for some time and offers to show Blackwolf one last trick that their mother showed him when Blackwolf wasn't around. Avatar pulls a Luger gun from his upper left sleeve and fatally shoots Blackwolf. With the loss of their leader and the projector destroyed, the mutants give up fighting. With Montagar's safety secured, Weehawk returns home as the new ruler while Avatar and Elinore decide to start their own kingdom elsewhere. Bob Holt – Avatar, an old but powerful wizard. According to Bakshi, he is an old magician who doesn't trust himself to do the job right, but he has a heart of gold and cares for his friends and doing what is right.
Jesse Welles – Elinore, a fiery fairy and Avatar's love interest. Richard Romanus – Weehawk
Rocket Robin Hood
Rocket Robin Hood is a Canadian animated television series, placing the characters and conflicts of the classic Robin Hood legend in a futuristic, outer space setting. It was produced by Krantz Films, Inc. and aired on CBC Television from 1966 to 1969. Rocket Robin Hood leads his "Merry Men"—including the strong and likeable Little John, they live in "the astonishing year 3000" on New Sherwood Forest Asteroid and are determined to foil the despotic plans of Prince John and his bumbling lackey, the Sheriff of N. O. T. T. and other villains such as Dr. Medulla, Manta and the Warlord of Saturn. Rocket Robin Hood and his people fly in spaceships and use weapons such as "electro-quarterstaffs"; each 22-minute episode is divided into three segments, with cliffhangers between the first and second part and the second and third part. All episodes feature short vignettes of the various characters. A male chorus sang the opening and closing themes for each of the three seasons in the style of traditional old English ballads.
Carl Banas as Titanor / Dr. Manta Len Birman as Rocket Robin Hood Chris Wiggins as Will Scarlet / Infinata / Baron Blank Bernard Cowan as Narrator Ed McNamara as Little John Paul Kligman as Friar Tuck Gillie Fenwick as the Sheriff of N. O. T. T. John Scott as Prince John Rocket Robin Hood was animated and voiced by Trillium Productions, an animation studio, part of the Guest Group—a creative group of companies owned by producer Al Guest. One of the key animators was Jean Mathieson, one of the first female animators, who formed Rainbow Animation in Canada and Magic Shadows Inc in the U. S. with Guest, where they continued to produce animated TV programming. Background designer Richard H. Thomas joined the group late in the second season and brought a dark psychedelic feel to the production under Associate Producer for Krantz Films Ralph Bakshi, who would become a well known animation producer and would be responsible for, among other series, the animated film versions of Fritz the Cat and The Lord of the Rings.
Third-season episodes were animated at Ralph's Spot in New York City, although voices continued to be recorded in Toronto. One of the show's chief designers during this time was science fiction illustrator/comic book artist Gray Morrow. Bernard Cowan was the show's narrator. Paul Kligman, who voiced J. Jonah Jameson in the 1960s animated version of Spider-Man, was the voice of Friar Tuck. Len Birman, who appeared in the movies Silver Streak and Bayo, was the voice of Rocket Robin Hood. Len Carlson subbed for Birman as Rocket Robin Hood in some third season episodes. Carl Banas was the voice of Titanor / Dr. Manta. Ed McNamara provided the voice of Little John. Chris Wiggins was the voice of Will Scarlet. There was a French version titled Robin Fusée, broadcast on French Canadian TV; this is a partial, but not accurate, list of stations in the United States that broadcast Rocket Robin Hood in the late 1960s and/or in the 1970s. Alphabetized by city, they are: WATL-TV / Channel 36• Atlanta, Georgia WXNE-TV / Channel 25• Boston, Massachusetts WSBK-TV / Channel 38• Boston, Massachusetts WRET-TV / Channel 36• Charlotte, North Carolina WSNS-TV / Channel 44* Chicago, Illinois WXIX-TV / Channel 19* Cincinnati, Ohio WKBF-TV / Channel 61• Cleveland, Ohio WXON-TV / Channel 20• Detroit, Michigan KTVT / Channel 11* Fort Worth-Dallas, Texas WDRB-TV / Channel 41* Louisville, Kentucky WCCO-TV / Channel 04.
Minneapolis, Minnesota KCOP-TV / Channel 13* Los Angeles, California WPIX-TV / Channel 11• New York, New York WPHL-TV / Channel 17• Philadelphia, Pennsylvania WPGH-TV / Channel 53• Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania WKAQ-TV / Channel 2* San Juan, Puerto Rico WDCA-TV / Channel 20* Washington, D. C. In Canada, the show aired on Toronto's CITY-TV in the 1970s and 1980s, as well as CHEX-TV in Peterborough and on CJOH-TV in the Ottawa area; the series airs on the RetroTV digital subchannel network in the United States. E1 Entertainment released Volume 1, which contains all of season 1, in November 2009 as a four-DVD set. E1 stated. Volume 2, which encompasses all of seasons 2 and 3, was released in May 2010 as a four-DVD set; the French versions of these DVD collections are available separately. Eury, Michael. Hero-A-Go-Go: Campy Comic Books, Crimefighters, & Culture of the Swinging Sixties. TwoMorrows Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60549-073-1. Rocket Robin Hood on IMDb Rocket Robin Hood at Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on January 19, 2017.
In Search Of... Rocket Robin Hood at The Nice Rooms e-zine
Cool World is a 1992 American live-action/animated thriller-fantasy film directed by Ralph Bakshi, starring Kim Basinger, Gabriel Byrne and Brad Pitt. It tells the story of a cartoonist who finds himself in the animated world he thinks he created, is seduced by one of the characters, a comic strip vamp who wants to be real. Cool World marked Bakshi's return to feature films after nine years; the film was pitched as an animated horror film about an underground cartoonist who fathers an illegitimate half-real/half-cartoon daughter, who hates herself for what she is and tries to kill him. During production, Bakshi's original screenplay was scrapped by producer Frank Mancuso, Jr. and rewritten by Michael Grais and Mark Victor in secret. Reviews praised the film's visuals, but criticized the story and characters, as well as the combination of live-action and animation, which some critics felt was unconvincing; the film would gross only half its production budget. In 1945 Las Vegas, World War II veteran Frank Harris returns from Italy with a motorcycle and reunites with his mother, Agatha.
Frank and Agatha are struck in a traffic collision with a drunk driver while riding his motorcycle, resulting in Agatha's death. Forty-seven years detained cartoonist Jack Deebs creates a comic book named Cool World, which features the femme fatale Holli Would. Holli voices her desire to enter the real world, but is declined help from Frank, now a detective in the Cool World. Shortly before and after being released from prison, Jack is transported to the Cool World and is smuggled into a club by Holli. Frank becomes aware of Jack's presence in the Cool World and aggressively confronts him, informing him that Cool World has existed long before Jack created the comic series and warns him that "noids" aren't allowed to have sex with "doodles". Holli brings Jack back into the Cool World and the two have sex, causing Holli to transform into a human. While Frank attempts to mend his relationship with doodle Lonette, he temporarily leaves detective duties to his assistant Nails. Jack and Holli leave for the real world, causing damage to the interdimensional barrier between the real world and the Cool World.
Both Jack and Holli begin flickering from their human form to their doodle forms: Jack's doodle form is a stocky man with a moustache while Holli's new doodle form is a sexy clown. Frank discovers that Nails has been done away with and decides to venture into the real world to pursue Jack and Holli. While contemplating their situation, Holli tells Jack about the "Spike of Power," an artifact placed on the top of a Las Vegas casino by a doodle who crossed into the real world, admits she wants to use it to become human permanently; when Jack displays skepticism about the idea, Holli abandons Jack to search for the spike on her own. Arriving in the real world, Frank breaks into Jack's apartment and suggests they team up to stop Holli before she causes further damage, they arrive at the casino. Holli, as a sexy clown doodle, is able to jump through walls; as Frank attempts to kick in the locked door, Holli in her sexy clown doodle form, kicks him in the groin through the door. Enraged, Frank kicks open corners her.
Holli tries to use her sexy clown doodle form to escape to the next room but fails and ends up climbing on the ledge of the building. As she flickers between doodle and human form, Holli kills Frank when he tries to help her to safety by kicking him off the building. Holli finds and takes the Spike of Power, transforming her and Jack into doodles and releasing numerous monstrous doodles into the real world. Fighting off an increasing number of doodles as a superhero doodle, Jack returns the Spike of Power to its place, trapping him and the rest of the doodles in Cool World. Though Frank was killed by Holli, since she killed him in her doodle-form, Frank is reborn into Cool World as a doodle, which allows him to be able to consummate his relationship with Lonette, while an annoyed Holli now has to deal with an unwanted future planned by a now egotistical superhero cartoon Jack. Gabriel Byrne as Jack Deebs, the cartoonist responsible for the creation of Cool World. Brad Pitt as Detective Frank Harris, a detective for the Cool World Police Department, bent on catching Holli.
Pitt provides Frank's voice in doodle form. Deirdre O'Connell as Isabelle Malley Frank Sinatra, Jr. as himself Michele Abrams as Jennifer Malley Janni Brenn–Lowen as Agatha Rose Harris Marilyn Monroe Kim Basinger as Holli Would, a femme fatale doodle who wishes to be real in the real world. Basinger portrays her in live action. Charlie Adler as Nails, an anthropomorphic spider who serves as Frank's partner. Joey Camen as Interrogator No. 1 / Slash / Holli's Door Jenine Jennings as Craps Bunny Michael Lally as Sparks Maurice LaMarche as Interrogator No. 2 / Mash / Dr. Vincent "Vegas Vinnie" Whiskers / Super Jack Candi Milo as Lonette / Bob Patrick Pinney as Chico the bouncer Gregory Snegoff as Bash In 1990, Ralph Bakshi decided that it was time to make another animated film. According to Bakshi, "I made 1,500 bucks in 10 years of painting. So I called my lawyer, still speaking to me because no one leaves Hollywood, asked him where I should go to sell a movie." Bakshi pitched Cool World to Paramount Pictures as an animated horror film.
The concept of the film involved a cartoon and live action human having sex and conceiving a hybrid child who visits the real w
Arthur Burghardt is an American actor and voice actor known for portraying Jack Scott on the soap opera One Life to Live. His first movie appearance was as the Great Ahmed Kahn in Network. Notable voice roles include Destro in the animated series G. I. Joe and Devastator on The Transformers, he played the voice of Venom in Ultimate Spider-Man. He played Turbo in Challenge of the Gobots. Burghardt appeared in the series premiere of the short-lived 1991 sitcom Good Sports with Ryan O'Neal and Farrah Fawcett. In 1997, he was the voice of "Cy" in the family science fiction movie Star Kid and portrayed Laurant in the 2001 TV series Los Luchadores. Burghardt played a commando in the early-1990s video game Night Trap. In Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos, he voiced Mannoroth and Grom Hellscream in 2002, in World of Warcraft: Cataclysm he reprised his role as Mannoroth. In 2010 he voiced Thanatos in God of War: Ghost of Sparta and afterwards retired that year; the fictional Arthur Burghardt Expressway in the 8th season Seinfeld episode, "The Pot Hole", is named after Burghardt.
In 2016, Arthur Burghardt joined the convention circuit with his representative CelebWorx. He appeared at Long Beach Comic Con. Arthur Burghardt on IMDb Arthur Burghardt at the Internet Broadway Database
DVD is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD; such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD discs can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs can be erased many times. DVDs are used in DVD-Video consumer digital video format and in DVD-Audio consumer digital audio format as well as for authoring DVD discs written in a special AVCHD format to hold high definition material. DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs; the Oxford English Dictionary comments that, "In 1995 rival manufacturers of the product named digital video disc agreed that, in order to emphasize the flexibility of the format for multimedia applications, the preferred abbreviation DVD would be understood to denote digital versatile disc."
The OED states that in 1995, "The companies said the official name of the format will be DVD. Toshiba had been using the name ‘digital video disc’, but, switched to ‘digital versatile disc’ after computer companies complained that it left out their applications.""Digital versatile disc" is the explanation provided in a DVD Forum Primer from 2000 and in the DVD Forum's mission statement. There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD. Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958 and first patented in 1961. A consumer optical disc data format known as LaserDisc was developed in the United States, first came to market in Atlanta, Georgia in 1978, it used much larger discs than the formats. Due to the high cost of players and discs, consumer adoption of LaserDisc was low in both North America and Europe, was not used anywhere outside Japan and the more affluent areas of Southeast Asia, such as Hong-Kong, Singapore and Taiwan.
CD Video released in 1987 used analog video encoding on optical discs matching the established standard 120 mm size of audio CDs. Video CD became one of the first formats for distributing digitally encoded films in this format, in 1993. In the same year, two new optical disc storage formats were being developed. One was the Multimedia Compact Disc, backed by Philips and Sony, the other was the Super Density disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita Electric, Mitsubishi Electric, Thomson, JVC. By the time of the press launches for both formats in January 1995, the MMCD nomenclature had been dropped, Philips and Sony were referring to their format as Digital Video Disc. Representatives from the SD camp asked IBM for advice on the file system to use for their disc, sought support for their format for storing computer data. Alan E. Bell, a researcher from IBM's Almaden Research Center, got that request, learned of the MMCD development project. Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the 1980s, he convened a group of computer industry experts, including representatives from Apple, Sun Microsystems and many others.
This group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG. On August 14, 1995, an ad hoc group formed from five computer companies issued a press release stating that they would only accept a single format; the TWG voted to boycott both formats unless the two camps agreed on a converged standard. They recruited president of IBM, to pressure the executives of the warring factions. In one significant compromise, the MMCD and SD groups agreed to adopt proposal SD 9, which specified that both layers of the dual-layered disc be read from the same side—instead of proposal SD 10, which would have created a two-sided disc that users would have to turn over; as a result, the DVD specification provided a storage capacity of 4.7 GB for a single-layered, single-sided disc and 8.5 GB for a dual-layered, single-sided disc. The DVD specification ended up similar to Toshiba and Matsushita's Super Density Disc, except for the dual-layer option and EFMPlus modulation designed by Kees Schouhamer Immink.
Philips and Sony decided that it was in their best interests to end the format war, agreed to unify with companies backing the Super Density Disc to release a single format, with technologies from both. After other compromises between MMCD and SD, the computer companies through TWG won the day, a single format was agreed upon; the TWG collaborated with the Optical Storage Technology Association on the use of their implementation of the ISO-13346 file system for use on the new DVDs. Movie and home entertainment distributors adopted the DVD format to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary consumer digital video distribution format, they embraced DVD as it produced higher quality video and sound, provided superior data lifespan, could be interactive. Interactivity on LaserDiscs had proven desirable to consumers collectors; when LaserDisc prices dropped from $100 per
A prison known as a correctional facility, gaol, detention center, remand center, or internment facility, is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state. Prisons are most used within a criminal justice system: people charged with crimes may be imprisoned until their trial. In simplest terms, a prison can be described as a building in which people are held as a punishment for a crime they have committed. Prisons can be used as a tool of political repression by authoritarian regimes, their perceived opponents may be imprisoned for political crimes without trial or other legal due process. In times of war, prisoners of war or detainees may be detained in military prisons or prisoner of war camps, large groups of civilians might be imprisoned in internment camps. In American English and jail are treated as having separate definitions; the term prison or penitentiary tends to describe institutions that incarcerate people for longer periods of time, such as many years, are operated by the state or federal governments.
The term jail tends to describe institutions for confining people for shorter periods of time and are operated by local governments. Outside of North America and jail have the same meaning. Common slang terms for a prison include: "the pokey", "the slammer", "the can", "the clink", "the joint", "the calaboose", "the hoosegow" and "the big house". Slang terms for imprisonment include: "behind bars", "in stir" and "up the river"; the use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social organization. Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of written language, which enabled the creation of formalized legal codes as official guidelines for society; the best known of these early legal codes is the Code of Hammurabi, written in Babylon around 1750 BC. The penalties for violations of the laws in Hammurabi's Code were exclusively centered on the concept of lex talionis, whereby people were punished as a form of vengeance by the victims themselves; this notion of punishment as vengeance or retaliation can be found in many other legal codes from early civilizations, including the ancient Sumerian codes, the Indian Manusmriti, the Hermes Trismegistus of Egypt, the Israelite Mosaic Law.
Some Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Plato, began to develop ideas of using punishment to reform offenders instead of using it as retribution. Imprisonment as a penalty was used for those who could not afford to pay their fines. Since impoverished Athenians could not pay their fines, leading to indefinite periods of imprisonment, time limits were set instead; the prison in Ancient Athens was known as the desmoterion. The Romans were among the first to use prisons as a form of punishment, rather than for detention. A variety of existing structures were used to house prisoners, such as metal cages, basements of public buildings, quarries. One of the most notable Roman prisons was the Mamertine Prison, established around 640 B. C. by Ancus Marcius. The Mamertine Prison was located within a sewer system beneath ancient Rome and contained a large network of dungeons where prisoners were held in squalid conditions, contaminated with human waste. Forced labor on public works projects was a common form of punishment.
In many cases, citizens were sentenced to slavery in ergastula. During the Middle Ages in Europe, castles and the basements of public buildings were used as makeshift prisons; the possession of the right and the capability to imprison citizens, granted an air of legitimacy to officials at all levels of government, from kings to regional courts to city councils. Another common punishment was sentencing people to galley slavery, which involved chaining prisoners together in the bottoms of ships and forcing them to row on naval or merchant vessels. From the late 17th century and during the 18th century, popular resistance to public execution and torture became more widespread both in Europe and in the United States. Under the Bloody Code, with few sentencing alternatives, imposition of the death penalty for petty crimes, such as theft, was proving unpopular with the public. Rulers began looking for means to punish and control their subjects in a way that did not cause people to associate them with spectacles of tyrannical and sadistic violence.
They developed systems of mass incarceration with hard labor, as a solution. The prison reform movement that arose at this time was influenced by two somewhat contradictory philosophies; the first was based in Enlightenment ideas of utilitarianism and rationalism, suggested that prisons should be used as a more effective substitute for public corporal punishments such as whipping, etc. This theory, referred to as deterrence, claims tha