A prince-bishop is a bishop, the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty. Thus the principality or prince-bishopric ruled politically by a prince-bishop could wholly or overlap with his diocesan jurisdiction, since some parts of his diocese the city of his residence, could be exempt from his civil rule, obtaining the status of free imperial city. If the episcopal see is an archbishopric, the correct term is prince-archbishop. A prince-bishop is considered an elected monarch. In the West, with the decline of imperial power from the 4th century onwards in the face of the barbarian invasions, sometimes Christian bishops of cities took the place of the Roman commander, made secular decisions for the city and led their own troops when necessary. Relations between a prince-bishop and the burghers were invariably not cordial; as cities demanded charters from emperors, kings, or their prince-bishops and declared themselves independent of the secular territorial magnates, friction intensified between burghers and bishops.
In the Byzantine Empire, the still autocratic Emperors passed general legal measures assigning all bishops certain rights and duties in the secular administration of their dioceses, but, part of a caesaropapist development putting the Eastern Church in the service of the Empire, with its Ecumenical Patriarch reduced to the Emperor's minister of religious affairs. Bishops had been involved in the government of the Frankish realm and subsequent Carolingian Empire as the clerical member of a duo of envoys styled Missus dominicus, but, an individual mandate, not attached to the see. Prince-bishoprics were most common in the feudally fragmented Holy Roman Empire, where many were formally awarded the rank of an Imperial Prince Reichsfürst, granting them the immediate power over a certain territory and a representation in the Imperial Diet; the stem duchies of the German kingdom inside the Empire had strong and powerful dukes, always looking out more for their duchy's "national interest" than for the Empire's.
In turn the first Ottonian king Henry the Fowler and more so his son, Emperor Otto I, intended to weaken the power of the dukes by granting loyal bishops Imperial lands and vest them with regalia privileges. Unlike dukes they could not pass hereditary lands to any descendants. Instead the Emperors reserved the implementation of the bishops of their proprietary church for themselves, defying the fact that according to canon law they were part of the transnational Catholic Church; this met with increasing opposition by the Popes, culminating in the fierce Investiture Controversy of 1076. The Emperors continued to grant major territories to the most important bishops; the immediate territory attached to the episcopal see became a prince-diocese or bishopric. The German term Hochstift was used to denote the form of secular authority held by bishops ruling a prince-bishopric with Erzstift being used for prince-archbishoprics. Emperor Charles IV by the Golden Bull of 1356 confirmed the privileged status of the Prince-Archbishoprics of Mainz and Trier as members of the electoral college.
At the eve of the Protestant Reformation, the Imperial states comprised 53 ecclesiastical principalities. They were secularized in the 1803 German Mediatization upon the territorial losses to France in the Treaty of Lunéville, except for the Mainz prince-archbishop and German archchancellor Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg, who continued to rule as Prince of Aschaffenburg and Regensburg. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the title became defunct. However, in some countries outside of French control, such as in the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, the institution nominally continued, in some cases was revived. No less than three of the prince-electors, the highest order of Reichsfürsten, were prince-archbishops, each holding the title of Archchancellor for a part of the Empire; the bishops of Vienna and Wiener Neustadt didn't control any territory, nor did they claim a princely title. Upon the incorporation of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword in 1237, the territory of the Order's State corresponded with the Diocese of Riga.
Bishop Albert of Riga in 1207 had received the lands of Livonia as an Imperial fief from the hands of German king Philip of Swabia, he however had to come to terms with the Brothers of the Sword. At the behest of Pope Innocent III the Terra Mariana confederation was established, whereby Albert had to cede large parts of the episcopal territory to the Livonian Order. Albert proceeded tactically in the conflict between the Papacy and Emperor Frederick II: in 1225 he reached the acknowledgement of his status as a Prince-Bishop of the Empire, though the Roman Curia insisted on the fact that the Christianized Baltic territories were under the suzerainty of the Holy See. By the 1234 Bull of Rieti, Pope Gregory IX stated that all lands acquired by the Teutonic Knights were no subject of any conveyancing by the Emperor. Within this larger conflict, the continued dualism of the autonomous Riga prince-bishop and the Teutonic Knigh
Ferdinand of Fürstenberg (1626–1683)
Ferdinand of Fürstenberg, contemporaneously known as Ferdinandus liber baro de Furstenberg, was, as Ferdinand II, Prince Bishop of Paderborn from 1661 to 1683 and Prince Bishop of Münster from 1678 to 1683, having been its coadjutor since 1667/68. He was brought complete restoration to the Bishopric of Paderborn after the devastation of the Thirty Years' War. In foreign policy, he followed the principle of armed neutrality, but tended clearly to lean towards the French position, he distinguished himself as an author of historical works, a poet of Latin poetry and a correspondent with the great scholars of his time. He emerged as a patron of the arts and religion and had numerous churches built or renovated, he is considered one of the most outstanding representatives of Baroque Catholicism. Ferdinand of Fürstenberg was born on 26 October 1626 at Bilstein Castle in the Duchy of Westphalia into the Westphalian family of Fürstenberg, his father, Frederick of Furstenberg, was the Landesdrost or state governor for the Electorate of Cologne.
His mother was Anna Maria. He was the eleventh child of their marriage, his siblings include clergyman and officer, Caspar Dietrich of Furstenberg, the cathedral provost in Münster and Paderborn, John Adolphus of Fürstenberg, the diplomat and head of the family, Frederick of Furstenberg, the dean William of Furstenberg and the Landkomtur Francis William of Furstenberg. His godfather was Elector Ferdinand of Bavaria. To the latter he owed the fact that he was given a diocesan stipend from Hildesheim at the age of seven, and thanks to the intercession of the emperor, in 1639 a benefice in the cathedral chapter of Paderborn was added to his income. As was customary in the family, Ferdinand of Fürstenberg was given an exceptionally good education for a member of the nobility at that time. Fürstenberg attended the Jesuit grammar school in Siegen. After that he studied philosophy in Münster. After the death of his parents Fürstenberg returned for a time to Bilstein Castle, where the castellan introduced him to the basics of jurisprudence.
In 1648 he began his studies into law at the University of Cologne. There he came into contact with important scholars among the Jesuits, he came into contact with other leading scholars of his time in Münster and Cologne. They included Aegidius Gelenius. In this period Fürstenberg began to carry out historical studies himself. In Münster he came to know Fabio Chigi, the nuntius in the peace negotiations of the Thirty Years' War and Pope Alexander VII. In 1649 after completing his studies, he was given a place and vote in Paderborn's cathedral chapter. One year he was installed as a subdeacon, he was invited to Rome by Fabio Chigi. There he met his brother, John Adolphus in 1652. In Rome Fürstenberg worked as part of the retinue of Chigis. Through Chigis he came into contact with scholars there, he lived under the same roof with philologist Nikolaes Heinsius and they formed a lifelong friendship. He had a close friendship with Lukas Holste; the latter motivated Ferdinand to undertake further language studies and arranged for him to have access to the Vatican library, which he ran.
Fürstenberg came into close contact with many Italian scholars. On the election of Fabio Chigi to the Papacy as Pope Alexander VII in 1655, Fürstenberg was appointed as Papal Private Chamberlain. Like his brother William Fürstenberg acted as an advisor to the Pope on German matters, he was a member of an Academy of Fine Arts even becoming its president. In 1657 he was chamberlain to the archsodality at Campo Santo and Provisor of the German Kirche Anima, but above all, he devoted himself to academic work, for example, producing numerous copies of documents from the Vatican archives. These included the Capitulatio de partibus Saxoniae by Charlemagne; some finds he left to others to publish, some he published himself. In addition, he emerged as a sponsor of large-scale academic projects such as the publication of Acta Sanctorum by Jean Bolland and his successor, the Bollandists; the discovery of documents from his Westphalian homeland prompted Ferdinand's decision to write a history of the Bishopric of Paderborn.
In 1659 Ferdinand was ordained as a priest. As a result, he was given several benefices; these included the Priory of the Holy Cross in Hildesheim, a cathedral chapter position in Münster and the opportunity of another in Halberstadt. In 1660 he handed over the cardinalate to Francis William of Wartenberg. In addition he had to undertake diplomatic missions to many of the imperial princes. In Westphalia he studied sources for his planned history of the bishopric. After his return to Rome Fürstenberg devoted himself to historical research in the Vatican Archives. Ferdinand had his brother, William, to thank for his election in 1661 as Bishop of Paderborn, his defeated opponent for the post was Maximilian Henry of Bavaria. Ferdinand was consecrated a bishop while still in Rome, he received his mitre in the German national church of Santa Maria dell’Anima from cardinal state secretary, Giulio Rospigliosi. He did not enter Paderborn 4 October 1661; the state of Paderborn was still suffering from the consequences of the Thirty Years' War, because Ferdinand's predecessor had been unable to rebuild the economy for financial reasons.
A primary objective for Ferdinand of Fürstenberg was thus the internal health of the land. His numerous construction projects were designed not least to employ the tradesmen of the prince bishopric. In addition, he encouraged the re-cultivation of fields, he had a forestry act passed an
Westphalia is a region in northwestern Germany and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It has an area of 7.9 million inhabitants. The region is identical to the Province of Westphalia, a part of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1815 to 1918 and the Free State of Prussia from 1918 to 1946. In 1946, Westphalia merged with the Northern Rhineland, another former part of Prussia, to form the newly created state of North Rhine-Westphalia. In 1947, the state with its two historic parts was joined by a third one: Lippe, a former principality and free state. All of the seventeen districts and nine independent cities of Westphalia and Lippe's only district are members of the Westphalia-Lippe Regional Association. Previous to the formation of Westphalia as a province of Prussia and state part of North Rhine-Westphalia, the term "Westphalia" was applied to different territories of different sizes such as a part of the ancient Duchy of Saxony, the Duchy of Westphalia or the Kingdom of Westphalia.
The Westphalian language, a variant of the German language, spreads beyond Westphalia's borders into southwestern Lower Saxony and northwestern Hesse. Being a part of the North German Plain, most of Westphalia's north is flat. In the south the German Central Uplands emerge. Westphalia is divided into the following landscapes. Flat to hilly: East Westphalia, Münsterland, eastern Ruhr Metropolitan Area, Tecklenburg Land, Westphalian Hellweg Hilly to mountainous: Westphalian part of the Sauerland, Wittgenstein Westphalia is the region in between the rivers Rhine and Weser, located both north and south of the Ruhr River. Other important rivers are the Lippe; the Langenberg and the Kahler Asten in the Sauerland part of the Rothaar Mountains are Westphalia's and North Rhine-Westphalia's highest mountains. The term "Westphalia" contrasts with the much less used term "Eastphalia", which covers the southeastern part of the present-day state of Lower Saxony, western Saxony-Anhalt and northern Thuringia.
Westphalia is divided into three governmental districts. These are subdivided into independent cities. All districts and independent cities of the governmental districts of Arnsberg and Münster are considered to be a part of Westphalia as a historic region; the District of Lippe as successor of the Free State of Lippe in the Governmental District of Detmold is rather considered to be a separate historic region. The traditional symbol of Westphalia is the Westphalian Steed: a white horse on a red field, it is derived from the Saxon Steed in the coat of arms of the medieval Duchy of Saxony which most of today's Westphalia was part of. In official contexts the coat of arms of Westphalia is being used by the Westphalia-Lippe Regional Association, which represents these two historic parts of North Rhine-Westphalia; the coat of arms of North Rhine-Westphalia uses the Westphalian Steed to represent Westphalia as one of its parts alongside the Lippish Rose representing Lippe and the Rhine River representing the Northern Rhineland.
Prussia used the Westphalian Steed in the coat of arms of its Province of Westphalia. The coat of arms of Lower Saxony uses a different version of the Saxon Steed since the state covers large parts of the Old Saxons' duchy; the colors of Westphalia are red. The flag of the Westphalia-Lippe Regional Association uses these colors with the Westphalian coat of arms in its center; the flag of North Rhine-Westphalia is a combination of the Northern Rhineland's colors green/white and the Westphalian white/red. The flag of the Prussian Province of Westphalia displayed the colors white and red; the flag of Lower Saxony shows the colors of the Saxon Steed. Composed in Iserlohn in 1886 by Emil Rittershaus, the Westfalenlied is an unofficial anthem of Westphalia. While the Northern Rhineland and Lippe are different historic territories of today's North Rhine-Westphalia, the old border between the former Rhine Province and the Province of Westphalia is a language border. While in Westphalia and Lippe, people tend to speak West Low German dialects and the Westphalian variant of the Low German language, Central German and Low Franconian dialects are being spoken in the Northern Rhineland.
These different regional identities are being emphasized by different majorities of denomination between Roman Catholics and Lutheran Protestants. The different majorities date back to the days of the territorial fragmentation of the Holy Roman Empire which existed until 1806; the Münsterland and the region around Paderborn for instance are still Catholic regions because of the former existence of the prince-bishoprics of Münster and Paderborn. The Lutheran Lippe was able to retain its independence as a small state within Germany in the form of a principality until 1918 and as a free state until 1946; this continues to influence the identity of its people who distinguish themselves from neighboring regions such as East Westphalia. In addition to these historic and religious aspects, there are some regional differences in culture and mentality; that is why many of the citizens of North Rhine-Westphalia rather see themselves either as "Rhinelanders", "Westphalians" or "Lippers" rather than as "North Rhine-Westphalians".
Westphalia is known for the 1648 Peace of Westphalia which ended the Thirty Years' War, as the two treaties were signed in Münster and Osnabrück. It is one of the regions that were part of all incarnations of the German state since the Early M
Groningen is the main municipality as well as the capital city of the eponymous province in the Netherlands. It is the largest city in the north of the Netherlands and has 230,000 inhabitants; the Groningen-Assen metropolitan area has about half a milion inhabitants. Groningen is an old city and was the regional power of the north of the Netherlands, a semi-independent city-state and member of the German Hanseatic League. Groningen is a university city, with an estimated 31,000 students at the University of Groningen, an estimated 29,000 at the Hanze University of Applied Sciences; the city was founded at the northernmost point of the Hondsrug area. The oldest document referring to Groningen's existence dates from 1040. However, the city existed long before then: the oldest archaeological traces found are believed to stem from the years 3950–3720 BC, although the first major settlement in Groningen has been traced back to the 3rd century AD. In the 13th century, when Groningen was an important trade centre, its inhabitants built a city wall to underline its authority.
The city made its dialect a common tongue. The most influential period of the city was the end of the 15th century, when the nearby province of Friesland was administered from Groningen. During these years, the Martinitoren 127 metres tall, was built; the city's independence ended in 1536, when it chose to accept Emperor Charles V, the Habsburg ruler of the other Netherlands, as its overlord. In 1594, until held by Spain, was captured by a Dutch and English force led by Maurice of Nassau. Soon afterwards the city and the province joined the Republic of the Seven United Provinces. In 1614, the University of Groningen was founded only for religious education. In the same period the city expanded and a new city wall was built; that same city wall was tested during the Third Anglo-Dutch War in 1672, when the city was attacked fiercely by the bishop of Münster, Bernhard von Galen. The city walls resisted, an event, still celebrated with music and fireworks on August 28; the city did not escape the devastation of World War II.
In particular, the main square, the Grote Markt, was destroyed in April 1945 in the Battle of Groningen. However, the Martinitoren, its church, the Goudkantoor, the city hall were not damaged; the battle lasted several days. Groningen has an oceanic temperate climate, like all of the Netherlands, although colder in winter than other major cities in the Netherlands due to its northeasterly position. Weather is influenced by the North Sea to the north-west and its prevailing north-western winds and gales. Summers are somewhat humid. Temperatures of 30 °C or higher occur sporadically. Rainy periods are common in spring and summer. Average annual precipitation is about 800 mm. Annual sunshine hours vary, but are below 1600 hours, giving much cloud cover similar to most of the Netherlands. Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb".. Winters are cool: on average above freezing, although frosts are common during spells of easterly wind from Germany and Siberia.
Night-time temperatures of −10 °C or lower are not uncommon during cold winter periods. The lowest temperature recorded is −26.8 °C on February 16, 1956. Snow falls, but stays long due to warmer daytime temperatures, although white snowy days happen every winter; the municipality of Groningen has grown rapidly. In 1968 it expanded by mergers with Hoogkerk and Noorddijk, in 2019 it merged with Haren and Ten Boer. All historical data are for the original city limits, excluding Hoogkerk, Noorddijk and Ten Boer; until there were two large sugar refineries within the city boundaries. The Suiker Unie plant was outside Groningen, but it was swallowed by the expansion of the city. After a campaign to close the factory, it was shut down in 2008/2009. Before closing down, its sugar production amounted to 250,000 tonnes of beet sugar, with 250 employees; the only remaining sugar factory is CSM Vierverlaten in Hoogkerk, which produces 235,000 tonnes of beet sugar, with 283 employees. Well known companies from Groningen are publishing company Noordhoff Uitgevers, tobacco company Royal Theodorus Niemeyer, health insurance company Menzis, distillery Hooghoudt, natural gas companies GasUnie and GasTerra.
There is an increased focus on business services. In addition, the hotel and catering industry forms a significant part of the economy of Groningen; the city is nationally known as the "Metropolis of the North" and as "Martinistad" referring to the tower of the Martinitoren, named after its patron saint Martin of Tours. Although Groningen is not a large city, it does have an important role as the main urban centre of this part of the country in the fields of music and other arts and business; the large number of students living in Groningen contributes to a diverse cultural scene for a city of its size. Since 2016 Groningen is host of the International Cycling Film Festival, an annual film festival for bicycle related films, it takes place in the art house cinema of the old Roman Catholic Hospital. The most famous museum in Groningen is
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
Leopold I was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia. The second son of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, by his first wife, Maria Anna of Spain, Leopold became heir apparent in 1654 by the death of his elder brother Ferdinand IV. Elected in 1658, Leopold ruled the Holy Roman Empire until his death in 1705, becoming the longest-ruling Habsburg emperor. Leopold's reign is known for conflicts with the Ottoman Empire in the east and rivalry with Louis XIV, a contemporary and first cousin, in the west. After more than a decade of warfare, Leopold emerged victorious from the Great Turkish War thanks to the military talents of Prince Eugene of Savoy. By the Treaty of Karlowitz, Leopold recovered all of the Kingdom of Hungary, which had fallen under Turkish power in the years after the 1526 Battle of Mohács. Leopold fought three wars against France: the Franco-Dutch War, the Nine Years' War, the War of the Spanish Succession. In this last, Leopold sought to give his younger son the entire Spanish inheritance, disregarding the will of the late Charles II.
Leopold started a war. The early years of the war went well for Austria, with victories at Schellenberg and Blenheim, but the war would drag on until 1714, nine years after Leopold's death, which had an effect on the warring nations; when peace returned, Austria could not be said to have emerged as triumphant as it had from the war against the Turks. Born on 9 June 1640 in Vienna, Leopold received a careful education by excellent teachers. From an early age Leopold showed an inclination toward learning, he became fluent in several languages: Latin, German and Spanish. In addition to German, Italian would be the most favored language at his court. Leopold was schooled in the classics, literature, natural science and astronomy, was interested in music, as was his father. Leopold had received an ecclesiastical education and was intended for the Church, until plans changed on 9 July 1654 when smallpox took his elder brother Ferdinand and made Leopold heir apparent. Nonetheless, Leopold's church education had marked him.
Leopold remained influenced by the Jesuits and his education throughout his life, was uncommonly knowledgeable for a monarch about theology, metaphysics and the sciences. He retained his interest in astrology and alchemy which he had developed under Jesuit tutors. A religious and devoted person, Leopold personified the pietas Austriaca, or the loyally Catholic attitude of his House. On the other hand, his piety and education may have caused in him a fatalistic strain which inclined him to reject all compromise on denominational questions, not always a positive characteristic in a ruler. Leopold was said to have Habsburg physical attributes. Short, of sickly constitution, Leopold was cold and reserved in public, awkward. However, he is said to have been open with close associates. Coxe described Leopold in the following manner: "His gait was stately and deliberate. Spielman argues that his long-expected career in the clergy caused Leopold to have "early adopted the intense Catholic piety expected of him and the gentle manners appropriate to a supporting role.
He grew to manhood without the military ambition. From the beginning, his reign was defensive and profoundly conservative."Hungary elected Leopold as its king in 1655, with Bohemia and Croatia following suit in 1656 and 1657 respectively. In July 1658, more than a year after his father's death, Leopold was elected Emperor at Frankfurt in spite of the French minister, Cardinal Mazarin, who sought to put the Imperial Crown on the head of Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria, or some other non-Habsburg prince. To conciliate France, which had considerable influence in German affairs thanks to the League of the Rhine, the newly elected Emperor promised not to assist Spain at war with France; this marked the beginning of a nearly 47-year career filled with rivalry with France and its king, Louis XIV. The latter's dominant personality and power overshadowed Leopold to this day, but though Leopold did not lead his troops in person as Louis XIV did, he was no less a warrior-king given the greater part of his public life was directed towards the arrangement and prosecution of wars.
Leopold's first war was the Second Northern War, in which King Charles X of Sweden tried to become King of Poland with the aid of allies including György II Rákóczi, Prince of Transylvania. Leopold's predecessor, Ferdinand III, had allied with King John II Casimir Vasa of Poland in 1656. In 1657, Leopold expanded this alliance to include Austrian troops; these troops helped defeat the Transylvanian army, campaigned as far as Denmark. The war ended with the Treaty of Oliwa in 1660; the Ottoman Empire interfered in the affairs of Transylvania, always an unruly district, this interference brought on a war with the Holy Roman Empire, which after some desultory operations began in 1663. By a personal appeal to the diet at Regensburg Leopold induced the princes to send assistance for the campaign. By the Peace of Vasvár the Emperor made a twenty years' truce with the Sultan, granting more generous terms than his recent victory seemed to render necessary. After a few years of peace came the first of three wars between Fr
Battle of Saint Gotthard (1664)
The Battle of Saint Gotthard was fought on August 1, 1664 as part of the Austro-Turkish War, between the Imperial Army led by Generalleutnant Raimondo Montecuccoli, Jean de Coligny-Saligny, Wolfgang Julius, Count of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein, together with the Army of the Holy Roman Empire led by Reichsgeneralfeldmarschall Prince Leopold of Baden and Reichsgeneralfeldmarschalleutnant Georg Friedrich of Waldeck and the army of the Ottoman Empire under the command of Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Paşa. The battle took place near Szentgotthárd and Mogersdorf in Western Hungary, near the present-day Austro-Hungarian border and is known as the Battle of Mogersdorf in Austria; the Turks were militarily defeated but were able to negotiate the Peace of Vasvár, favorable to them until their empire collapsed at which point it was no longer favorable to them. Ottoman dominance in Hungary began with the Battle of Mohács in 1526, which resulted in the conquest of most of Hungary by Suleiman the Magnificent. Meanwhile, the parts of Hungary that remained under Austrian control became known as Royal Hungary.
Although the Ottomans had been in relative decline since the death of Suleiman I, Ottoman power saw a resurgence under the capable Köprülü family who sought to destroy the Austrian Habsburgs once and for all. They found their casus belli when the Habsburgs supported a Transylvanian rebellion against Ottoman rule. Transylvania had escaped Ottoman conquest during the invasion of Hungary and retained its independence by playing off of their powerful neighbors: Poland and the Ottomans, they recognized Ottoman suzerainty and paid a tribute to the Porte but were given political and religious autonomy in return. In 1658, seeking new land for his principality, Prince George Rákóczy II invaded Poland with his Swedish allies in the Second Northern War. After initial success, he fled back to Transylvania. On hearing about Rákóczy's unauthorized war, the Ottomans declared war on their vassal, it was not long before Grand Vizier Köprülü Mehmed Pasha defeated Rákóczy and conquered Transylvania. The new Transylvanian prince, János Kemény, fled to Vienna.
Emperor Leopold I, not wishing to see Transylvania fall under direct Ottoman control, sent Montecuccoli into Hungary with his small army. Montecuccoli gave no direct support as he was outnumbered by the Ottomans; the Ottomans, completed the conquest of Transylvania and built up their forces in Ottoman Hungary. Leopold I, not wishing to face the Turks alone, summoned the Imperial Diet in January 1663; the Turks failed to conquer the fortress of Nové Zámky six times, but managed to do so in 1663. It was made the center of the Uyvar eyalet in present-day southern Slovakia. Turks and Tatars crossed the Danube in strength in 1663, ravaging Slovakia and Silesia, they took 12,000 slaves in Moravia. Several Turkish divisions reached as far as Olomouc; the Austrian victory was achieved more due to diplomatic efforts than military power. Although Leopold objected to Protestantism, he had to rely on his Protestant German princes to provide military aid. Worse was the military aid from France, Austria's nemesis.
Despite numerous objections from some Protestant princes, help was not withheld. The League of the Rhine - a French dominated group of German princes - agreed to send a corps of 6,000 men independently commanded by Count Coligny of France and Prince Johann Philipp of Mainz. By September 1663, Brandenburg and Saxony had agreed to contingents of their own. In January 1664, the Imperial Diet agreed to raise 21,000 men, although this army did not yet exist other than on paper; the Turks were slow in executing their invasion plans. Köprülü's army, which might have numbered 120-150,000 included some 60,000 Janissaries and sipahis, 60-90,000 azaps, akıncıs, silidars and vassals and 360 guns. Montecuccoli's army consisted of Habsburg forces and forces from the German principalities, French brigades, a Piedmontese regiment; the Habsburg forces: 5,000 infantry, 5,900 cavalry, 10 gunsThe Imperial forces: 6,200 infantry, 1,200 cavalry, 14 gunsThe Rhine forces: 600 infantry, 300 cavalry The French forces: 3,500 infantry, 1,750 cavalry Other forces: 2,000 Croat cavalry, Hungarian foot soldiers in Szentgotthárd, Esterházy, Batthyány and Nádasdy regiment's, Czech musketeers and the Italian infantry regiment.
The Turks renewed their invasion in the spring of 1664. They besieged and destroyed Novi Zrin Fortress on the Mura river in northern Croatia at the beginning of July. Montecuccoli was still waiting for help to arrive, this delay was key to the defense of Austria. In July 1664 the Imperial forces were assembled and set out for the River Rába, which separated the Ottoman forces from the Austrian duchy itself. If the Turks were allowed to cross, they would threaten both Graz. Montecuccoli intercepted the Turks before they crossed the river but the division of command made effective deployment of troops impossible. On 1 August 1664, Ottoman forces crossed the river near the monastery of Saint Gotthard and beat the Austrians back. Although plagued by disunity, Montecuccoli was able to conv