The fineness of a precious metal object represents the weight of fine metal therein, in proportion to the total weight which includes alloying base metals and any impurities. Alloy metals are added to increase hardness and durability of coins and jewelry, alter colors, decrease the cost per weight, or avoid the cost of high-purity refinement. For example, copper is added to the precious metal silver to make a more durable alloy for use in coins and jewelry. Coin silver, used for making silver coins in the past, contains 90% silver and 10% copper, by mass. Sterling silver contains 92.5% silver and 7.5% of other metals copper, by mass. Various ways of expressing fineness have been used and two remain in common use: millesimal fineness expressed in units of parts per 1,000 and karats used only for gold. Karats measure the parts per 24, so that 18 karat = 18⁄24 = 75% and 24 karat gold is considered 100% gold. Millesimal fineness is a system of denoting the purity of platinum and silver alloys by parts per thousand of pure metal by mass in the alloy.
For example, an alloy containing 75% gold is denoted as "750". Many European countries use decimal hallmark stamps rather than "14K", "18K", etc., used in the United Kingdom and United States. It is an extension of the older karat system of denoting the purity of gold by fractions of 24, such as "18 karat" for an alloy with 75% pure gold by mass; the millesimal fineness is rounded to a three figure number where used as a hallmark, the fineness may vary from the traditional versions of purity. Here are the most common millesimal finenesses used for precious metals and the most common terms associated with them. 999.5: what most dealers would buy as if 100% pure. Refined by the Perth Mint in 1957. 999.99—five nines fine: the purest type of gold produced. 999.9—four nines fine: e.g. ordinary Canadian Gold Maple Leaf and American Buffalo coins 999—24 karat occasionally known as three nines fine: e.g. Chinese Gold Panda coins 995: the minimum allowed in Good Delivery gold bars 990—two nines fine 986—Ducat fineness: used by Venetian and Holy Roman Empire mints.
This was achieved by the Royal Silver Company of Bolivia. 999.9—four nines fine: ultra-fine silver used by the Royal Canadian Mint for their Silver Maple Leaf and other silver coins 999—fine silver or three nines fine: used in Good Delivery bullion bars and most current silver bullion coins 980: common standard used in Mexico ca. 1930–45 958: Britannia silver 950: French 1st Standard 935: Swiss standard for watchcases after 1887, to meet the British Merchandise Marks Act and to be of equal grade to 925 Sterling. Sometimes claimed to have arisen as a Swiss misunderstanding of the standard required for British Sterling. Marked with three Swiss bears. 925: Sterling silver equivalent to "plata de primera ley" in Spain 917: a standard used for the minting of Indian silver, during the British raj 900: one nine fine, coin-silver, or 90% silver: e.g. Flowing Hair and 1837–1964 U. S. silver coins 892.4: US coinage 1485⁄1664 fine "standard silver" as defined by the Coinage Act of 1792: e.g. Draped Bust and Capped Bust U.
S. silver coins 875: Swiss standard used for export watchcases. 835: a standard predominantly used in Germany after 1884, for the minting of coins in countries of the Latin Monetary Union 833: a common standard for continental silver among the Dutch and Germans 830: a common standard used in older Scandinavian silver 800: the minimum standard for silver in Germany after 1884. The karat system is a standard adopted by US federal law. K is the karat rating of the material, Mg is the mass of pure gold in the alloy, Mm is the total mass of the material.24-karat gold is pure, 18-karat gold is 18 parts gold, 6 parts another metal, 12-karat gold is 12 parts gold, so forth. In England, the karat was divisible into four grains, the grain was divisible into four quarts. For example, a gold alloy of 127⁄128 fineness could have been described as being 23-karat, 3-grain, 1-quart gold; the karat fractional system is being complemented or superseded by the millesimal system, descr
Rutherford County, North Carolina
Rutherford County is a county located in the southwestern area of the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 67,810, its county seat is Rutherfordton. Rutherford County comprises NC Micropolitan Statistical Area; the county was formed in 1779 from the western part of the former Tryon County. It was named for Griffith Rutherford, leader of an expedition against the Cherokee in 1776 and a general in the American Revolutionary War. In 1791 parts of Rutherford County and Burke County were combined to form Buncombe County. In 1841 parts of Rutherford and Lincoln counties were combined to form Cleveland County. In 1842 additional parts of Rutherford and Burke counties were combined to form McDowell County. In 1855 parts of Rutherford and Henderson counties were combined to form Polk County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 566 square miles, of which 564 square miles is land and 1.7 square miles is water. McDowell County - north Burke County - northeast Cleveland County - east Cherokee County, South Carolina - south Spartanburg County, South Carolina - south Polk County - southwest Henderson County - west Buncombe County - northwest US 64 US 74 US 74A US 221 US 221A NC 9 NC 108 NC 120 NC 226 As of the census of 2000, there were 62,899 people, 25,191 households, 17,935 families residing in the county.
The population density was 112 people per square mile. There were 29,535 housing units at an average density of 52 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 86.79% White, 11.23% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.67% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races. 1.81% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. The largest ancestry groups in Rutherford County are: English - 44% Irish - 9% African American - 11% German - 5% Scotch-Irish - 4% Scottish - 3% Dutch - 2% Italian - 1% French or French Canadian - 1% Mexican - 1% Polish - 1%There were 25,191 households out of which 30.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.40% were married couples living together, 11.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.80% were non-families. 25.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.90.
In the county, the population was spread out with 23.80% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 27.90% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 16.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 93.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,122, the median income for a family was $37,787. Males had a median income of $28,890 versus $21,489 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,270. About 10.40% of families and 13.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.30% of those under age 18 and 13.80% of those age 65 or over. In 2010, Rutherford County was selected as the location for a new $450 million data center for Facebook. Horsehead Corporation announced the construction of its new, state-of-the-art zinc and diversified metals production facility in Rutherford County, NC, near the municipality of Forest City. Bostic Ellenboro Forest City Lake Lure Ruth Rutherfordton Spindale Chimney Rock Caroleen Cliffside Henrietta Alexander Mills Corinth Harris Mount Vernon Union Mills Rutherford is a powerfully Republican county.
No Democratic presidential candidate has carried Rutherford County since Jimmy Carter did so in 1976 – and Hillary Clinton's 24.4 percent in 2016 is the worst performance by a Democrat. Before 1928 when Herbert Hoover won it, the county was a clear-cut part of the Democratic "Solid South". Smoky Burgess, record-setting major league baseball player Walter Dalton, former lieutenant governor of North Carolina Tim Earley, American poet Kay Hooper, best-selling author Robert McNair, Owner Houston Texans Burl Noggle, American historian born in Rutherford County in 1924 Richard O'Sullivan and filmmaker National Register of Historic Places listings in Rutherford County, North Carolina Rutherford County official website NCGenWeb Rutherford County- free genealogy resources for the county Rutherford County Tourism Information
Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Baden
Charles Frederick was Margrave and Grand Duke of Baden from 1738 until his death. Born at Karlsruhe, he was the son of Hereditary Prince Frederick of Baden-Durlach and Amalia of Nassau-Dietz, the daughter of Johan Willem Friso of Nassau-Dietz, he succeeded his grandfather as Margrave of Baden-Durlach in 1738 and ruled from 1746 until 1771, when he inherited Baden-Baden from the Bernhard Line. Upon inheriting the latter margraviate, the original land of Baden was reunited, he was regarded as a good example of an enlightened despot, supporting schools, jurisprudence, civil service, economy and urban development. He outlawed torture in 1767, serfdom in 1783, he was elected a Royal Fellow of the Royal Society in 1747 In 1803, Charles Frederick became Elector of Baden, in 1806 the first Grand Duke of Baden. Through the politics of minister Sigismund Freiherr von Reitzenstein, Baden acquired the Bishopric of Constance, the territories of the Bishopric of Basel, the Bishopric of Strassburg, the Bishopric of Speyer that lay on the right bank of the Rhine, in addition to Breisgau and Ortenau.
In 1806, Baden joined the Confederation of the Rhine. Together with his architect, Friedrich Weinbrenner, Charles Frederick was responsible for the construction of the handsome suite of classical buildings that distinguish Karlsruhe, he died there in 1811, was one of the few German rulers to die during the Napoleonic era. Charles Frederick married Caroline Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt on 28 January 1751, she was the daughter of Louis VIII of Hesse-Darmstadt, was born on 11 July 1723 and died on 8 April 1783. Charles Frederick and Caroline Louise had the following children: Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden. Prince Frederick of Baden. Prince Louis of Baden. Louis succeeded his nephew Charles as Louis I, 3rd Grand Duke in 1818. Son. Princess Louise Auguste of Baden. Charles Frederick married Louise Caroline, Baroness Geyer of Geyersberg as his second wife on 24 November 1787, she was the daughter of Lt. Col. Louis Henry Philipp, Baron Geyer of Geyersberg and his wife Maximiliana Christiane, Countess of Sponeck.
She was born on 26 May 1768 and died on 23 July 1820. This was a morganatic marriage, the children born of it were not eligible to succeed. Louise was created Baroness of Hochberg at the time of her marriage and Countess of Hochberg in 1796, they had the following children: Prince Leopold of Baden. Married on 25 July 1819 in Karlsruhe his half-grand-niece, HRH Princess Sophie of Sweden, eldest daughter of the former King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden and Frederica of Baden. Prince William of Baden. Prince Frederick Alexander of Baden. Princess Amalie of Baden. By 1817, the descendants of Charles Frederick by his first wife were dying out. To prevent Baden from being inherited by the next heir, the reigning Grand Duke, changed the succession law to give the Hochberg family full dynastic rights in Baden, they thus became Princes and Princesses of Baden with the style Grand Ducal Highness, like their elder half-siblings. Their succession rights were reinforced when Baden was granted a constitution in 1818, recognised by Bavaria and the Great Powers in the Treaty of Frankfurt, 1819.
Leopold's descendants ruled the Grand Duchy of Baden until 1918. The current pretenders to the throne of Baden are descendants of Leopold. Leopold, the eldest son from the second marriage, succeeded as Grand Duke in 1830. Helen P. Liebel, "Enlightened bureaucracy versus enlightened despotism in Baden, 1750-1792." Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 55.5: 1-132
Placer mining is the mining of stream bed deposits for minerals. This may be done by various surface excavating equipment or tunnelling equipment. Placer mining is used for precious metal deposits and gemstones, both of which are found in alluvial deposits—deposits of sand and gravel in modern or ancient stream beds, or glacial deposits; the metal or gemstones, having been moved by stream flow from an original source such as a vein, are only a minuscule portion of the total deposit. Since gems and heavy metals like gold are denser than sand, they tend to accumulate at the base of placer deposits, it is important to note that placer deposits can be as young as a few years old, such as the Canadian Queen Charlotte beach gold placer deposits, or billions of years old like the Elliott Lake uranium paleoplacer within the Huronian Supergroup in Canada. The containing material in an alluvial placer mine may be too loose to safely mine by tunnelling, though it is possible where the ground is permanently frozen.
Where water under pressure is available, it may be used to mine and separate the precious material from the deposit, a method known as hydraulic mining, hydraulic sluicing or hydraulicking. The word placer derives from the Spanish placer, meaning shoal or alluvial/sand deposit, from Catalan placer, from plassa, from Medieval Latin placea the origin word for "place" and "plaza" in English; the word in Spanish is thus derived from placea and refers directly to an alluvial or glacial deposit of sand or gravel. Placers supplied most of the gold for a large part of the ancient world. Hydraulic mining methods such as hushing were used by the Romans across their empire, but in the gold fields of northern Spain after its conquest by Augustus in 25 BC. One of the largest sites was at Las Médulas, where seven 30 mile long aqueducts were used to work the alluvial gold deposits through the first century AD. In North America, placer mining was famous in the context of several gold rushes the California Gold Rush and the Colorado Gold Rush, the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush and the Klondike Gold Rush.
Placer mining continues in many areas of the world as a source of diamonds, industrial minerals and metals, platinum, of gold. An area well protected from the flow of water is a great location to find gold. Gold is dense and is found in a stream bed. Many different gold deposits are dealt with in different ways. Placer deposits attract many prospectors because their costs are low. There are many different places gold could be placed, such as a residual, a bench deposit. Residual deposits are more common where there has been weathering on rocks and where there hasn’t been water, they are deposits which have not been been moved. The residual lies at the site of the lode; this type of deposit undergoes rock weathering. Alluvial or eluvial deposits sometimes have the largest gold deposit and are common; this deposit is created when a force of nature moves or washes the gold away, but it doesn’t go into a stream bed. It contains pieces of ore. Alluvial deposits are the most common type of placer gold; this type of deposit occurs in valleys.
Bench deposits are created. Gold accumulations in an old stream bed that are high are called bench deposits, they can be found on higher slopes. Dry stream beds can be situated far from other water sources and can sometimes be found on mountain tops. Today, many miners focus their activities on bench deposits. A number of methods are used to mine placer gold and gems, both in terms of extracting the minerals from the ground, separating it from the non-gold or non-gems; the simplest technique to extract gold from placer ore is panning. This technique has been dated back to at least the Roman Empire. In panning, some mined ore is placed in a large metal or plastic pan, combined with a generous amount of water, agitated so that the gold particles, being of higher density than the other material, settle to the bottom of the pan; the lighter gangue material such as sand and gravel are washed over the side of the pan, leaving the gold behind. Once a placer deposit is located by gold panning, the miner shifts to equipment that can treat volumes of sand and gravel more and efficiently.
Gold panning was used on its own during the California gold rush, however it is now used for profit since an expert gold prospector can only process one cubic yard of material for every 10 hours of work. A rocker box is capable of greater volume than a gold pan, however its production is still limited when compared to other methods of placer mining, it is only capable of processing about 4 yards of gravel a day. It is more portable and requires less infrastructure than a sluice box, being fed not by a sluice but by hand; the box sits on rockers, which when rocked separates out the gold, the practice was referred to as "rocking the golden baby". A typical rocker box is 42 inches long, 16 inches wide and 12 inches long with a removable tray towards the top, where gold is placed; the rocker was used throughout North America during the early gold rush, but its popularity diminished as other meth
Margraviate of Baden
The Margraviate of Baden was a historical territory of the Holy Roman Empire. Spread along the east side of the Upper Rhine River in southwestern Germany, it was named a margraviate in 1112 and existed until 1535, when it was split into the two margraviates of Baden-Durlach and Baden-Baden; the two parts were reunited in 1771 under Margrave Charles Frederick. The restored Margraviate of Baden was elevated to the status of electorate in 1803. In 1806, the Electorate of Baden, receiving territorial additions, became the Grand Duchy of Baden; the rulers of Baden, known as the House of Baden, were a cadet line of the Swabian House of Zähringen. During the 11th century, the Duchy of Swabia lacked a powerful central authority and was under the control of various comital dynasties, the strongest of them being the House of Hohenstaufen, the House of Welf, the Habsburgs and the House of Zähringen. Emperor Henry III had promised the ducal throne to the Zähringen scion Berthold, upon Henry's death in 1056 his widow Agnes of Poitou appointed Rudolf of Rheinfelden Duke of Swabia.
Berthold renounced his rights and was compensated with the Duchy of Carinthia and the March of Verona in Italy. Not able to establish himself, he lost both territories, when he was deposed by King Henry IV of Germany during the Investiture Controversy in 1077. Berthold retired to his Swabian home territory; the Veronese margravial title was retained by his eldest son Herman I Herman II, son of Herman I and grandson of Berthold II, had concluded an agreement with the rivalling Hohenstaufen dynasty, about 1098 was enfeoffed with immediate territory by Emperor Henry IV. Like his father, Herman II insisted on his margravial title, he chose to establish his residence in Germany, as he had been raised there. His lordship of choice was Baden, where his father had gained the right to rule by marrying the heiress, Judit von Backnang-Sulichgau, Countess of Eberstein-Calw. In Baden, Herman II had Hohenbaden Castle built. Construction began about 1100, when completed in 1112, he marked the occasion by adopting the title of a Margrave of Baden.
Because Baden was the capital, the new Margraviate was known as Baden. Herman II would continue to be Margrave until his death in 1130, his son and grandson, Hermann III and Herman IV, added to their territories. Around 1200, these lands were divided for the first time. Two lines, Baden-Baden and Baden-Hachberg, were founded; the latter was divided about a hundred years to create the third line – Baden-Sausenberg. In the 12th and 13th centuries Baden was a loyal and steadfast supporter of the House of Hohenstaufen against its own relatives from Zähringen-Swabia. In return for its services, it was permitted to spread its rule throughout southwestern Germany, west across the Rhine River into Alsace, east to the edges of the Black Forest, north to the Murg River and south to the Breisgau; the fourth Margrave of Baden-Baden, Herman V, Margrave of Baden-Baden, founded the cities of Backnang, Stuttgart and Pforzheim and several monasteries, including the Lichtenthal Abbey, which became the burial place of his descendants.
In 1219 he moved his seat of power to Pforzheim. He had to abandon his claims to Zähringen and Braunschweig, but he gained the title of Graf von Ortenau and Breisgau, named for the two valleys in southern Baden, his son and grandson, Herman VI, Margrave of Baden and Frederick I, Margrave of Baden, claimed the titles of Dukes of Austria and Styria. The Austrians rejected them. Bernard I, Margrave of Baden-Baden united all of the acquisitions in 1391. A soldier of some renown, Bernard continued the mission of his predecessors, gained several more districts, including Baden-Pforzheim and Baden-Hochberg. Since 1291, Baden-Pforzheim had its own Margraviate, but in 1361 it ran out of heirs, falling back to the House of Baden-Baden. Baden-Hochberg fared little better. Founded in 1190, it lasted until 1418. Bernard, being the closest heir, claimed Baden-Hochberg. Baden-Sausenberg, continued its own Margraviate until 1503, when the lack of its own heirs sent it back to the House of Baden-Baden; the consolidation of the Margraviate came in 1442.
In that year, one-half of the dominions of Lahr and Mahlberg was brought into the fold, creating the link between the two main areas, the Breisgau in the south and Baden-Baden in the north. Throughout the Late Middle Ages, Baden grew its administration and armies until it became one of the biggest and strongest states of the Holy Roman Empire in southwestern Germany after it gained the Habsburg possessions in the rest of the Ortenau and the Breisgau. In 1462 the dispute over the election of the new Archbishop of Mainz sent Charles I to fight the war against Frederick I, the Count Palatine of the Rhine. Known as the "Mainz Archbishops' Feud", it was brief, lasting only a few months, but the effects were ruinous for the loser – Charles, he had to surrender several of his territories to its allies. These territories were recovered by his son and successor, Christoph I, he tried to keep them united under one of his sons, but his efforts were foiled by the King of France, Louis XII. In 1479, the seat of the Margraviate of Baden was moved from Hohenbaden Castle to New Castle of Baden-Baden, built by Christoph I.
In 1503, the Baden-Sausenberg died without male heirs and all the Badener lands were united by Christoph himself. Before his death, Christoph divided the Ma
A Gold Rush is a new discovery of gold—sometimes accompanied by other precious metals and rare earth minerals—that brings an onrush of miners seeking their fortune. Major gold rushes took place in the 19th century in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa and the United States, while smaller gold rushes took place elsewhere; the wealth that resulted was distributed because of reduced migration costs and low barriers to entry. While gold mining itself was unprofitable for most diggers and mine owners, some people made large fortunes, the merchants and transportation facilities made large profits; the resulting increase in the world's gold supply stimulated global investment. Historians have written extensively about the migration, trade and environmental history associated with gold rushes. Gold rushes were marked by a general buoyant feeling of a "free for all" in income mobility, in which any single individual might become abundantly wealthy instantly, as expressed in the California Dream.
Gold rushes helped spur a huge immigration that led to permanent settlement of new regions. Activities propelled by gold rushes define significant aspects of the culture of the Australian and North American frontiers. At a time when the world's money supply was based on gold, the newly mined gold provided economic stimulus far beyond the gold fields. Gold rushes extend as far back to the Roman Empire, whose gold mining was described by Diodorus Siculus and Pliny the Elder, further back to ancient Egypt. Within each mining rush there is a transition through progressively higher capital expenditures, larger organizations, more specialized knowledge, they may progress from high-unit value to lower unit value minerals. A rush begins with the discovery of placer gold made by an individual. At first the gold may be washed from the sand and gravel by individual miners with little training, using a gold pan or similar simple instrument. Once it is clear that the volume of gold-bearing sediment is larger than a few cubic metres, the placer miners will build rockers or sluice boxes, with which a small group can wash gold from the sediment many times faster than using gold pans.
Winning the gold in this manner requires no capital investment, only a simple pan or equipment that may be built on the spot, only simple organisation. The low investment, the high value per unit weight of gold, the ability of gold dust and gold nuggets to serve as a medium of exchange, allow placer gold rushes to occur in remote locations. After the sluice-box stage, placer mining may become large scale, requiring larger organisations and higher capital expenditures. Small claims owned and mined by individuals may need to be merged into larger tracts. Difficult-to-reach placer deposits may be mined by tunnels. Water may be diverted by dams and canals to placer mine active river beds or to deliver water needed to wash dry placers; the more advanced techniques of ground sluicing, hydraulic mining and dredging may be used. The heyday of a placer gold rush would last only a few years; the free gold supply in stream beds would become depleted somewhat and the initial phase would be followed by prospecting for veins of lode gold that were the original source of the placer gold.
Hard rock mining, like placer mining, may evolve from low capital investment and simple technology to progressively higher capital and technology. The surface outcrop of a gold-bearing vein may be oxidized, so that the gold occurs as native gold, the ore needs only to be crushed and washed; the first miners may at first build a simple arrastra to crush their ore. As the miners dig down, they may find that the deeper part of vein contains gold locked in sulfide or telluride minerals, which will require smelting. If the ore is still sufficiently rich, it may be worth shipping to a distant smelter. Lower-grade ore may require on-site treatment to either recover the gold or to produce a concentrate sufficiently rich for transport to the smelter; as the district turns to lower-grade ore, the mining may change from underground mining to large open-pit mining. Many silver rushes followed upon gold rushes; as transportation and infrastructure improve, the focus may change progressively from gold to silver to base metals.
In this way, Colorado started as a placer gold discovery, achieved fame as a silver-mining district relied on lead and zinc in its days. Butte, Montana began mining placer gold became a silver-mining district became for a time the world’s largest copper producer. Various gold rushes occurred in Australia over the second half of the 19th century; the most significant of these, although not the only ones, were the New South Wales gold rush and Victorian gold rush in 1851, the Western Australian gold rushes of the 1890s. They were significant to their respective colonies' political and economic development as they brought a large number of immigrants, promoted massive government spending on infrastructure to support the new arrivals who came looking for gold. While some found their fortune, those who did not remained in the colonies and took advantage of liberal land laws to take up farming. Gold rushes happened at or around: In New Zealand the Central Otago Gold Rush from 1861 attracted prospectors from the California Gold Rush and the Victorian Gold Rush and many moved on to the West Coast Gold Rush from 1864.
The first significant gold rush in the United States was in Cabarrus County, North Carolina, in 1799 at today's Reed's Gold Mine. Thirty years in 1829, the Geor
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC