A playwright or dramatist is a person who writes plays. The word "play" is from Middle English pleye, from Old English plæġ, pleġa, plæġa ("play, exercise; the word "wright" is an archaic English term for a builder. The words combine to indicate a person who has "wrought" words and other elements into a dramatic form—a play; the first recorded use of the term "playwright" is from 1605, 73 years before the first written record of the term "dramatist". It appears to have been first used in a pejorative sense by Ben Jonson to suggest a mere tradesman fashioning works for the theatre. Jonson uses the word in his Epigram 49, thought to refer to John Marston: Epigram LXVIII — On Playwright PLAYWRIGHT me reads, still my verses damns, He says I want the tongue of epigrams. Playwright, I loath to have thy manners known In my chaste book. Jonson described himself as a poet, not a playwright, since plays during that time were written in meter and so were regarded as the province of poets; this view was held as late as the early 19th century.
The term "playwright" again lost this negative connotation. The earliest playwright in Western literature with surviving works are the Ancient Greeks; these early plays were for annual Athenian competitions among play writers held around the 5th century BC. Such notables as Aeschylus, Sophocles and Aristophanes established forms still relied on by their modern counterparts. For the ancient Greeks, playwriting involved poïesis, "the act of making"; this is the source of the English word poet. In the 4th century BCE, Aristotle wrote his Poetics, in which he analyzed the principle of action or praxis as the basis for tragedy, he considered elements of drama: plot, thought, diction and spectacle. Since the myths, on which Greek tragedy were based, were known, plot had to do with the arrangement and selection of existing material. Character was determined by action. Tragedy is mimesis—"the imitation of an action, serious", he developed his notion of hamartia, or tragic flaw, an error in judgment by the main character or protagonist, which provides the basis for the "conflict-driven" play.
The Italian Renaissance brought about a stricter interpretation of Aristotle, as this long-lost work came to light in the late 15th century. The neoclassical ideal, to reach its apogee in France during the 17th century, dwelled upon the unities, of action and time; this meant that the playwright had to construct the play so that its "virtual" time would not exceed 24 hours, that it would be restricted to a single setting, that there would be no subplots. Other terms, such as verisimilitude and decorum, circumscribed the subject matter significantly. For example, verisimilitude limits of the unities. Decorum fitted proper protocols for language on stage. In France, contained too many events and actions, violating the 24-hour restriction of the unity of time. Neoclassicism never had as much traction in England, Shakespeare's plays are directly opposed to these models, while in Italy and bawdy commedia dell'arte and opera were more popular forms. In England, after the Interregnum, restoration of the monarchy in 1660, there was a move toward neoclassical dramaturgy.
One structural unit, still useful to playwrights today, is the "French scene", a scene in a play where the beginning and end are marked by a change in the makeup of the group of characters onstage, rather than by the lights going up or down or the set being changed. Popularized in the nineteenth century by the French playwrights Eugène Scribe and Victorien Sardou, the most schematic of all formats, the "well-made play" relies on a series of coincidences that determined the action; this plot driven format is reliant on a prop device, such as a glass of water, or letter that reveals some secret information. In most cases, the character receiving the secret information misinterprets its contents, thus setting off a chain of events. Well-made plays are thus motivated by various plot devices which lead to "discoveries" and "reversals of action," rather than being character motivated. Henrik Ibsen's A Doll's House is an example of a well-made structure that began to integrate a more realistic approach to character.
The character Nora's leaving is as much motivated by "the letter" and disclosure of a "past secret" as it is by her own determination to strike out on her own. The well-made play infiltrated other forms of writing and is still seen in popular formats such as the mystery, or "whodunit." Full-length play: Generally, two or three acts with an act break that marks some kind of scene change or time shift. These acts are divided into scenes, which are defined by shifts in time and place; this type of structure is called episodic. Episodic plays contain scene changes and require careful attention to transitions, so as to maintain entails a more causal relationship between units and is defined by the unity of time, and/or action. Short play: A more popular format the short play does not have an intermission and runs over an hour, but less than an hour-and-a-half. One-act play: A useful form for experimental work with less reliance on character development and arc; these remain under an hour in length.
In the US the 10-minute play
Susan Alexandra "Sigourney" Weaver is an American actress. Dubbed "the Sci-Fi Queen", Weaver is considered to be pioneer of action heroines in science fiction films, she is known for her role as Ellen Ripley in the Aliens franchise. The role earned her an Academy Award nomination in 1986 and is considered one of the most significant female protagonists in all of cinema. Weaver received a Tony Award nomination for the 1984 Broadway play Hurlyburly. A seven-time Golden Globe Award nominee, in 1988 she won both Best Actress in Drama and Best Supporting Actress for her work in the films Gorillas in the Mist and Working Girl, becoming the first person to win two acting Golden Globes in the same year, she received Academy Award nominations for both films. For her role in the film The Ice Storm, she won the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role. Weaver's other popular works include Ghostbusters, Ghostbusters II, Galaxy Quest, Futurama, WALL-E, Paul, The Cabin in the Woods, Finding Dory, A Monster Calls.
Weaver was born in Manhattan, New York City, the only daughter of Elizabeth Inglis, an actress, NBC television executive and television pioneer Sylvester "Pat" Weaver. Her uncle, Doodles Weaver, was a actor, her mother was English, from Colchester and her father, American, had English, Scots-Irish, Dutch ancestry, including roots in New England. Weaver began using the name "Sigourney Weaver" in 1963 after a minor character in Chapter 3 of F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel The Great Gatsby. Weaver attended a girls' preparatory school in Simsbury, Connecticut, she attended The Chapin School and The Brearley School. Sigourney was 5 ft 10 1⁄2 in tall by the age of 14, although she only grew another inch during her teens to her adult height of 5 ft 11 1⁄2 in. In 1967, at the age of 18, Weaver volunteered on a kibbutz for several months. Weaver attended Sarah Lawrence College. In 1972, she graduated with a B. A. in English from Stanford University, where she first began her involvement in acting by living in Stanford's co-ed Beta Chi Community for the Performing Arts.
Weaver earned her Master of Fine Arts degree at the Yale University School of Drama in 1974, where one of her appearances was in the chorus in a production of Stephen Sondheim's musical version of The Frogs, another was as one of a mob of Roman soldiers alongside Meryl Streep in another production. Weaver acted in original plays by her friend and classmate Christopher Durang, she appeared in an "Off-Broadway" production of Durang's comedy Beyond Therapy in 1981, directed by the up-and-coming director Jerry Zaks. Weaver's first role is said to be in Woody Allen's comedy Annie Hall playing a non speaking role opposite Allen. Weaver appeared two years as Warrant Officer / Lieutenant Ripley in Ridley Scott's blockbuster film Alien, in a role designated to co-star British-born actress, Veronica Cartwright, until a late change in casting. Cartwright stated to World Entertainment News Network that she was in England ready to start work on Alien when she discovered that she would be playing the navigator Lambert in the project, Weaver had been given the lead role of Ripley.
She reprised the role in the three sequels of the Alien movie franchise, Alien 3 and Alien Resurrection. Ty Burr of The Boston Globe states, "One of the real pleasures of Alien is to watch the emergence of both Ellen Ripley as a character and Sigourney Weaver as a star."In the sequel Aliens directed by James Cameron, critic Roger Ebert wrote, "Weaver, onscreen all the time, comes through with a strong, sympathetic performance: She's the thread that holds everything together." She followed the success of Alien appearing opposite Mel Gibson in The Year of Living Dangerously released to critical acclaim and as Dana Barrett in Ghostbusters and Ghostbusters II. By the end of the decade, Weaver appeared in two of her most memorable and critically acclaimed performances. In 1988, she starred as Dian Fossey in Gorillas in the Mist; the same year, she appeared opposite Harrison Ford in a supporting role as Katharine Parker in the film Working Girl. Weaver won Golden Globe Awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress for her two roles that year.
She received two Academy Award nominations in 1988, for Best Supporting Actress for her role in Working Girl and Best Actress for Gorillas in the Mist. She gave birth to her daughter Charlotte Simpson taking a few years' break from the movie business and focusing on her family, she returned to the big screen with Alien 3 and Ridley's Scott's 1492: Conquest of Paradise in which she played the role of Queen Isabella. In the early 1990s, Weaver appeared in several films including Dave opposite Kevin Kline and Frank Langella. In 1994, she starred in the Maiden as Paulina Escobar, she played the role of agoraphobic criminal psychologist Helen Hudson in the movie Copycat. Throughout the 1990s decade, Weaver concentrated on smaller and supporting roles such as Jeffrey with Nathan Lane and Patrick Stewart. In 1997, she appeared in Ang Lee's The Ice Storm, her role in The Ice Storm as Janey Carver, earned her another Golden Globe nomination for Best Supporting Actress, won her a BAFTA Award for Actress in a Supporting Role.
In 1999, she co-starred in the science fiction comedy Galaxy Quest and the drama A Map of the World, earning her another Golden Globe nomination for Best Actress
Thomas Lanier Williams III, known by his pen name Tennessee Williams, was an American playwright. Along with contemporaries Eugene O'Neill and Arthur Miller, he is considered among the three foremost playwrights of 20th-century American drama. After years of obscurity, at age 33 he became famous with the success of The Glass Menagerie in New York City; this play reflected his own unhappy family background. It was the first of a string of successes, including A Streetcar Named Desire, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Sweet Bird of Youth. With his work, he attempted a new style that did not appeal to audiences. Increasing alcohol and drug dependence inhibited his creative expression, his drama A Streetcar Named Desire is numbered on short lists of the finest American plays of the 20th century alongside Eugene O'Neill's Long Day's Journey into Night and Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman. Much of Williams' most acclaimed work has been adapted for the cinema, he wrote short stories, essays and a volume of memoirs.
In 1979, four years before his death, Williams was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame. Thomas Lanier Williams III was born in Columbus, Mississippi of English and Huguenot ancestry, the second child of Edwina Dakin and Cornelius Coffin "C. C." Williams. His father was a traveling shoe salesman who became alcoholic and was away from home, his mother, was the daughter of Rose O. Dakin, a music teacher, the Reverend Walter Dakin, an Episcopal priest from Illinois, assigned to a parish in Clarksdale, shortly after Williams' birth. Williams lived in his parsonage with his family for much of his early childhood and was close to his grandparents, he had two siblings, older sister Rose Isabel Williams and younger brother Walter Dakin Williams.. As a young child Williams nearly died from a case of diphtheria that left him weak and confined to his house during a period of recuperation that lasted a year. At least in part as a result of his illness, he was less robust. Cornelius Williams, a descendant of hearty East Tennessee pioneer stock, had a violent temper and was a man prone to use his fists.
He regarded. Edwina, locked in an unhappy marriage, focused her overbearing attention entirely on her frail young son. Many critics and historians note that Williams drew from his own dysfunctional family in much of his writing; when Williams was eight years old, his father was promoted to a job at the home office of the International Shoe Company in St. Louis, Missouri, his mother's continual search for what she considered to be an appropriate address, as well as his father's heavy drinking and loudly turbulent behavior, caused them to move numerous times around St. Louis. Williams attended a setting he referred to in his play The Glass Menagerie, he studied at University City High School. At age 16, Williams won third prize for an essay published in Smart Set, titled "Can a Good Wife Be a Good Sport?" A year his short story "The Vengeance of Nitocris" was published in the August 1928 issue of the magazine Weird Tales. That same year he first visited Europe with his maternal grandfather Dakin.
From 1929 to 1931, Williams attended the University of Missouri in Columbia where he enrolled in journalism classes. He distracted by unrequited love for a girl. Soon he began entering his poetry, essays and plays in writing contests, hoping to earn extra income, his first submitted play was Beauty followed by Hot Milk at Three in the Morning. As recognition for Beauty, a play about rebellion against religious upbringing, he became the first freshman to receive honorable mention in a writing competition. At University of Missouri, Williams joined the Alpha Tau Omega fraternity, but he did not fit in well with his fraternity brothers. After he failed a military training course in his junior year, his father pulled him out of school and put him to work at the International Shoe Company factory. Although Williams hated the monotony, the job forced him out of the gentility of his upbringing, his dislike of his new 9-to-5 routine drove Williams to write prodigiously. He set a goal of writing one story a week.
Williams worked on weekends and late into the night. His mother recalled his intensity: Tom would go to his room with black coffee and cigarettes and I would hear the typewriter clicking away at night in the silent house; some mornings when I walked in to wake him for work, I would find him sprawled dressed across the bed, too tired to remove his clothes. Overworked and lacking further success with his writing, by his 24th birthday Williams had suffered a nervous breakdown and left his job, he drew from memories of this period, a particular factory co-worker, to create the character Stanley Kowalski in A Streetcar Named Desire. By the mid-1930s his mother separated from his father due to his worsening alcoholism and abusive temper, they never divorced. In 1936 Williams enrolled at Washington University in St. Louis where he wrote the play Vashya. In the autumn of 1937, he transferred to the University of Iowa, where he graduated with a B. A. in English in August 1938. He studied at the Dramatic Workshop of The New School in New York City.
Speaking of his early days as a playwright and an early collaborative play called Cairo, Bombay!, Williams wrote, "The laughter... enchanted me. And there the theatre and I found each other for better and for worse. I know it's the only thing that saved my life
Delbarton School is a private all-male Roman Catholic college-preparatory school in Morristown, in Morris County, New Jersey, United States, educating young men in seventh through twelfth grades. Delbarton is a Catholic independent school directed by the Benedictine monks of St. Mary's Abbey; the school is located within the Roman Catholic Diocese of Paterson, operating on an independent basis. As of the 2015-16 school year, the school had an enrollment of 572 students and 72.4 classroom teachers, for a student–teacher ratio of 7.9:1. The school's student body was 75.2% White, 9.3% Asian, 5.2% Hispanic, 2.1% Black, 0.2% Native Hawaiian / Pacific Islander and 8.0% two or more races. Delbarton's student body comprises students from more than eight New Jersey counties and 100 communities. In 2007, The Wall Street Journal ranked Delbarton School ninth among America's high schools. For the 1983-84 school year, Delbarton School received the National Blue Ribbon Award of Excellence from the United States Department of Education, the highest honor that an American school can achieve.
In 2018, Niche.com ranked Delbarton second among Catholic high schools in the United States, eighth among all private schools. Delbarton is a member of the New Jersey Association of Independent Schools and has been accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Secondary Schools since 1961; the school offers financial aid to families who cannot afford the cost of tuition, financial aid offers are considered independently of admission. Annual tuition is $37,900 for the 2017-18 school year. Delbarton is a host site for NJ Seeds' young scholars program where every summer academically qualified but economically disadvantaged students attend classes on the Delbarton campus. In the 1880s, Luther Kountze established an estate in northern New Jersey, he began to buy more land expanding his estate to cover 4,000 acres. This became the home of St. Mary's Abbey/Delbarton, Morristown National Historical Park and Lewis Morris County Park. Kountze named the estate "Delbarton," borrowing one syllable from the names of each of his first three children.
In 1918, Kountze died. The family decided to put the estate for sale. In 1925, the monks of Saint Mary's Abbey in Newark, purchased four hundred acres of Delbarton to use as a separate house for younger members for studying settling on the property in 1927. After some time, the monks decided to open a secondary school, as the Newark residence had done so with Saint Benedict's Preparatory School. After some deliberation, Abbot Patrick O'Brien opened Delbarton School in 1939, appointing Father Augustine Wirth as the first headmaster. At that time, the school was a boarding school for sixth and eighth grade students. In 1942, Father Stephen Findlay introduced drastic changes; the grade levels were modified resulting in seventh through twelfth grades being offered. The Kountze carriage house was destroyed in a fire in 1947, leading to the construction of the St. Joseph Gymnasium; because of the fire, the school chose as its motto, "Succisa Virescit", borrowing from the destroyed Abbey of Monte Cassino in Italy.
Trinity Hall opened in 1959, allowing the enrollment to increase to over 300. Father Stephen retired in 1967 to the position of Director of Development. In 1971, the Schmeil-O'Brien Hall dormitory was dedicated, although the majority of students were day students. Delbarton's fourth headmaster, Father Gerard Lair, initiated more changes; the system of discipline from demerits and detention changed to a conversational program designed to bring about positive changes. As the academic prestige of the School grew, the Board of Trustees decided to terminate the residential program in 1978; the last two resident students graduated in 1983. Since more facilities have been built, with the dedication of the Lynch Athletic Center in 1983, Findlay Science Pavilion in 1995, Fine Arts Center in 2006, the 40 Acres soccer and baseball fields in 2009, the Cocoziello Field and Posserelli Track in 2010. Molestation allegations against a monk at Delbarton resulted in lawsuits being filed against the school by two former students who claimed to have been inappropriately touched by the Reverend.
Delbarton has made many efforts to open up the student body to the international community. Over the past few years many respectable speakers have spoken to the student body including Dith Pran and Lech Wałęsa. Delbarton students have several opportunities to travel abroad; the school participates in foreign exchange programs with schools in Ireland sister school Glenstal Abbey School in County Limerick, the Bildungszentrum Markdorf School in Markdorf, Germany. Juniors can travel to the Caribbean during the summer between their junior and senior year to learn about the culture and history of select islands through the school's SOL program. Students have the opportunity to experience eco-tourism first hand in Costa Rica. Students have visited nature reserves, Arenal Volcano, Poás Volcano National Park and Monteverde while studying at the CPI language school in Heredia, Costa Rica. Delbarton students have traveled to Spain on several organized summer trips and to Germany for World Youth Day with the school's religious educator David Hajduk.
The school has sent several students to help assist in Operation Smile Missions in China and Thailand. The most recent established trip overseas was a mission trip to Nairobi and Hanga, where students donated money and aid to several schools; the school's various musical ensembles
Montclair, New Jersey
Montclair is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 37,669, reflecting a decline of 1,308 from the 38,977 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 1,248 from the 37,729 counted in the 1990 Census; as of 2010, it was the 60th-most-populous municipality in New Jersey. Montclair was first formed as a township on April 15, 1868, from portions of Bloomfield Township, so that a second railroad could be built to Montclair. After a referendum held on February 21, 1894, Montclair was reincorporated as a town, effective February 24, 1894, it derives its name from the French mont clair, meaning "clear mountain" or "bright mountain."In 1980, after multiple protests filed by Montclair officials regarding the inequities built into the federal revenue sharing system, Montclair passed a referendum changing its name to the "Township of Montclair," becoming the third of more than a dozen Essex County municipalities to reclassify themselves as townships to take advantage of federal revenue sharing policies that allocated townships a greater share of government aid to municipalities on a per capita basis.
Montclair, which opened the state's first dispensary in December 2012, joins Bellmawr, Egg Harbor Township and Woodbridge Township as one of the five municipalities that have authorized dispensaries for the sale of medical marijuana. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 6.315 square miles, including 6.308 square miles of land and 0.007 square mile of water. Montclair is on the east side of the First Mountain of the Watchung Mountains; some higher locations in the township provide excellent views of the surrounding area and of the New York City skyline about 12 miles away. Named localities in the township include Church Street, Frog Hollow, Montclair Heights, South End, Upper Montclair and Watchung Plaza. Montclair citizens use two main ZIP codes; the central and southern parts of the township are designated 07042. Upper Montclair lies north of Watchung Avenue and has a separate ZIP code, 07043; because the ZIP codes do not match municipal boundaries, a few homes near the borders with neighboring towns fall into the ZIP codes for those communities.
A few homes in some adjoining municipalities use one of the two ZIP codes assigned to Montclair, as does HackensackUMC Mountainside, whose campus straddles the border with Glen Ridge. Small areas in the southeast of the township fall into the Glen Ridge ZIP code 07028. Several streams flow eastward through Montclair: Toney's Brook in the center, Nishuane Brook in the southeast, the Wigwam Brook in the southwest, Pearl Brook in the northwest, Yantacaw Brook in the northeast – all in the Passaic River watershed. Yantacaw and Toney's brooks are dammed in parks to create ponds. Wigwam and Toney's brooks flow into the Second River, the others flow into the Third River. Montclair lies just north of the northernmost extent of the Rahway River watershed; the southern border of Montclair is a straight line between Eagle Rock, on the ridge of the First Watchung Mountain, the point where Orange Road begins at the foot of Ridgewood Avenue. The eastern border is a straight line between that point and a point just southwest of where Broad Street crosses the Third River.
The western border runs along the ridge of the First Watchung Mountain between Eagle Rock and the Essex County/Passaic County border. The northern border is the border between those two counties. Montclair has a temperate climate, with warm-to-hot, humid summers and cool to cold winters, as is characteristic of the Köppen climate classification humid continental climate. January tends to be the coldest month, with average high temperatures in the upper 30s Fahrenheit and lows averaging 21. July, the warmest month, features high temperatures in the mid-80s and lows in the 70s, with an average high of 86 degrees. From April to June and from September to early November, Montclair experiences temperatures from the lower 60s to the lower 70s. Montclair gets 50 inches of rain per year, above the United States average of 39 inches. Snowfall is common from December to early March, totals about 30 inches annually; the number of days each year in Montclair with any measurable precipitation is 90. Montclair is one or two degrees warmer than the neighboring towns of Verona and Cedar Grove because of the mountain between them, which sometimes blocks winds and clouds, including warmer air from the ocean to the east.
The township has long celebrated a feature that has attracted many to the community. The African American population has been stable at around 30% for decades, although it fell from 32% in 2000 to 27% in 2010. Montclair has attracted many who work for major media organizations in New York City, including The New York Times and Newsweek. A March 11, 2007, posting in the blog Gawker.com listed some of those who work in the media and live in Montclair. Many residents are commuters to the Metro Area; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 37,669 people, 15,089 households, 9,445.714 families residing in the township. The population density was 5,971.2 per square mile. There were 15,911 housing units at an average density of 2,522.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 62.16% White, 27.16% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 3.81% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.19% from other races, 4.50% f
McCarter Theatre Center is a not-for-profit, professional company on the campus of Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey. It is one of the most active cultural centers in the nation, offering over 200 performances of theater, dance and special events each year; the institution is led by Artistic Director and Resident Playwright Emily Mann, Special Programming Director William W. Lockwood, Managing Director Michael S. Rosenberg. McCarter’s mission is to create world-class theater and present the finest artists for the engagement and entertainment of the community. Winner of the 1994 Tony Award® for Outstanding Regional Theatre, world premieres include Christopher Durang’s Vanya and Sonia and Masha and Spike. McCarter brings artists from around the world to Princeton, New Jersey including Dianne Reeves, Esperanza Spalding, Andy Borowitz, more. Education and outreach efforts serve tens of thousands through student matinees, in-school residencies, adult classes. Built as a permanent home for the Princeton University Triangle Club with funds from Thomas N. McCarter, class of 1888, McCarter Theatre opened on February 21, 1930, with a special performance of the 40th annual Triangle show, The Golden Dog.
One of its stars was Joshua Logan, a junior, a sophomore named James Stewart was in the chorus. During the 1930s, McCarter gained popularity as a pre-Broadway showcase, due to its large seating capacity, its 40-foot proscenium stage, its short distance from New York. Thornton Wilder's Our Town had its world premiere at McCarter, as did George S. Kaufman and Moss Hart's You Can't Take It with You, James Thurber and Elliott Nugent's The Male Animal, Philip Barry's Without Love and William Inge's Bus Stop. Although not built as a concert hall, McCarter played host for a half-century to the Princeton University Concerts before they moved to Richardson Auditorium; the first major, non-campus-related program of "classical music" was the Philadelphia Orchestra in March, 1932, to be followed by the Cleveland Orchestra, the New York Philharmonic, Rudolf Serkin, Jascha Heifetz, Myra Hess and Gaby Casadesus, Zino Francescatti, Gregor Piatigorsky. The first dancer was Ruth St. Denis, who appeared in a solo evening on March 7, 1930, returned that same fall with Ted Shawn and the full troupe of the pioneering Denishawn dancers.
But the next several decades saw few dance offerings of any significance, with one notable exception: a single performance in 1935 by a company of dancers touring under the name of "American Ballet" – the first troupe of dancers assembled in this country by an émigré Russian choreographer named George Balanchine, as such the early precursor of what would evolve into what we know today as the New York City Ballet. In the post World War II years, Broadway producers cut costs by having extended preview periods in New York City rather than out-of-town try outs. Thus, the number of touring Broadway shows declined. With increasing debt, the Theatre could no longer be self-supporting, in 1950 Princeton University and the Triangle Club agreed that the university should take title to the building and assume responsibility for its operating costs. In the late 1950s, Princeton University appointed a faculty advisory committee to determine the best use of the building. Noted director Milton Lyon was hired in 1960 as consultant to the faculty advisory committee and in time was appointed the first executive producer of the McCarter Theatre Company.
Lyon's vision was to create a theater which "should reflect the outlook of the University, thus become an educational asset to the University and the community, as well as a place of entertainment." Lyon proposed to the university. His plans included the formation of a company to perform plays, thus establishing the first resident professional theater in America on a university campus, he formed such a company by hiring APA for the inaugural theater season, 1960–1961. Under the artistic direction of Ellis Rabb, actors in the APA company included Rosemary Harris, Donald Moffat, Frances Sternhagen, Edward Asner. In 1973, Princeton University transferred its direct operation of McCarter to the McCarter Theatre Company, separately incorporated at that time. McCarter flourished as a producing theater under Milton Lyon and his successors – most notably Arthur Lithgow, Michael Kahn, Nagle Jackson, the Theatre's current artistic director, Emily Mann – while continuing to present a wide range of dance and classical music concerts.
Emily Mann’s tenure as artistic director has been notable for its emphasis on the creation and development of new work, marked by an ongoing program of commissions and the fostering of long term relationships with playwrights both established and emerging, including Athol Fugard, who has come to regard McCarter as a “home away from home”. Awarded the 1994 Tony Award for Outstanding Regional Theatre, McCarter has evolved into a nationally and internationally acclaimed theatre, recognized for its first-rate productions and lasting contributions to the American theatrical canon. McCarter commissioned the production and premiered the performance of Vanya and Sonia and Masha and Spike by Christopher Durang, which went on to win the 2013 Tony Award for Best Play. In 1990s McCarter unwent major renovations and expansions including construction of a smaller second theater adjacent to the main auditorium (the Roger S. Berlind Thea
Saturday Night Live
Saturday Night Live is an American late-night live television variety show created by Lorne Michaels and developed by Dick Ebersol. The show premiered on NBC on October 1975, under the original title NBC's Saturday Night; the show's comedy sketches, which parody contemporary culture and politics, are performed by a large and varying cast of repertory and newer cast members. Each episode is hosted by a celebrity guest, who delivers the opening monologue and performs in sketches with the cast as with featured performances by a musical guest. An episode begins with a cold open sketch that ends with someone breaking character and proclaiming, "Live from New York, it's Saturday Night!", properly beginning the show. In 1980, Michaels left the series to explore other opportunities, he was replaced by Jean Doumanian, replaced by Ebersol after a season of bad reviews. Ebersol ran the show until 1985. Since Michaels' return he has held the job of show-runner. Many of SNL's cast found national stardom while appearing on the show, achieved success in film and television, both in front of and behind the camera.
Others associated with the show, such as writers, have gone on to successful careers creating and starring in television and film. Broadcast from Studio 8H at NBC's headquarters in the Comcast Building at 30 Rockefeller Plaza, SNL has aired 868 episodes since its debut, began its forty-fourth season on September 29, 2018, making it one of the longest-running network television programs in the United States; the show format has been developed and recreated in several countries, meeting with different levels of success. Successful sketches have seen life outside the show as feature films including The Blues Brothers and Wayne's World; the show has been marketed in other ways, including home media releases of "best of" and whole seasons, books and documentaries about behind-the-scenes activities of running and developing the show. Throughout four decades on air, Saturday Night Live has received a number of awards, including 65 Primetime Emmy Awards, four Writers Guild of America Awards, two Peabody Awards.
In 2000, it was inducted into the National Association of Broadcasters Hall of Fame. It was ranked tenth in TV Guide's "50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time" list, in 2007 it was listed as one of Time magazine's "100 Best TV Shows of All-TIME"; as of 2018, the show has received 252 Primetime Emmy Award nominations, the most received by any television program. The live aspect of the show has resulted in several controversies and acts of censorship, with mistakes and intentional acts of sabotage by performers as well as guests. From 1965 until September 1975, NBC ran The Best of Carson reruns of The Tonight Show, airing them on either Saturday or Sunday night at local affiliates' discretion. In 1974, Johnny Carson announced that he wanted the weekend shows pulled and saved so that they could be aired during weeknights, allowing him to take time off. In 1974, NBC president Herbert Schlosser approached his vice president of late night programming, Dick Ebersol, asked him to create a show to fill the Saturday night time slot.
At the suggestion of Paramount Pictures executive Barry Diller and Ebersol approached Lorne Michaels. Over the next three weeks and Michaels developed the latter's idea for a variety show featuring high-concept comedy sketches, political satire, music performances that would attract 18- to 34-year-old viewers. By 1975, Michaels had assembled a talented cast, including Dan Aykroyd, John Belushi, Chevy Chase, Jane Curtin, Garrett Morris, Laraine Newman, Michael O'Donoghue, Gilda Radner, George Coe; the show was called NBC's Saturday Night, because Saturday Night Live was in use by Saturday Night Live with Howard Cosell on the rival network ABC. After the cancellation of the Cosell show, NBC purchased the rights to the name in 1976 and adopted the new title on March 26, 1977. Debuting on October 11, 1975, the show developed a cult following becoming a mainstream hit and spawning "Best of Saturday Night Live" compilations that reached viewers who could not stay awake for the live broadcasts, but during the first season in 1975 and 1976, according to a book about the show authored by Doug Hill and Jeff Weingrad, some NBC executives were not satisfied with the show's Nielsen ratings and shares.
Lorne Michaels pointed out to them that Nielsen's measurement of demographics indicated that baby boomers constituted a large majority of the viewers who did commit to watching the show, many of them watched little else on television. In 1975 and 1976, they were the most desirable demographic for television advertisers though Generation X was the right age for commercials for toys and other children's products. Baby boomers far outnumbered Generation X in reality but not in television viewership with the exception of Michaels' new show and major league sports, advertisers had long been concerned about baby boomers' distaste for the powerful medium. NBC executives understood Michaels' explanation of the desirable demographics and they decided to keep the show on the air despite many angry letters and phone calls that the network received from viewers who were offended by certain sketches, they included a Weekend Update segment on April 24, 1976, the 18th episode, that ridiculed Aspen, Colorado murder suspect Claudine Longet and warranted an on-air apology by announcer Don Pardo during the following episode.
Herminio Traviesas, a censor, vice president of the network's Standards and Practices department, objected to cast member Laraine Newman's use of the term "pissed off" in the March 13, 1976 episode with host Anthony Per