Oklahoma! is the first musical written by the team of composer Richard Rodgers and librettist Oscar Hammerstein II. The musical is based on Lynn Riggs' 1931 play, Green Grow the Lilacs. Set in farm country outside the town of Claremore, Indian Territory, in 1906, it tells the story of farm girl Laurey Williams and her courtship by two rival suitors, cowboy Curly McLain and the sinister and frightening farmhand Jud Fry. A secondary romance concerns his flirtatious fiancée, Ado Annie; the original Broadway production opened on March 31, 1943. It was a box-office smash and ran for an unprecedented 2,212 performances enjoying award-winning revivals, national tours, foreign productions and an Academy Award-winning 1955 film adaptation, it has long been a popular choice for community productions. Rodgers and Hammerstein won a special Pulitzer Prize for Oklahoma! in 1944. This musical, building on the innovations of the earlier Show Boat, epitomized the development of the "book musical", a musical play where the songs and dances are integrated into a well-made story with serious dramatic goals that are able to evoke genuine emotions other than laughter.
In addition, Oklahoma! Features motifs, that recur throughout the work to connect the music and story. A fifteen-minute "dream ballet" reflects Laurey's struggle with her feelings about two men and Jud. By the early 1940s, Rodgers and Hammerstein were each well known for creating Broadway hits with other collaborators. Rodgers, with Lorenz Hart, had produced over two dozen musicals since the 1920s, including such popular successes as Babes in Arms, The Boys from Syracuse and Pal Joey. Among other successes, Hammerstein had written the words for Rose-Marie, The Desert Song, The New Moon and Show Boat. Though less productive in the 1930s, he wrote musicals and films, sharing an Academy Award for his song with Jerome Kern, "The Last Time I Saw Paris", included in the 1941 film Lady Be Good. By the early 1940s, Hart had sunk into alcoholism and emotional turmoil, he became unreliable, prompting Rodgers to approach Hammerstein to ask if he would consider working with him. In 1931, the Theatre Guild produced Lynn Riggs's Green Grow the Lilacs, a play about settlers in Oklahoma's Indian Territory.
Though the play was not successful, ten years in 1941, Theresa Helburn, one of the Guild's producers, saw a summer-stock production supplemented with traditional folk songs and square dances and decided the play could be the basis of a musical that might revive the struggling Guild. She contacted Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart, whose first successful collaboration, The Garrick Gaieties, had been produced by the Theatre Guild in 1925. Rodgers obtained the rights for himself and Hart. Rodgers had asked Oscar Hammerstein II to collaborate with Hart. During the tryouts of Rodgers and Hart's By Jupiter in 1941, Hammerstein had assured Rodgers that if Hart was unable to work, he would be willing to take his place. Coincidentally in 1942, Hammerstein had thought of musicalizing Green Grow the Lilacs, but when he had approached Jerome Kern about it, the latter declined. Hammerstein learned that Rodgers was seeking someone to write the book, he eagerly took the opportunity. Hart lost interest in the musical.
Moreover, spiraling downward, consumed by his longstanding alcoholism, Hart no longer felt like writing. He embarked on a vacation to Mexico, advising Rodgers that Hammerstein would be a good choice of a new collaborator; this partnership allowed both Rodgers and Hammerstein to follow their preferred writing methods: Hammerstein preferred to write a complete lyric before it was set to music, Rodgers preferred to set completed lyrics to music. In Rodgers' previous collaborations with Hart, Rodgers had always written the music first, since the unfocused Hart needed something on which to base his lyrics. Hammerstein's previous collaborators included composers Rudolf Friml, Herbert Stothart, Vincent Youmans, Kern, who all wrote music first, for which Hammerstein wrote lyrics; the role reversal in the Rodgers and Hammerstein partnership permitted Hammerstein to craft the lyrics into a fundamental part of the story so that the songs could amplify and intensify the story instead of diverting it. As Rodgers and Hammerstein began developing the new musical, they agreed that their musical and dramatic choices would be dictated by the source material, Green Grow the Lilacs, not by musical comedy conventions.
Musicals of that era featured big production numbers, novelty acts, show-stopping specialty dances. Between the world wars, roles in musicals were filled by actors who could sing, but Rodgers and Hammerstein chose, conversely, to cast singers who could act. Though Theresa Helburn, codirector of the Theatre Guild, suggested Shirley Temple as Laurey and Groucho Marx as Ali Hakim and Hammerstein, with director Rouben Mamoulian's support, insisted that performers more appropriate for the roles be cast; as a result, there were no stars in another unusual step. The production was choreographed by Agnes de Mille, who provided one of the show's most notable and enduring features: a 15-minute first-act ballet finale depicting Laurey's struggle to evaluate her suitors and Curly; the first ti
George Harrison was an English musician, singer-songwriter and film producer who achieved international fame as the lead guitarist of the Beatles. Referred to as "the quiet Beatle", Harrison embraced Indian culture and helped broaden the scope of popular music through his incorporation of Indian instrumentation and Hindu-aligned spirituality in the Beatles' work. Although the majority of the band's songs were written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney, most Beatles albums from 1965 onwards contained at least two Harrison compositions, his songs for the group included "Taxman", "Within You Without You", "While My Guitar Gently Weeps", "Here Comes the Sun" and "Something". Harrison's earliest musical influences included Django Reinhardt. By 1965, he had begun to lead the Beatles into folk rock through his interest in Bob Dylan and the Byrds, towards Indian classical music through his use of the sitar on "Norwegian Wood". Having initiated the band's embracing of Transcendental Meditation in 1967, he subsequently developed an association with the Hare Krishna movement.
After the band's break-up in 1970, Harrison released the triple album All Things Must Pass, a critically acclaimed work that produced his most successful hit single, "My Sweet Lord", introduced his signature sound as a solo artist, the slide guitar. He organised the 1971 Concert for Bangladesh with Indian musician Ravi Shankar, a precursor to benefit concerts such as Live Aid. In his role as a music and film producer, Harrison produced acts signed to the Beatles' Apple record label before founding Dark Horse Records in 1974 and co-founding HandMade Films in 1978. Harrison released several best-selling singles and albums as a solo performer. In 1988, he co-founded the platinum-selling supergroup the Traveling Wilburys. A prolific recording artist, he was featured as a guest guitarist on tracks by Badfinger, Ronnie Wood and Billy Preston, collaborated on songs and music with Dylan, Eric Clapton, Ringo Starr and Tom Petty, among others. Rolling Stone magazine ranked him number 11 in their list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time".
He is a two-time Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inductee – as a member of the Beatles in 1988, posthumously for his solo career in 2004. Harrison's first marriage, to model Pattie Boyd in 1966, ended in divorce in 1977; the following year he married Olivia Arias, with whom he had Dhani. Harrison died from lung cancer in 2001 at the age of 58, two years after surviving a knife attack by an intruder at his Friar Park home, his remains were cremated and the ashes were scattered according to Hindu tradition in a private ceremony in the Ganges and Yamuna rivers in India. He left an estate of £100 million. Harrison was born at 12 Arnold Grove in Wavertree, Liverpool, on 25 February 1943, he was the youngest of four children of Harold Hargreaves Louise. Harold was a bus conductor who had worked as a ship's steward on the White Star Line, Louise was a shop assistant of Irish Catholic descent, he had one sister and two brothers and Peter. According to Boyd, Harrison's mother was supportive: "All she wanted for her children is that they should be happy, she recognized that nothing made George quite as happy as making music."
Louise was an enthusiastic music fan, she was known among friends for her loud singing voice, which at times startled visitors by rattling the Harrisons' windows. When Louise was pregnant with George, she listened to the weekly broadcast Radio India. Harrison's biographer Joshua Greene wrote, "Every Sunday she tuned in to mystical sounds evoked by sitars and tablas, hoping that the exotic music would bring peace and calm to the baby in the womb."Harrison lived the first four years of his life at 12 Arnold Grove, a terraced house on a cul-de-sac. The home had an outdoor toilet and its only heat came from a single coal fire. In 1949, the family was moved to 25 Upton Green, Speke. In 1948, at the age of five, Harrison enrolled at Dovedale Primary School, he passed the eleven-plus exam and attended Liverpool Institute High School for Boys from 1954 to 1959. Though the institute did offer a music course, Harrison was disappointed with the absence of guitars, felt the school "moulded into being frightened".
Harrison's earliest musical influences included George Formby, Cab Calloway, Django Reinhardt and Hoagy Carmichael. In early 1956 he had an epiphany: while riding his bicycle, he heard Elvis Presley's "Heartbreak Hotel" playing from a nearby house, the song piqued his interest in rock and roll, he sat at the back of the class drawing guitars in his schoolbooks, commented, "I was into guitars." Harrison cited Slim Whitman as another early influence: "The first person I saw playing a guitar was Slim Whitman, either a photo of him in a magazine or live on television. Guitars were coming in."Although Harold Harrison was apprehensive about his son's interest in pursuing a music career, in 1956 he bought George a Dutch Egmond flat top acoustic guitar, which according to Harold, cost £3.10. One of his father's friends taught Harrison how to play "Whispering", "Sweet Sue" and "Dinah", inspired by Donegan's music, Harrison formed a skiffle group called the Rebels with his brother Peter and a friend, Arthur Kelly.
On the bus to school, Harrison met Paul McCartney, who attended the Liverpool Institute, the pair bonded over their shared
Justin Drew Bieber is a Canadian singer-songwriter. After talent manager Scooter Braun discovered his YouTube videos covering songs, he was signed to RBMG in 2008. Bieber released his debut EP, My World, in late 2009, it was certified platinum in the US. Bieber released his first studio album, My World 2.0, in 2010. It debuted at number one in several countries, was certified triple platinum in the US, contained his single "Baby", which debuted at number five on the Billboard Hot 100 and sold 12 million units. Following his debut album and promotional tours, he released his 3D biopic-concert film Justin Bieber: Never Say Never and his second studio album, Under the Mistletoe, which debuted at number one on the Billboard 200, his third studio album, Believe generated the single "Boyfriend", which reached number one in Canada. His fourth studio album Purpose was released in 2015, spawning three number one singles: "What Do You Mean?", "Sorry", "Love Yourself". Afterwards, Bieber was featured on several successful collaborations, including "Cold Water", "Let Me Love You", "Despacito", "I'm the One".
His US album and singles sales total 44.7 million. He has sold an estimated 150 million records, making him one of the world's best-selling music artists, became the second person to reach 100 million followers on Twitter in August 2017 after Katy Perry. Bieber has won numerous awards throughout his career, including an American Music Award for Artist of the Year in 2010 and 2012, a Grammy Award for Best Dance Recording for the song "Where Are Ü Now", a Latin Grammy Award, he has been listed three times by Forbes magazine among the top ten most powerful celebrities in the world, in 2011, 2012, 2013. In 2016, Bieber became the first artist to surpass 10 billion total video views on Vevo. Bieber was born on March 1, 1994, in London, Ontario, at St Joseph's Hospital, was raised in Stratford, Ontario, he is the only child of Jeremy Jack Patricia "Pattie" Mallette, who were never married. Mallette was was underage when she gave birth, her mother Diane and stepfather Bruce helped her raise her son.
His mother is of French-Canadian descent. He has claimed that he has some undetermined Aboriginal Canadian ancestry. Through Jeremy, Bieber has three younger half-siblings. Jeremy and his ex-girlfriend Erin Wagner, who broke up in 2014 after seven years together, have two children, daughter Jazmyn and son Jaxon. Jeremy married his girlfriend Chelsey in February 2018, they have a daughter named Bay. Bieber has a stepsister named Allie, the daughter of his stepmother. Pattie worked a series of low-paying office jobs, raising Bieber as a single mother in low-income housing. Bieber has maintained contact with his father. Bieber attended a French-language immersion elementary school in Stratford, the Jeanne Sauvé Catholic School. Growing up, he learned to play the piano, drums and trumpet, he graduated from high school in Stratford, the St. Michael Catholic Secondary School in 2012 with a 4.0 GPA. In early 2007, aged 12, Bieber sang Ne-Yo's "So Sick" for a local singing competition in Stratford and was placed second.
Mallette posted a video of the performance on YouTube for their family and friends to see. She continued to upload videos of Bieber singing covers of various R&B songs, Bieber's popularity on the site grew. In the same year, Bieber busked shows in front of Avon Theatre steps during tourism season; when searching for videos of a different singer, Scooter Braun, a former marketing executive of So So Def Recordings, clicked on one of Bieber's 2007 videos by accident. Impressed, Braun tracked down the theatre that Bieber was performing in, located Bieber's school, contacted Mallette, reluctant because of Braun's Judaism, she remembered praying, "God, I gave him to you. You could send me a Christian man, a Christian label!", and, "God, you don't want this Jewish kid to be Justin's man, do you?" However, church elders convinced her to let Bieber go with Braun. At 13, Bieber went to Atlanta, with Braun to record demo tapes. Bieber began singing for Usher one week later. Bieber was soon signed to a joint venture between Braun and Usher.
Justin Timberlake was reportedly in the running to sign Bieber but lost the bidding war to Usher. Usher sought assistance in finding a label home for the artist from manager Chris Hicks, who helped engineer an audition with his contact L. A. Reid of The Island Def Jam Music Group. Reid signed Bieber to Island Records in October 2008 and appointed Hicks as executive Vice-President of Def Jam, where he could manage Bieber's career at the label. Bieber moved to Atlanta with his mother to pursue further work with Braun and Usher. Braun became Bieber's manager in 2008. Bieber's first single, "One Time", was released to radio while Bieber was still recording his debut album; the song reached number 12 on the Canadian Hot 100 during its first week of release in July 2009 and peaked at number 17 on the Billboard Hot 100. During fall 2009, it had success in international markets; the song was certified the US and gold in Australia and New Zealand. His first release, an extended play entitled My World, was released on November 17, 2009.
The album's second single, "One Less Lonely Girl", two promo singles, "Love Me" and "Favorite Girl", were released on the iTunes Store and charted within the top 40 of the Billboard Hot 100."One Less Lonely Girl" was also released
Carlos Irwin Estévez, known professionally as Charlie Sheen, is an American actor. Sheen has appeared in films including Platoon, Wall Street, Young Guns, Eight Men Out, Major League, Hot Shots!, The Three Musketeers. In the 2000s, Sheen replaced Michael J. Fox in Spin City, his performance earning him a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Television Series Musical or Comedy, he starred in Two and a Half Men which earned him several Golden Globe and Emmy Award nominations. He most starred in the FX comedy series Anger Management, which concluded its 100-episode run in 2014. In 2010, Sheen was the highest paid actor on television and earned US$1.8 million per episode of Two and a Half Men. Sheen's personal life has made headlines, including reports of alcohol and drug abuse and marital problems, as well as allegations of domestic violence. In March 2011, his contract for Two and a Half Men was terminated by CBS and Warner Bros following his derogatory comments about the series' creator, Chuck Lorre.
On November 17, 2015, Sheen publicly revealed that he is HIV positive, having been diagnosed about four years earlier. Carlos Estévez was born on September 3, 1965, in New York City, the youngest son of actor Martin Sheen and artist Janet Templeton, his paternal grandparents were emigrants from Ireland, respectively. His father is a "devout Catholic" and his mother is a "strict Southern Baptist". Sheen claimed. Sheen has two older brothers and Ramon, a younger sister, Renée, all actors, his parents moved to Malibu, after Martin's Broadway turn in The Subject Was Roses. Sheen's first movie appearance was at age nine in his father's 1974 film The Execution of Private Slovik. Sheen attended Santa Monica High School in Santa Monica, along with Robert Downey Jr. where he was a star pitcher and shortstop for the baseball team. At Santa Monica High School, he showed an early interest in acting, making amateur Super 8 films with his brother Emilio and school friends Rob Lowe and Sean Penn under his birth name.
A few weeks before graduation, Sheen was expelled from school for poor grades and attendance. Deciding to become an actor, he took the stage name Charlie Sheen, his father had adopted the surname Sheen in honor of the Catholic archbishop and theologian Fulton J. Sheen, while Charlie was an English form of his given name Carlos. Sheen's film career began in 1984 with a role in the Cold War teen drama Red Dawn with Patrick Swayze, C. Thomas Howell, Lea Thompson, Jennifer Grey. Sheen and Grey reunited in a small scene in Ferris Bueller's Day Off, he appeared in an episode of the anthology series Amazing Stories. Sheen had his first major role in the Vietnam War drama Platoon. In 1987, he starred with his father in Wall Street. Both Wall Street and Platoon were directed by Oliver Stone. In 1988, Stone asked Sheen to star in his new film Born on the Fourth of July, but cast Tom Cruise instead. Sheen was never notified by Stone, only found out when he heard the news from his brother Emilio. Sheen did not take a lead role in Stone's subsequent films, although he did have a cameo role in Money Never Sleeps.
In 1987, Sheen was cast to portray Ron in the unreleased Grizzly II: The Predator, the sequel to the 1976 low budget horror movie Grizzly. In 1988, he starred in the baseball film Eight Men Out as outfielder Happy Felsch. In 1988, he appeared opposite his brother Emilio in Young Guns and again in 1990 in Men at Work. In 1989, John Fusco, Christopher Cain, Lou Diamond Phillips, Emilio Estévez and Kiefer Sutherland were honored with a Bronze Wrangler for their work on the film Young Guns. In 1990, he starred alongside his father in Cadence as a rebellious inmate in a military stockade and with Clint Eastwood in the buddy cop film The Rookie; the films were directed by Martin Eastwood, respectively. In 1992, he featured in Beyond the Law with Michael Madsen. In 1994, Sheen was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In 1997, Sheen wrote his first movie, Discovery Mars, a direct-to-video documentary revolving around the question, "Is There Life on Mars?". The next year, Sheen wrote and starred in the action movie No Code of Conduct.
Sheen appeared in several comedy roles, including the Major League films, Money Talks, the spoof Hot Shots! films. In 1999, Sheen appeared in a pilot for A&E Network, called Sugar Hill, not picked up. In 1999, Sheen played himself in Being John Malkovich, he appeared in the third and fifth entries in the popular horror-spoof series Scary Movie. Sheen has done voices for animation, appearing as Charlie in All Dogs Go To Heaven 2, as well as Dex Dogtective in the Lionsgate animated comedy Foodfight. In 2012, Sheen was cast to star alongside Jason Schwartzman and Bill Murray in Roman Coppola's surreal comedy film A Glimpse Inside the Mind of Charles Swan III. For the 2013 film Machete Kills, in which Sheen played the President of the United States, he was credited under his birth name Carlos Estévez, it was a one-time move, due to the film's Hispanic theme. The trailer and opening credits for the film used an "and introducing..." tag when showing Sheen's birth name. Sheen's next feature film project was the ensemble film 9/11, an adaptation of the 9/11 stage play Elevator written by Patrick Carson.
The film featured Whoopi Goldberg, Gina Gershon, Luis Guzmán, Wood Harris, Jacqueline Bisset and Bruce Davison. In 2000, Sheen debuted on the small screen when he replaced Michael J. Fox for the last two seasons of the sitcom Spin City (which had fellow Ferris Bu
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Thomas Cruise is an American actor and producer. Known for his work in action films for which he performs risky stunts, he has received several accolades for more dramatic work, including three Golden Globe Awards and nominations for three Academy Awards. One of the best-paid actors in the world, his films have earned over $3.9 billion in North America, making him one of the highest-grossing actors of all time. Cruise began acting in the early 1980s and made his breakthrough with leading roles in the comedy Risky Business and the action drama Top Gun. Critical acclaim came with his roles in the dramas The Color of Money, Rain Man, Born on the Fourth of July. For portraying Ron Kovic in the latter, he won a Golden Globe Award and received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor; as a leading Hollywood star in the 1990s, Cruise starred in several commercially successful films, including the drama A Few Good Men, the thriller The Firm, the horror Interview with the Vampire, the romance Jerry Maguire, for which he won another Golden Globe and received his second Oscar nomination.
His performance as a motivational speaker in the 1999 drama Magnolia, earned him a third Golden Globe and a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. As an action star, Cruise has played Ethan Hunt in six films of the Mission: Impossible film series from 1996 to 2018, he continued to feature in several science fiction and action films, including Vanilla Sky, Minority Report, The Last Samurai, War of the Worlds and Day, Jack Reacher and Edge of Tomorrow. Cruise has been married three times, to actresses Mimi Rogers, Nicole Kidman, Katie Holmes, has three children, two of which were adopted during his marriage to Kidman and the other a biological daughter with Holmes. Cruise is an outspoken advocate for the Church of Scientology and its associated social programs, credits it with helping him overcome dyslexia. In the 2000s, he sparked controversy with his Church-affiliated criticisms of psychiatry and anti-depressant drugs, his efforts to promote Scientology as a religion in Europe, a leaked video interview of him promoting Scientology.
Cruise was born in Syracuse, New York, the son of Mary Lee, a special education teacher, Thomas Cruise Mapother III, an electrical engineer, both from Louisville, Kentucky. He has three sisters: Lee Anne and Cass, they are of English and Irish ancestry. One of Cruise's paternal 3x great-grandfathers, Patrick Russell Cruise, was born in north County Dublin in 1799, they settled in New York. They had a daughter, Mary Paulina Russell Cruise, whose son Thomas Cruise Mapother was Cruise's great-grandfather. A cousin, William Mapother, is an actor. Cruise grew up in near poverty, had a Catholic upbringing; the family was dominated by his abusive father, whom Cruise has described as "a merchant of chaos." Cruise has said that he was beaten by his father, whom he has called a "bully and coward." He stated, "He was the kind of person. It was a great lesson in my life—how he'd lull you in, make you feel safe and bang! For me, it was like,'There's something wrong with this guy. Don't trust him. Be careful around him.'"Cruise spent part of his childhood in Canada.
His family moved to Beacon Hill, Ottawa, in late 1971 so that Cruise's father could take a position as a defense consultant with the Canadian Armed Forces. There, Cruise attended the newly opened Robert Hopkins Public School for much of grade four and grade five. In grade four, Cruise first became involved under the tutelage of George Steinburg. Cruise and six other boys put on an improvised play to music called IT at the Carleton Elementary School drama festival. Drama organizer Val Wright, in the audience that night, reflected, "The movement and improvisation were excellent, it was a classic ensemble piece." Cruise enjoyed sports at the school and played floor hockey, though he was known more for his aggression than his talent. In sixth grade, Cruise went to Henry Munro Middle School in Ottawa, Canada. However, in the spring of that year, Cruise's mother left his father, taking Cruise and his sisters back to the United States, his father died of cancer in 1984. Cruise attended a Franciscan seminary in Cincinnati, Ohio, on a church scholarship and aspired to become a Catholic priest, before his interest in acting.
In his senior year, he played football for the varsity team as a linebacker, but he was cut from the squad after getting caught drinking beer before a game. In total, Cruise attended 15 schools in 14 years, including stints in at least two suburban New Jersey towns, including Glen Ridge. Cruise first appeared in a bit part in the 1981 film Endless Love, followed by a major supporting role as a crazed military academy student in Taps that year. In 1983, Cruise was part of the ensemble cast of The Outsiders; that same year he appeared in All the Right Moves and Risky Business, described as "A Generation X classic, a career-maker for Tom Cruise", which, along with 1986's Top Gun, cemented his status as a superstar. Cruise played the male lead in the Ridley Scott film Legend, released in 1985. Cruise followed up Top Gun with The Color of Money, which came out the same year, which paired him with Paul Newman. 1988 saw him star in Cocktail. That yea
Turlock is a city in Stanislaus County, United States. Its estimated 2015 population of 72,292 made it the second-largest city in Stanislaus County after Modesto. Founded on December 22, 1871, by prominent grain farmer John William Mitchell, the town consisted of a post office, a depot, a grain warehouse and a few other buildings. Mitchell declined the honor of having the town named for himself; the name "Turlock" was chosen instead. The name is believed to originate from the Irish village “Turlough”. In October 1870, Harper's Weekly published an excerpt from English novelist James Payn's story Bred in the Bone, which includes the mention of a town named "Turlough". Local historians believe that this issue of Harper's Weekly was read by early resident H. W. Lander who suggested the alternate name. Mitchell and his brother were successful businessmen, buying land and developing large herds of cattle and sheep that were sold to gold miners and others as they arrived, they were leaders in wheat farming and cultivated tracts of land under the tenant system.
The Mitchells owned most of the area, over 100,000 acres, from Keyes to Atwater. In the early 20th century, 20-acre lots from the Mitchell estate were sold for $20 an acre. While it grew to be a prosperous and busy hub of activity throughout the end of the 19th century, it was not incorporated as a city until February 15, 1908. By that time intensive agricultural development surrounded most of the city. Many of the initial migrants to the region were Swedish; as an early San Francisco Chronicle article stated of the region and this community's lacteal productivity, "you have to hand it to the Scandinavians for knowing how to run a dairy farm." Turlock went on to become known as the "Heart of the Valley" because of its agricultural production. With the boom came racial and labor strife. In July 1921, a mob of 150 white men evicted 60 Japanese cantaloupe pickers from rooming houses and ranches near Turlock, taking them and their belongings on trucks out of town; the white men claimed the Japanese were undercutting white workers by taking lower wages per crate of fruit picked.
In protest, fruit growers threatened not to hire the white workers behind the eviction, preferring to let melons rot on vines than hire such characters. As a result of this stance, the eviction had the opposite effect of. By August, Japanese workers had returned, moreover, they were nearly the only people employed to pick melons; the affair gained national attention, California's Governor William Stephens vowed that justice would be served. Six men were arrested, though they were untroubled by the charges, stating that leaders of Turlock's American Legion and Chamber of Commerce had told them no trouble would come of their actions. Although a former Turlock night watchman testified that one of the accused had disclosed a plan "to clean up Turlock of the Japs," all those arrested were acquitted of charges; the San Francisco Chronicle's editorial line was opposition to both the evictions and Japanese labor, with one column stating "we in California are determined that Oriental workers shall be kept out of the state.
But that does not mean that the decent citizens of California will tolerate for one moment such proceedings as the attack of a mob on the Japanese cantaloupe workers in the Turlock district."In 1930, Turlock's population was 20% Assyrian. They were such a significant part of the population that the southern part of town became referred to as Little Urmia, referring to the region of northwestern Iran from which they came. In the 1930s Turlock was cited by Ripley's Believe It or Not as having the most churches per capita in the U. S.. Various religious centers reflecting a diverse population, such as Sikh Gurdwaras, various Assyrian Christian churches, many mainline Protestant and Roman Catholic churches have been built. During World War II, after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the U. S. government placed Japanese Americans into concentration camps all over the country. The Stanislaus County Fairgrounds was the site of one of fifteen temporary "assembly centers" and held 3,669 Japanese Americans, a majority of them U.
S. citizens. In 1960, California State University, opened to students, helping to spur growth in the city as the university expanded in its early years. In the 1970s, State Route 99 was completed through the area bypassing the then-incorporated areas of Turlock in a route to the west of the city through undeveloped land. Since that time, the city has grown westward to meet the freeway's north–south path, although urban development west of the freeway has only begun to take hold. In an attempt to allow for orderly growth of the city, comprehensive growth master plans have established urban growth boundaries since the 1960s. Turlock experienced extensive growth of both residential and commercial areas in the 1980s, following a statewide boom in housing demand and construction; the housing boom of the 1980s diminished in the early 1990s but increased again in the second half of the decade as a result of San Francisco Bay Area growth, which placed a higher demand for more affordable housing in outlying areas.
Following the dot-com bust, housing demand intensified, producing higher house prices in an area known for affordable housing. A recent boom in the retail sector has produced considerable growth along the Highway 99 corridor; the city reached its northern urban growth boundary, Taylor Road