Radley College is a boys' independent boarding school near Radley, England, founded in 1847. The school covers 800 acres including playing fields, a golf course and farmland, it is one of four boys-only, boarding-only independent senior schools in the United Kingdom, the others being Winchester and Eton. The four other public schools have since become co-educational: Rugby, Charterhouse and Shrewsbury. For the academic year 2015/16, Radley charged boarders up to £11,475 per term, making it the 19th most expensive HMC boarding school. Radley was founded in 1847 by Robert Corbet Singleton; the first pupil was Samuel Reynolds. The school was housed in Radley Hall, now known as the "Mansion". Radley Hall was built in the 1720s for the Stonehouse family. In the 18th century the estate passed to the Bowyer family, who commissioned Capability Brown to re-design the grounds. After the school was founded, extensive building work took place, beginning with the Chapel, F Social and the Octagon, the Clocktower, in 1910 the Dining Hall.
Building work has continued throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, with two new Socials, a weights-room/gym, a theatre, a Real Tennis court being completed since 2006. The grounds include a golf course and woodland. On 31 August 2017, The Telegraph reported that a whistleblower had suggested that teachers had helped their students in an art GCSE exam. Investigations by the exam board found no fault beyond a minor technical breach of exam regulations. Radley College issued a statement expressing full support for staff and procedures both within the art department and across the school. On 6 July 2018, a plane trailing a banner reading "Make Radley Great Again" was flown over the school, in protest against Warden John Moule's campaign of modernisation; the cost of the plane was raised by pupils at the school. In 2005 Radley College was one of fifty of the country's leading independent schools which were found guilty by the Office of Fair Trading of running an illegal price-fixing cartel which had allowed them to drive up fees.
Each school was required to pay a nominal penalty of £21,360 and all agreed to make ex-gratia payments totalling three million pounds into a Trust designed to benefit pupils who attended the schools during the period in respect of which fee information was shared. In their defence, Jean Scott, the head of the Independent Schools Council, said that independent schools had always been exempt from the anti-cartel rules applied to business; the school was inspected by the independent schools' Inspectorate in February 2008. The inspection report rated the school's standard of education as "outstanding", the highest rating. There was a subsequent inspection by ISI in 2013. In 2012, the Independent review of A level results, based on government issued statistics, ranked Radley 31st in the UK, ahead of Malvern, Winchester and Wellington Rugby is the major sport of the Michaelmas Term; the school fields 21 rugby teams on most Saturdays of some Thursdays. Radley is recognised for its rowing, having won events at Henley Royal Regatta on 6 occasions.
Only Eton, Shrewsbury and St Edward's have won more events at the Regatta. Some Old Radleians have progressed to play cricket for England or captain county level cricket teams; the cricket grounds have been described as'arguably one of the best in the country' while the sporting facilities have been described as world class. Sports such as fives, sailing and polo are all represented. A real tennis court opened in July 2008, which made Radley College the only school in the world to have fives, badminton, tennis and real tennis courts all on campus; the school lent its name to the thirty-first steam locomotive in the Southern Railway's Class V of which there were 40. This Class was known as the Schools Class because all 40 of the class were named after prominent English public schools.'Radley', as it was called, was built in 1934 and was withdrawn in 1962. A nameplate from 930, Radley, is now displayed in the stationery department of Shop Radley village has a local history society which has produced a number of publications and maintains an archive of local material.
Radley vicarage by Radley History Club, 2005. A report of a'buildings record' survey and archive research undertaken to determine the history and development of this 14th-century building The history of Radley by Patrick Drysdale … Radley History Club, 2002. History of the village from prehistory to the present The Rev R C Singleton The Rev W B Heathcote The Rev W M Sewell R W Norman [[W Wood C Martin R J Wilson Henry Lewis Thompson, T Field Gordon Selwyn Adam Fox W H Ferguson J C Vaughan Wilkes W M M Milligan D R W Silk Richard Morgan Angus McPhail John Moule Hibbert, Christopher. No Ordinary Place: Radley College and the Public School System 1847–1997. London: John Murray General Publishing Division. ISBN 0-7195-51
Henley-on-Thames is a town and civil parish on the River Thames in Oxfordshire, England, 9 miles northeast of Reading, 7 miles west of Maidenhead and 23 miles southeast of Oxford, near the tripoint of Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire. The population at the 2011 Census was 11,619; the first record of Henley is from 1179, when it is recorded that King Henry II "had bought land for the making of buildings". King John granted the manor of Benson and the town and manor of Henley to Robert Harcourt in 1199. A church at Henley is first mentioned in 1204. In 1205 the town received a paviage grant, in 1234 the bridge is first mentioned. In 1278 Henley is described as a hamlet of Benson with a chapel; the street plan was established by the end of the 13th century. As a demesne of the crown it was granted in 1337 to John de Molyns, whose family held it for about 250 years, it is said that members for Henley sat in parliaments of Edward I and Edward III, but no writs have been found to substantiate this. The existing Thursday market, was granted by a charter of King John.
A market was in existence by 1269. The existing Corpus Christi fair was granted by a charter of Henry VI. During the Black Death pandemic that swept through England in the 14th century, Henley lost 60% of its population. A variation on its name can be seen as "Henley up a Tamys" in 1485. By the beginning of the 16th century the town extended along the west bank of the Thames from Friday Street in the south to the Manor, now Phyllis Court, in the north and took in Hart Street and New Street. To the west it included the Market Place. Henry VIII granted the use of the titles "mayor" and "burgess", the town was incorporated in 1568 in the name of the warden, portreeves and commonalty; the original charter was issued by Elizabeth I but replaced by one from George I in 1722. Henley suffered at the hands of both parties in the Civil War. William III rested here on his march to London in 1688, at the nearby rebuilt Fawley Court, received a deputation from the Lords; the town's period of prosperity in the 17th and 18th centuries was due to manufactures of glass and malt, trade in corn and wool.
Henley-on-Thames supplied London with grain. A workhouse to accommodate 150 people was built at West Hill in Henley in 1790, was enlarged to accommodate 250 as the Henley Poor Law Union workhouse. Henley Bridge is a five arched bridge across the river built in 1786, it is a Grade. During 2011 the bridge underwent a £200,000 repair programme after being hit by the boat Crazy Love in August 2010. About a mile upstream of the bridge is Marsh Lock. Chantry House is the second Grade I listed building in the town, it is unusual in having more storeys on one side than on the other. The Church of England parish church of St Mary the Virgin is nearby, has a 16th-century tower; the Old Bell is a pub in the centre of Henley. The building has been dated from 1325: the oldest-dated building in the town. To celebrate Queen Victoria's Jubilee, 60 oak trees were planted in the shape of a Victoria Cross near Fair Mile. Two notable buildings just outside Henley, in Buckinghamshire, are: Fawley Court, a red-brick building designed by Christopher Wren for William Freeman with subsequent interior remodelling by James Wyatt and landscaping by Lancelot "Capability" Brown.
Greenlands, which took its present form when owned by W. H. Smith and is now home to Henley Business School Lloyds Bank's analysis of house price growth in 125 market towns in England over the year to June 2016, found that Henley was the second-most expensive market town in the country with an average property price of £748,001; the town's railway station is the terminus of the Henley Branch Line from Twyford. In the past there have been direct services to London Paddington. There are express mainline rail services from Reading to Paddington. Trains from High Wycombe go to London Marylebone; the M4 motorway and the M40 motorway are both about 7 miles away. The River and Rowing Museum, located in Mill Meadows, is the town's one museum, it was established in 1998, opened by Queen Elizabeth II. The museum, designed by the architect David Chipperfield, features information on the River Thames, the sport of rowing, the town of Henley itself; the University of Reading's Henley Business School is near Henley.
Henley is a world-renowned centre for rowing. Each summer the Henley Royal Regatta is held on Henley Reach, a straight stretch of the river just north of the town, it was extended artificially. The event became "Royal" in 1851. Other regattas and rowing races are held on the same reach, including Henley Women's Regatta, the Henley Boat Races for women's and lightweight teams between Oxford and Cambridge University, Henley Town and Visitors Regatta, Henley Veteran Regatta, Upper Thames Small Boats Head, Henley Fours and Eights Head, Henley Sculls; these "Heads" attract strong crews that have won medals at National Championships. Local rowing clubs include: Henley Rowing Club Leander Club Phyllis Court Rowing Club Upper Thames Rowing Club Henley Whalers focus on fixed-seat rowing and
A canon is a member of certain bodies subject to an ecclesiastical rule. A canon was a cleric living with others in a clergy house or in one of the houses within the precinct of or close to a cathedral and conducting his life according to the orders or rules of the church; this way of life grew common in the eighth century. In the eleventh century, some churches required clergy thus living together to adopt the rule first proposed by Saint Augustine that they renounce private wealth; those who embraced this change were known as Augustinians or Canons Regular, whilst those who did not were known as secular canons. In the Roman Catholic Church, the members of the chapter of a cathedral or of a collegiate church are canons. Depending on the title of the church, several languages use specific titles, e.g. in German Domherr or Domkapitular in a Dom, Stiftsherr in a prelature that has the status of a Stift. One of the functions of the cathedral chapter in the Roman Catholic Church was to elect a vicar capitular to serve during a sede vacante period of the diocese.
Since the 1983 revision of the Code of Canon Law, this responsibility belongs to the college of consultors, unless the national bishops conference decides that the functions that canon law ascribes to the college of consultors, including this one, are to be entrusted to the cathedral chapter. All canons of the Church of England have been secular since the Reformation, although an individual canon may be a member of a religious order. However, they are ordained, that is, priests or other clergy. Today, the system of canons is retained exclusively in connection with cathedral churches. A canon is a member of the chapter of priests, headed by a dean, responsible for administering a cathedral or certain other churches that are styled collegiate churches; the dean and chapter are the formal body which has legal responsibility for the cathedral and for electing the bishop. The title of Canon is not a permanent title and when no longer in a position entitling preferment, it is dropped from a cleric's title nomenclature.
However, it is still given in many dioceses to senior parish priests as a honorary title. It is awarded in recognition of long and dedicated service to the diocese. Honorary canons are members of the chapter in name but are non-residential and receive no emoluments, they are entitled to call themselves canon and may have a role in the administration of the cathedral. Speaking, canons in the Anglican Communion are of this sort, thus are equivalent to a monsignor in the Roman Catholic Church wearing the violet or violet-trimmed cassock, associated with that rank. In some Church of England dioceses, the title Prebendary is used instead of canon when the cleric is involved administratively with a cathedral. Honorary canons within the Roman Catholic Church may still be nominated after the Second Vatican Council. Priests of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre are, in fact, titular or honorary canons of these respective Orders and have the right to the honorific title of "Canon" and "Monsignor" in addition to the choir dress of a canon, which includes the mozetta (black with purple piping for Malta and white with a red Jerusalem cross for Holy Sepulchre.
Since the reign of King Henry IV, the heads of state of France have been granted by the pope the title of sole honorary canon of Saint John Lateran and Saint Peter's. On the demise of the Kingdom of France this honour became transferred to the Presidents of the Republic, hence is held by Emmanuel Macron; this applies when the French President is not a Catholic or is an atheist. The proto-canon of the papal basilica of Saint Mary Major is the King of Spain Felipe VI. Before the Reformation, the King of England was a canon of the basilica of Saint Paul outside the Walls. In addition to canons who are clerics in holy orders, cathedrals in the Anglican Communion may appoint lay persons as canons; the rank of "lay canon" is conferred upon diocesan chancellors. It has traditionally been said that the King of England is a canon or prebendary of St David's Cathedral, Wales. However, this is based on a misconception; the canonry of St Mary’s College, St David's became the property of the Crown on the dissolution of the monasteries.
The Sovereign was never a canon of St David’s as a layman, though he or she may occupy the first prebendal stall, assigned for the monarch's use. A canon professor is a canon at an Anglican cathedral who holds a university professorship. There are four canon professorships in the University of Oxford in conjunction with Christ Church Cathedral and two in Durham University in conjunction with Durham Cathedral, although academics titled "canon professor" may be found at other universities where the appointments as canon and professor have been made independently. Section 2 of the Church of England Measure 1995 was passed for the express purpose of enabling Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford, to appoint not more than two
Humanists UK, known from 1967 until May 2017 as the British Humanist Association, is a charitable organisation which promotes Humanism and aims to represent "people who seek to live good lives without religious or superstitious beliefs" in the United Kingdom by campaigning on issues relating to humanism and human rights. It seeks to act as a representative body for non-religious people in the UK; the charity supports humanist and non-religious ceremonies in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, the Crown dependencies and maintains a national network of accredited celebrants for humanist funeral ceremonies and baby namings, in addition to a network of volunteers who provide like-minded support and comfort to non-religious people in hospitals and prisons. Its other charitable activities include providing free educational resources to teachers and institutions; the current President of Humanists UK is Professor Alice Roberts and the Chief Executive is Andrew Copson. The association has 70 affiliated regional and special interest groups and claims a total of 70,000 members and supporters.
Humanists UK has sections which run as staffed national humanist organisations in both Wales and Northern Ireland. Wales Humanists and Northern Ireland Humanists each have an advisory committee drawn from the membership and a development officer. Wales Humanists and Northern Ireland Humanists campaign on devolved issues in Cardiff and Belfast and work to expand the provision of humanist ceremonies, pastoral care, support for teachers in those countries; the organisation's Articles of Association sets out its aims as: The advancement of Humanism, namely a non-religious ethical lifestance the essential elements of which are a commitment to human wellbeing and a reliance on reason, experience and a naturalistic view of the world. The advancement of education and in particular the study of and the dissemination of knowledge about Humanism and about the arts and science as they relate to Humanism; the promotion of equality and non-discrimination and the protection of human rights as defined in international instruments to which the United Kingdom is party, in each case in particular as relates to religion and belief.
The promotion of understanding between people holding religious and non-religious beliefs so as to advance harmonious cooperation in society. The organisation wishes to build itself as a sustainable and nationally-recognised organisation as a voice for non-religious people; the organisation was founded in 1896 by American Stanton Coit as the Union of Ethical Societies, which brought together existing ethical societies in Britain. It changed its name to the Ethical Union in 1920 and was incorporated in 1928. In 1963 H. J. Blackham became the first Executive Director, the society became the British Humanist Association in 1967, during the Presidency of philosopher A. J. Ayer; this transition followed a decade of discussions which nearly prompted a merger of the Ethical Union with the Rationalist Press Association and the South Place Ethical Society. In 1963 the first two went as far as creating an umbrella Humanist Association of which Harold Blackham was the Executive Director. However, Humanists UK, the Rationalist Association and the South Place Ethical Society remain separate entities today and in 1967 the Union of Ethical Societies alone became the British Humanist Association.
In the 1960s, the organisation campaigned for reform of the 1944 Education Act's clauses on religion in schools and it was active in the campaign to legalise abortion and homosexuality. It supported repeal of Sunday Observance laws and the end of theatre censorship, the provision of family planning on the NHS and other reforms. More Humanists UK aimed to defend freedom of speech, support the elimination of world poverty and remove the privileges given to religious groups, it was claimed in 1977 that Humanists UK aimed "to make humanism available and meaningful to the millions who have no alternative belief." The local ethical societies united in 1896 had renamed themselves as humanist groups and their number grew over time, becoming today Humanists UK's network of affiliated local humanist groups. A network of celebrants able to conduct non-religious funerals, naming ceremonies and same sex affirmations was developed and continues today as Humanist Ceremonies. Social concerns persisted in Humanists UK's programme.
Humanists UK was a co-founder in 1969 of the Social Morality Council, which brought together believers and unbelievers concerned with moral education and with finding agreed solutions to moral problems in society. Humanists UK was active in arguing for the right to obtain an abortion, it has always sought an "open society". Humanists UK claimed that the rules on religious programming within the BBC constitute a "religious privilege" and reserve particular criticism for the Thought for the Day slot on Radio 4's Today programme. In April 2009 a "breakthrough" in Humanists UK's campaign saw Andrew Copson invited to participate as a humanist representative in the BBC's short-lived Standing Conference on Religion and Belief when it replaced the Central Religious Advisory Committee. In May 2017, the organisation renamed itself from British Humanist Association to Humanists UK, its chief executive, Andrew Copson, said that the change followed "a lon
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove
The Destruction of Lord Raglan
The Destruction of Lord Raglan: A tragedy of the Crimean War, 1854–55 is a non-fiction historical work by Christopher Hibbert published by Longman in 1961. The work is a portrait of commander-in-chief of British forces during the Crimean War. Drawing on contemporary letters and diaries Hibbert re-assesses both Raglan and the war, suggesting that the chaos of the conflict was the tragic result, not of one man's neglect, but of the whole nation's folly. Hibbert, Christopher; the Destruction of Lord Raglan: A tragedy of the Crimean War 1854–55. Pelican Books
Royal Society of Literature
The Royal Society of Literature is a learned society founded in 1820, by King George IV, to'reward literary merit and excite literary talent'. The society is a cultural tenant at London's Somerset House; the society's first president was Thomas Bishop of St David's. The society maintains its current level of about 500 Fellows of the Royal Society of Literature: 14 new fellows are elected annually, who are accorded the privilege of using the post-nominal letters FRSL. Past fellows include Samuel Taylor Coleridge, J. R. R. Tolkien, W. B. Yeats, Rudyard Kipling, Thomas Hardy, George Bernard Shaw, Arthur Koestler, Chinua Achebe, Ruth Prawer Jhabvala, Robert Ardrey, Sybille Bedford, Muriel Spark, P. J. Kavanagh. Present Fellows include Margaret Atwood, David Hare, Kazuo Ishiguro, Hilary Mantel, Paul Muldoon, Zadie Smith, Nadeem Aslam, Sarah Waters, Geoffrey Ashe and J. K. Rowling. A newly created fellow inscribes his or her name on the society's official roll using either Byron's pen, T. S. Eliot's fountain pen, which replaced Dickens's quill in 2013, or George Eliot's pen.
The society publishes an annual magazine, The Royal Society of Literature Review, administers a number of literary prizes and awards, including the RSL Ondaatje Prize, the RSL Jerwood Awards for Non-Fiction, the RSL Encore Award for best second novel of the year and the V. S. Pritchett Memorial Prize for short stories. From time to time it confers the honour and title of Companion of Literature to writers of particular note. Additionally the RSL can bestow its award of the Benson Medal for lifetime service in the field of literature; the RSL runs a membership scheme and offers a varied programme of events to members and the general public. Membership of the RSL is open to all; the RSL runs a schools outreach programme in collaboration with the literacy charity First Story. The RSL administers two annual prizes, two awards, two honours. Through its prize programmes, the RSL supports new and established contemporary writers; the RSL Christopher Bland Prize — £10,000 for debut prose writers over the age of 50.
The Encore Awards — £10,000 for best second novel of the year. The RSL took over the administration of this award in 2016; the RSL Giles St Aubyn Awards for Non-Fiction – annual awards, one of £10,000 and two of £5,000, to authors engaged on their first commissioned works of non-fiction. The RSL Ondaatje Prize – an annual award of £10,000 for a distinguished work of fiction, non-fiction or poetry, evoking the spirit of a place; the V. S. Pritchett Memorial Prize – an annual prize of £1,000 for the best unpublished short story of the year; the Benson Medal -- awarded to those. Companion of Literature – the highest honour that the Society can bestow upon a writer; the Council of the Royal Society of Literature is central to the election of new fellows, directs the RSL's activities through its monthly meetings. Patron Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall President Dame Marina Warner DBE Presidents Emeritus Sir Michael Holroyd CBE FRHistS C Lit Colin Thubron CBE Chair of Council Lisa Appignanesi OBE Vice-PresidentsAnne Chisholm OBE Maureen Duffy Maggie Gee OBE The Hon. Victoria Glendinning CBE Sir Ronald Harwood CBE Dame Hilary Mantel DBE Philip Pullman CBE Claire Tomalin Jenny Uglow OBE, Benson Medallist CouncilBernardine Evaristo MBE, Vice Chair Blake Morrison, Vice Chair Simon Armitage CBE Colin Chisholm, Hon Treasurer Jonathan Coe Imtiaz Dharker Sir Richard Eyre CH CBE Abdulrazak Gurnah Tessa Hadley Derek Johns Jonathan Keates FSA Dame Hermione Lee FBA Daljit Nagra Michèle Roberts 1820–1832 Bishop Thomas Burgess 1832–1833 The Lord Dover 1834–1845 The Earl of Ripon 1845–1849 Henry Hallam 1849–1851 The Marquess of Northampton 1851–1856 The Earl of Carlisle 1856–1876 The Rt Rev. Connop Thirlwall 1876–1884 The Prince Leopold 1885–1893 Sir Patrick Colquhoun 1893–1920 The Earl of Halsbury 1921–1945 The Marquess of Crewe 1946–1947 The Earl of Lytton 1947–1982 The Lord Butler of Saffron Walden 1982–1988 Sir Angus Wilson 1988–2003 The Lord Jenkins of Hillhead 2003–2008 Sir Michael Holroyd 2008–2017 Colin Thubron 2017–present Marina Warner The Royal Society of Literature comprises up to 500 fellows who are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRSL.
New fellows of the Royal Society of Literature are elected by its current fellows. To be nominated for fellowship, a writer must have published two works of literary merit, nominations must be seconded by an RSL fellow. All nominations are presented to members of the Council of the Royal Society of Literature, who vote biannually to elect new fellows. Nominated candidates who have not been successful are reconsidered at every election for three years from the year in which they were proposed. Newly elected fellows are introduced at the Society's AGM and summer party. While the President reads a citation for each, they are invited to sign their names in the roll book which dates back to 1820, using either T. S. Eliot's fountain pen or Byron's pen. In 2013, Charles Dickens's quill was retired and replaced with Eliot's fountain pen, in 2018 George Eliot's pen was offered as a choice, the first time in the RSL's history that a pen that belonged to a woman writer was an option. In 2018 the RSL honoured the achievements of Britain's younger writers through the initiative "40 Under 40", which saw the election of 40 new fellows aged under 40.
The * before the name denotes an Honorary Fellow. The list is online at the RSL website; the Royal Society of Literature website RSL biannual magazine RSL literary prizes and awards Current RSL Fellows