An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in either a one or two-step mechanism. The one-step mechanism is known as the E2 reaction, the two-step mechanism is known as the E1 reaction; the numbers do not have to do with the number of steps in the mechanism, but rather the kinetics of the reaction and unimolecular respectively. In cases where the molecule is able to stabilize an anion but possesses a poor leaving group, a third type of reaction, E1CB, exists; the pyrolysis of xanthate and acetate esters proceed through an "internal" elimination mechanism, the Ei mechanism. In most organic elimination reactions, at least one hydrogen is lost to form the double bond: the unsaturation of the molecule increases, it is possible that a molecule undergoes reductive elimination, by which the valence of an atom in the molecule decreases by two, though this is more common in inorganic chemistry. An important class of elimination reactions is those involving alkyl halides, with good leaving groups, reacting with a Lewis base to form an alkene.
Elimination may be considered the reverse of an addition reaction. When the substrate is asymmetric, regioselectivity is determined by Zaitsev's rule or through Hofmann elimination if the carbon with the most substituted hydrogen is inaccessible. During the 1920s, Sir Christopher Ingold proposed a model to explain a peculiar type of chemical reaction: the E2 mechanism. E2 stands for bimolecular elimination; the reaction involves a one-step mechanism in which carbon-hydrogen and carbon-halogen bonds break to form a double bond. The specifics of the reaction are as follows: E2 is a single step elimination, with a single transition state, it is undergone by primary substituted alkyl halides, but is possible with some secondary alkyl halides and other compounds. The reaction rate is second order, because it's influenced by both the base; because the E2 mechanism results in the formation of a pi bond, the two leaving groups need to be antiperiplanar. An antiperiplanar transition state has staggered conformation with lower energy than a synperiplanar transition state, in eclipsed conformation with higher energy.
The reaction mechanism involving staggered conformation is more favorable for E2 reactions. E2 uses a strong base, it must be strong enough to remove a weakly acidic hydrogen. In order for the pi bond to be created, the hybridization of carbons needs to be lowered from sp3 to sp2; the C-H bond is weakened in the rate determining step and therefore a primary deuterium isotope effect much larger than 1 is observed. E2 competes with the SN2 reaction mechanism if the base can act as a nucleophile. An example of this type of reaction in scheme 1 is the reaction of isobutylbromide with potassium ethoxide in ethanol; the reaction products are isobutylene and potassium bromide. E1 is a model to explain a particular type of chemical elimination reaction. E1 stands for unimolecular elimination and has the following specifications It is a two-step process of elimination: ionization and deprotonation. Ionization: the carbon-halogen bond breaks to give a carbocation intermediate. Deprotonation of the carbocation.
E1 takes place with tertiary alkyl halides, but is possible with some secondary alkyl halides. The reaction rate is influenced only by the concentration of the alkyl halide because carbocation formation is the slowest step, as known as the rate-determining step. Therefore, first-order kinetics apply; the reaction occurs in the complete absence of a base or the presence of only a weak base. E1 reactions are in competition with SN1 reactions because they share a common carbocationic intermediate. A secondary deuterium isotope effect of larger than 1 is observed. There is no antiperiplanar requirement. An example is the pyrolysis of a certain sulfonate ester of menthol: Only reaction product A results from antiperiplanar elimination; the presence of product B is an indication. It is accompanied by carbocationic rearrangement reactions An example in scheme 2 is the reaction of tert-butylbromide with potassium ethoxide in ethanol. E1 eliminations happen with substituted alkyl halides for two main reasons.
Substituted alkyl halides are bulky, limiting the room for the E2 one-step mechanism. Substituted carbocations are more stable than methyl or primary substituted cations; such stability gives time for the two-step E1 mechanism to occur. If SN1 and E1 pathways are competing, the E1 pathway can be favored by increasing the heat. Specific features: 1. Rearrangement possible 2. Independent of concentration and basicity of base The reaction rate is influenced by the reactivity of halogens and bromide being favored. Fluoride is not a good leaving group, so eliminations with fluoride as the leaving group have slower rates than other halogens. There is a certain level of competition between the elimination reaction and nucleophilic substitution. More there are competitions between E2 and SN2 and between E1 and SN1. Substitution predominates and elimination occurs only during precise circumstances. Elimination is favored over substitution when steric hindrance around the α-carbon increases. A stronger base is used.
Temperature increases. Bases with steric bulk, are poor nucleophiles. In one study the kinetic isotope effect was determin
The haloalkanes are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens. They are a subset of the general class of halocarbons, although the distinction is not made. Haloalkanes are used commercially and are known under many chemical and commercial names, they are used as flame retardants, fire extinguishants, propellants and pharmaceuticals. Subsequent to the widespread use in commerce, many halocarbons have been shown to be serious pollutants and toxins. For example, the chlorofluorocarbons have been shown to lead to ozone depletion. Methyl bromide is a controversial fumigant. Only haloalkanes which contain chlorine and iodine are a threat to the ozone layer, but fluorinated volatile haloalkanes in theory may have activity as greenhouse gases. Methyl iodide, a occurring substance, does not have ozone-depleting properties and the United States Environmental Protection Agency has designated the compound a non-ozone layer depleter. For more information, see Halomethane.
Haloalkane or alkyl halides are the compounds which have the general formula "RX" where R is an alkyl or substituted alkyl group and X is a halogen. Haloalkanes have been known for centuries. Chloroethane was produced synthetically in the 15th century; the systematic synthesis of such compounds developed in the 19th century in step with the development of organic chemistry and the understanding of the structure of alkanes. Methods were developed for the selective formation of C-halogen bonds. Versatile methods included the addition of halogens to alkenes, hydrohalogenation of alkenes, the conversion of alcohols to alkyl halides; these methods are so reliable and so implemented that haloalkanes became cheaply available for use in industrial chemistry because the halide could be further replaced by other functional groups. While most haloalkanes are human-produced, non-artificial-source haloalkanes do occur on Earth through enzyme-mediated synthesis by bacteria and sea macroalgae. More than 1600 halogenated organics have been identified, with bromoalkanes being the most common haloalkanes.
Brominated organics in biology range from biologically produced methyl bromide to non-alkane aromatics and unsaturates. Halogenated alkanes in land plants are more rare, but do occur, as for example the fluoroacetate produced as a toxin by at least 40 species of known plants. Specific dehalogenase enzymes in bacteria which remove halogens from haloalkanes, are known. From the structural perspective, haloalkanes can be classified according to the connectivity of the carbon atom to which the halogen is attached. In primary haloalkanes, the carbon that carries the halogen atom is only attached to one other alkyl group. An example is chloroethane. In secondary haloalkanes, the carbon that carries the halogen atom has two C–C bonds. In tertiary haloalkanes, the carbon that carries the halogen atom has three C–C bonds. Haloalkanes can be classified according to the type of halogen on group 7 responding to a specific halogenoalkane. Haloalkanes containing carbon bonded to fluorine, chlorine and iodine results in organofluorine, organochlorine and organoiodine compounds, respectively.
Compounds containing more than one kind of halogen are possible. Several classes of used haloalkanes are classified in this way chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons; these abbreviations are common in discussions of the environmental impact of haloalkanes. Haloalkanes resemble the parent alkanes in being colorless odorless, hydrophobic; the melting and boiling points of chloro-, bromo-, iodoalkanes are higher than the analogous alkanes, scaling with the atomic weight and number of halides. This is due to the increased strength of the intermolecular forces—from London dispersion to dipole-dipole interaction because of the increased polarizability, thus carbon tetraiodide is a solid. Many fluoroalkanes, however, go against this trend and have lower melting and boiling points than their nonfluorinated analogues due to the decreased polarizability of fluorine. For example, methane has a melting point of -182.5 °C whereas tetrafluoromethane has a melting point of -183.6 °C.
As they contain fewer C–H bonds, halocarbons are less flammable than alkanes, some are used in fire extinguishers. Haloalkanes are better solvents than the corresponding alkanes because of their increased polarity. Haloalkanes containing halogens other than fluorine are more reactive than the parent alkanes—it is this reactivity, the basis of most controversies. Many are alkylating agents, with primary haloalkanes and those containing heavier halogens being the most active; the ozone-depleting abilities of the CFCs arises from the photolability of the C–Cl bond. Haloalkanes are of wide interest because they are widespread and have diverse beneficial and detrimental impacts; the oceans are estimated to release 1-2 million tons of bromomethane annually. A large number of pharmaceuticals contain halogens fluorine. An estimated one fifth of pharmaceuticals contain fluorine, including several of the most used drugs. Examples include 5-fluorouracil, paroxetine, ciprofloxacin and fluconazole; the beneficial effects arise because the C-F bond is unreactive.
Fluorine-substituted ethers are volatile anesthetics, including the commercial product
A chemical weapon is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans. According to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, "the term chemical weapon may be applied to any toxic chemical or its precursor that can cause death, temporary incapacitation or sensory irritation through its chemical action. Munitions or other delivery devices designed to deliver chemical weapons, whether filled or unfilled, are considered weapons themselves."Chemical weapons are classified as weapons of mass destruction, though they are distinct from nuclear weapons, biological weapons, radiological weapons. All may be used in warfare and are known by the military acronym NBC. Weapons of mass destruction are distinct from conventional weapons, which are effective due to their explosive, kinetic, or incendiary potential. Chemical weapons can be dispersed in gas and solid forms, may afflict others than the intended targets. Nerve gas, tear gas and pepper spray are three modern examples of chemical weapons.
Lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are volatile and they constitute a class of hazardous chemical weapons that have been stockpiled by many nations. Unitary agents do not require mixing with other agents; the most dangerous of these are nerve agents and vesicant agents, which include formulations of sulfur mustard such as H, HT, HD. They all become gaseous when released. Used during the First World War, the effects of so-called mustard gas, phosgene gas and others caused lung searing, blindness and maiming; the Nazi Germans during WW-II committed genocide against Jews but included other targeted populations in the Holocaust, a commercial hydrogen cyanide blood agent trade named Zyklon B discharged in large gas chambers was the preferred method to efficiently murder their victims in a continuing industrial fashion, this resulted in the largest death toll to chemical weapons in history. As of 2016, CS gas and pepper spray remain in common use for riot control. Under the Chemical Weapons Convention, there is a binding, worldwide ban on the production and use of chemical weapons and their precursors.
Notwithstanding, large stockpiles of chemical weapons continue to exist justified as a precaution against putative use by an aggressor. International law has prohibited the use of chemical weapons since 1899, under the Hague Convention: Article 23 of the Regulations Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land adopted by the First Hague Conference "especially" prohibited employing "poison and poisoned arms". A separate declaration stated that in any war between signatory powers, the parties would abstain from using projectiles "the object of, the diffusion of asphyxiating or deleterious gases"; the Washington Naval Treaty, signed February 6, 1922 known as the Five-Power Treaty, aimed at banning CW but did not succeed because France rejected it. The subsequent failure to include CW has contributed to the resultant increase in stockpiles; the Geneva Protocol known as the Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, is an International treaty prohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons.
It was signed at Geneva June 17, 1925, entered into force on February 8, 1928. 133 nations are listed as state parties to the treaty. Ukraine is the newest signatory; this treaty states that chemical and biological weapons are "justly condemned by the general opinion of the civilised world". And while the treaty prohibits the use of chemical and biological weapons, it does not address the production, storage, or transfer of these weapons. Treaties that followed the Geneva Protocol did have been enacted; the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention is the most recent arms control agreement with the force of International law. Its full name is the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction; that agreement outlaws the production and use of chemical weapons. It is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, an independent organization based in The Hague; the OPCW administers the terms of the CWC to 192 signatories, which represents 98% of the global population.
As of June 2016, 66,368 of 72,525 metric tonnes, have been verified as destroyed. The OPCW has conducted 6,327 inspections at 235 chemical weapon-related sites and 2,255 industrial sites; these inspections have affected the sovereign territory of 86 States Parties since April 1997. Worldwide, 4,732 industrial facilities are subject to inspection under provisions of the CWC. Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons; this type of warfare is distinct from nuclear warfare and biological warfare, which together make up NBC, the military initialism for Nuclear and Chemical. None of these fall under the term conventional weapons, which are effective because of their destructive potential. Chemical warfare does not depend upon explosive force to achieve an objective, it depends upon the unique properties of the chemical agent weaponized. A lethal agent is designed to injure, incapacitate, or kill an opposing force, or deny unhindered use of a particular area of terrain.
Defoliants are used to q
Physical organic chemistry
Physical organic chemistry, a term coined by Louis Hammett in 1940, refers to a discipline of organic chemistry that focuses on the relationship between chemical structures and reactivity, in particular, applying experimental tools of physical chemistry to the study of organic molecules. Specific focal points of study include the rates of organic reactions, the relative chemical stabilities of the starting materials, reactive intermediates, transition states, products of chemical reactions, non-covalent aspects of solvation and molecular interactions that influence chemical reactivity; such studies provide theoretical and practical frameworks to understand how changes in structure in solution or solid-state contexts impact reaction mechanism and rate for each organic reaction of interest. Physical organic chemists use theoretical and experimental approaches work to understand these foundational problems in organic chemistry, including classical and statistical thermodynamic calculations, quantum mechanical theory and computational chemistry, as well as experimental spectroscopy and crystallography approaches.
The field therefore has applications to a wide variety of more specialized fields, including electro- and photochemistry and supramolecular chemistry, bioorganic chemistry and chemical biology, as well as to commercial enterprises involving process chemistry, chemical engineering, materials science and nanotechnology, pharmacology in drug discovery by design. Physical organic chemistry is the study of the relationship between structure and reactivity of organic molecules. More physical organic chemistry applies the experimental tools of physical chemistry to the study of the structure of organic molecules and provides a theoretical framework that interprets how structure influences both mechanisms and rates of organic reactions, it can be thought of as a subfield. Physical organic chemists use both experimental and theoretical disciplines such as spectroscopy, crystallography, computational chemistry, quantum theory to study both the rates of organic reactions and the relative chemical stability of the starting materials, transition states, products.
Chemists in this field work to understand the physical underpinnings of modern organic chemistry, therefore physical organic chemistry has applications in specialized areas including polymer chemistry, supramolecular chemistry and photochemistry. The term physical organic chemistry was itself coined by Louis Hammett in 1940 when he used the phrase as a title for his textbook. Organic chemists use the tools of thermodynamics to study the bonding and energetics of chemical systems; this includes experiments to measure or determine the enthalpy and Gibbs' free energy of a reaction, transformation, or isomerization. Chemists may use various chemical and mathematical analyses, such as a Van't Hoff plot, to calculate these values. Empirical constants such as bond dissociation energy, standard heat of formation, heat of combustion are used to predict the stability of molecules and the change in enthalpy through the course of the reactions. For complex molecules, a ΔHf° value may not be available but can be estimated using molecular fragments with known heats of formation.
This type of analysis is referred to as Benson group increment theory, after chemist Sidney Benson who spent a career developing the concept. The thermochemistry of reactive intermediates—carbocations and radicals—is of interest to physical organic chemists. Group increment data are available for radical systems. Carbocation and carbanion stabilities can be assessed using hydride ion affinities and pKa values, respectively. One of the primary methods for evaluating chemical stability and energetics is conformational analysis. Physical organic chemists use conformational analysis to evaluate the various types of strain present in a molecule to predict reaction products. Strain can be found in both acyclic and cyclic molecules, manifesting itself in diverse systems as torsional strain, allylic strain, ring strain, syn-pentane strain. A-values provide a quantitative basis for predicting the conformation of a substituted cyclohexane, an important class of cyclic organic compounds whose reactivity is guided by conformational effects.
The A-value is the difference in the Gibbs' free energy between the axial and equatorial forms of substituted cyclohexane, by adding together the A-values of various substituents it is possible to quantitatively predict the preferred conformation of a cyclohexane derivative. In addition to molecular stability, conformational analysis is used to predict reaction products. One cited example of the use of conformational analysis is a bi-molecular elimination reaction; this reaction proceeds most when the nucleophile attacks the species, antiperiplanar to the leaving group. A molecular orbital analysis of this phenomenon suggest that this conformation provides the best overlap between the electrons in the R-H σ bonding orbital, undergoing nucleophilic attack and the empty σ* antibonding orbital of the R-X bond, being broken. By exploiting this effect, conformational analysis can be used to design molecules that possess enhanced reactivity; the physical processes which give rise to bond rotation barriers are complex, these barriers have been extensively studied through experimental and theoretical methods.
A number of recent articles have investigated the predominance of the steric and hyperconjugative contributions to rotational barriers in ethane and more substituted molecules. Chemists use the s
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms and ions: their composition, properties and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances. In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology, it is sometimes called the central science because it provides a foundation for understanding both basic and applied scientific disciplines at a fundamental level. For example, chemistry explains aspects of plant chemistry, the formation of igneous rocks, how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded, the properties of the soil on the moon, how medications work, how to collect DNA evidence at a crime scene. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron; the word chemistry comes from alchemy, which referred to an earlier set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, philosophy, astronomy and medicine.
It is seen as linked to the quest to turn lead or another common starting material into gold, though in ancient times the study encompassed many of the questions of modern chemistry being defined as the study of the composition of waters, growth, disembodying, drawing the spirits from bodies and bonding the spirits within bodies by the early 4th century Greek-Egyptian alchemist Zosimos. An alchemist was called a'chemist' in popular speech, the suffix "-ry" was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as "chemistry"; the modern word alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic word al-kīmīā. In origin, the term is borrowed from the Greek χημία or χημεία; this may have Egyptian origins since al-kīmīā is derived from the Greek χημία, in turn derived from the word Kemet, the ancient name of Egypt in the Egyptian language. Alternately, al-kīmīā may derive from χημεία, meaning "cast together"; the current model of atomic structure is the quantum mechanical model. Traditional chemistry starts with the study of elementary particles, molecules, metals and other aggregates of matter.
This matter can be studied in isolation or in combination. The interactions and transformations that are studied in chemistry are the result of interactions between atoms, leading to rearrangements of the chemical bonds which hold atoms together; such behaviors are studied in a chemistry laboratory. The chemistry laboratory stereotypically uses various forms of laboratory glassware; however glassware is not central to chemistry, a great deal of experimental chemistry is done without it. A chemical reaction is a transformation of some substances into one or more different substances; the basis of such a chemical transformation is the rearrangement of electrons in the chemical bonds between atoms. It can be symbolically depicted through a chemical equation, which involves atoms as subjects; the number of atoms on the left and the right in the equation for a chemical transformation is equal. The type of chemical reactions a substance may undergo and the energy changes that may accompany it are constrained by certain basic rules, known as chemical laws.
Energy and entropy considerations are invariably important in all chemical studies. Chemical substances are classified in terms of their structure, phase, as well as their chemical compositions, they can be analyzed using the tools of e.g. spectroscopy and chromatography. Scientists engaged in chemical research are known as chemists. Most chemists specialize in one or more sub-disciplines. Several concepts are essential for the study of chemistry; the particles that make up matter have rest mass as well – not all particles have rest mass, such as the photon. Matter can be a mixture of substances; the atom is the basic unit of chemistry. It consists of a dense core called the atomic nucleus surrounded by a space occupied by an electron cloud; the nucleus is made up of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons, while the electron cloud consists of negatively charged electrons which orbit the nucleus. In a neutral atom, the negatively charged electrons balance out the positive charge of the protons.
The nucleus is dense. The atom is the smallest entity that can be envisaged to retain the chemical properties of the element, such as electronegativity, ionization potential, preferred oxidation state, coordination number, preferred types of bonds to form. A chemical element is a pure substance, composed of a single type of atom, characterized by its particular number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms, known as the atomic number and represented by the symbol Z; the mass number is the sum of the number of neutrons in a nucleus. Although all the nuclei of all atoms belonging to one element will have the same
University of Southampton
The University of Southampton is a research university located in Southampton, England. The university's origins date back to the founding of the Hartley Institution in 1862. In 1902, the Institution developed into the Hartley University College, awarding degrees from the University of London. On 29 April 1952, the institution was granted full university status, allowing it to award its own degrees. Southampton is a founding member of the Russell Group of research-intensive universities in Britain. In the most recent Research Excellence Framework the university was ranked 18th in the United Kingdom for average quality of research submitted, 11th for research power and 8th for research intensity; the university has seven teaching campuses. The main campus is located in the Highfield area of Southampton and is supplemented by four other campuses within the city: Avenue Campus housing the Faculty of Humanities, the National Oceanography Centre housing courses in Ocean and Earth Sciences, Southampton General Hospital offering courses in Medicine and Health Sciences, Boldrewood Campus an engineering and maritime technology campus housing the university's strategic ally Lloyd's Register.
In addition, the university operates a School of Art based in nearby Winchester and an international branch in Malaysia offering courses in Engineering. Each campus is equipped with its own library facilities; the University of Southampton has 17,535 undergraduate and 7,650 postgraduate students, making it the largest university by higher education students in the South East region. The University of Southampton Students' Union, provides support and social activities for the students ranging from involvement in the Union's four media outlets to any of the 200 affiliated societies and 80 sports; the university owns and operates a sports ground at nearby Wide Lane for use by students and operates a sports centre on the main campus. The University of Southampton has its origin as the Hartley Institution, formed in 1862 from a benefaction by Henry Robinson Hartley. Hartley had inherited a fortune from two generations of successful wine merchants. At his death in 1850, he left a bequest of £103,000 to the Southampton Corporation for the study and advancement of the sciences in his property on Southampton's High Street, in the city centre.
Hartley was an eccentric straggler, who had little liking of the new age docks and railways in Southampton. He did not desire to create a college for many but a cultural centre for Southampton's intellectual elite. After lengthy legal challenges to the Bequest, a public debate as to how best interpret the language of his Will, the Southampton Corporation choose to create the Institute. On 15 October 1862, the Hartley Institute was opened by the Prime Minister Lord Palmerston in a major civic occasion which exceeded in splendor anything that anyone in the town could remember. After initial years of financial struggle, the Hartley Institute became the Hartley College in 1883; this move was followed by increasing numbers of students, teaching staff, an expansion of the facilities and registered lodgings for students. In 1902, the Hartley College became the Hartley University college, a degree awarding branch of the University of London; this was after inspection of the teaching and finances by the University College Grants Committee, donations from Council members.
An increase in student numbers in the following years motivated fund raising efforts to move the college to greenfield land around Back Lane in the Highfield area of Southampton. On 20 June 1914, Viscount Haldane opened the new site of the renamed Southampton University College. However, the outbreak of the First World War six weeks meant no lectures could take place there, as the buildings were handed over by the college authorities for use as a military hospital. To cope with the volume of casualties, wooden huts were erected at the rear of the building; these were donated to university by the War Office after the end of fighting, in time for the transfer from the high street premises in 1920. At this time, Highfield Hall, a former country house and overlooking Southampton Common, for which a lease had earlier been secured, commenced use as a halls of residence for female students. South Hill, on what is now the Glen Eyre Halls Complex was acquired, along with South Stoneham House to house male students.
Further expansion through the 1920s and 1930s was made possible through private donors, such as the two daughters of Edward Turner Sims for the construction of the university library, from the people of Southampton, enabling new buildings on both sides of University Road. During World War II the university suffered damage in the Southampton Blitz with bombs landing on the campus and its halls of residence; the college decided against evacuation, instead expanding its Engineering Department, School of Navigation and developing a new School of Radio Telegraphy. Halls of residence were used to house Polish and American troops. After the war, departments such as Electronics grew under the influence of Erich Zepler and the Institute of Sound and Vibration was established. On 29 April 1952, Queen Elizabeth II granted the University of Southampton a Royal Charter, the first to be given to a university during her reign, which enabled it to award degrees. Six faculties were created: Arts, Engineering, Economics and Law.
The first University of Southampton degrees were awarded on 4 July 1953, following the appointment of the Duke of We