A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head. The term also refers not only to the physical crowning but to the whole ceremony wherein the act of crowning occurs, along with the presentation of other items of regalia, marking the formal investiture of a monarch with regal power. Aside from the crowning, a coronation ceremony may comprise many other rituals such as the taking of special vows by the monarch, the investing and presentation of regalia to the monarch, acts of homage by the new ruler's subjects and the performance of other ritual deeds of special significance to the particular nation. Western-style coronations have included anointing the monarch with holy oil, or chrism as it is called; the monarch's consort may be crowned, either with the monarch or as a separate event. Once a vital ritual among the world's monarchies, coronations have changed over time for a variety of socio-political and religious factors. In the past, concepts of royalty and deity were inexorably linked.
In some ancient cultures, rulers were considered to be divine or divine: the Egyptian pharaoh was believed to be the son of Ra, the sun god, while in Japan, the emperor was believed to be a descendant of Amaterasu, the sun goddess. Rome promulgated the practice of emperor worship. Coronations were once a direct visual expression of these alleged connections, but recent centuries have seen the lessening of such beliefs. Coronations are still observed in the United Kingdom and several Asian and African countries. In Europe, most monarchs are required to take a simple oath in the presence of the country's legislature. Besides a coronation, a monarch's accession may be marked in many ways: some nations may retain a religious dimension to their accession rituals while others have adopted simpler inauguration ceremonies, or no ceremony at all; some cultures use bathing or cleansing rites, the drinking of a sacred beverage, or other religious practices to achieve a comparable effect. Such acts symbolise the granting of divine favour to the monarch within the relevant spiritual-religious paradigm of the country.
Coronation in common parlance today may in a broader sense, refer to any formal ceremony in relation to the accession of a monarch, whether or not an actual crown is bestowed, such ceremonies may otherwise be referred to as investitures, inaugurations, or enthronements. The date of the act of ascension, however precedes the date of the ceremony of coronation. For example, the Coronation of Elizabeth II took place on 2 June 1953 sixteen months after her accession to the throne on 6 February 1952 on the death of her father George VI; the coronation ceremonies in medieval Christendom, both Western and Eastern, are influenced by the practice of the Roman Emperors as it developed during Late Antiquity, indirectly influenced by Biblical accounts of kings being crowned and anointed. The European coronation ceremonies best known in the form they have taken in Great Britain, descend from rites created in Byzantium, Visigothic Spain, Carolingian France and the Holy Roman Empire and brought to their apogee during the Medieval era.
In non-Christian states, coronation rites evolved from a variety of sources related to the religious beliefs of that particular nation. Buddhism, for instance, influenced the coronation rituals of Thailand and Bhutan, while Hindu elements played a significant role in Nepalese rites; the ceremonies used in modern Egypt, Malaysia and Iran were shaped by Islam, while Tonga's ritual combines ancient Polynesian influences with more modern Anglican ones. Coronations, in one form or another, have existed since ancient times. Egyptian records show coronation scenes, such as that of Seti I in 1290 BC. Judeo-Christian scriptures testify to particular rites associated with the conferring of kingship, the most detailed accounts of which are found in II Kings 11:12 and II Chronicles 23:11; the corona radiata, the "radiant crown" known best on the Statue of Liberty, worn by the Helios, the Colossus of Rhodes, was worn by Roman emperors as part of the cult of Sol Invictus, part of the imperial cult as it developed during the 3rd century.
The origin of the crown is thus religious, comparable to the significance of a halo, marking the sacral nature of kingship, expressing that either the king is himself divine, or ruling by divine right. The precursor to the crown was the browband called the diadem, worn by the Achaemenid rulers, was adopted by Constantine I, was worn by all subsequent rulers of the Roman Empire. Following the assumption of the diadem by Constantine and Byzantine emperors continued to wear it as the supreme symbol of their authority. Although no specific coronation ceremony was observed at first, one evolved over the following century; the emperor Julian was hoisted upon a shield and crowned with a gold necklace provided by one of his standard-bearers. Emperors were crowned and acclaimed in a similar manner, until the momentous decision was taken to permit the Patriarch of Constantinople to physically place the crown on the emperor's head. Historians debate when this first took place, but the precedent was established by the reign of Leo II, crowned by the Patriarch Acacius in 473.
This ritual in
Jon Walmsley is a British American multi-instrumentalist, songwriter and producer. Walmsley is a veteran of the stage and studio, having worked with many notable artists including Richard Marx, Brian Setzer, David Pack, David Koz, the Doobie Brothers, Michael McDonald, Gregg Allman, Merle Haggard, Roy Acuff, Laurence Juber, John Mayall, Denny Laine, Spencer Davis and Gordon, Jackie Lomax, Roger Daltrey, the Beach Boys' Al Jardine and David Marks, Dean Torrence of Jan and Dean and Strawberry Alarm Clock. In addition to his musical career, Walmsley is known for his accomplishments as an actor, most notably a nine-season run as Jason Walton on The Waltons, as well as providing the voice of Christopher Robin for Disney's Winnie the Pooh cartoons. Combat! Daniel Boone The One and Only, Original Family Band Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day My Three Sons Adam-12 The Bill Cosby Show My Three Sons The Homecoming: A Christmas Story The ABC Saturday Superstar Movie 1972) The Waltons The New Scooby-Doo Movies The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh Dinky Hocker Family Feud A Wedding on Walton's Mountain Mother's Day on Waltons Mountain A Day for Thanks on Walton's Mountain Waiting to Act A Walton Thanksgiving Reunion A Walton Wedding A Walton Easter O Christmas Tree TV total German Talkshow 7th Heaven 8 Simple Rules It's Always Sunny In Philadelphia Elf Sparkle Meets Christmas The Horse Elf Sparkle And The Special Red Dress Waltons The Today Show Good Morning America The Waltons - TV Series 1971-1981 7th Heaven - TV Series 1996-2007 Waltons' Christmas CD 1999 For the Love of May - Short Movie 2000 8 Simple Rules - TV Series 2002-2005 The Sunflowers - CD 2005 Primal Twang - The legacy of the guitar DVD 2008 Love-in Show - A Musical Celebration DVD 2009 Secret Life of the American Teenager - TV Series 2008-2013 Elf Sparkle and the Special Red Dress - Animation 2010 The U.
K. Beat - CD 2010 The Sunflowers - CD 2011 A Joyful Noise - CD 2013 Christmas In America - single 2014 Goin' To Clarksdale - CD 2017 Jon Walmsley Official Website Jon Walmsley on Facebook Jon Walmsley on Twitter Jon Walmsley on IMDB
Winnie-the-Pooh called Pooh Bear, is a fictional anthropomorphic teddy bear created by English author A. A. Milne; the first collection of stories about the character was the book Winnie-the-Pooh, this was followed by The House at Pooh Corner. Milne included a poem about the bear in the children's verse book When We Were Very Young and many more in Now We Are Six. All four volumes were illustrated by E. H. Shepard; the Pooh stories have been translated into many languages, including Alexander Lenard's Latin translation, Winnie ille Pu, first published in 1958, and, in 1960, became the only Latin book to have been featured on The New York Times Best Seller list. Hyphens in the character's name were omitted by Disney when the company adapted the Pooh stories into a series of features that would become one of its most successful franchises. In popular film adaptations, Pooh has been voiced by actors Sterling Holloway, Hal Smith, Jim Cummings in English, Yevgeny Leonov in Russian. A. A. Milne named the character Winnie-the-Pooh after a teddy bear owned by his son, Christopher Robin Milne, on whom the character Christopher Robin was based.
The rest of Christopher Robin Milne's toys – Piglet, Kanga and Tigger – were incorporated into Milne's stories. Two more characters and Rabbit, were created by Milne's imagination, while Gopher was added to the Disney version. Christopher Robin's toy bear is on display at the Main Branch of the New York Public Library in New York City. Christopher Milne had named his toy bear after Winnie, a Canadian black bear he saw at London Zoo, "Pooh", a swan they had met while on holiday; the bear cub was purchased from a hunter for $20 by Canadian Lieutenant Harry Colebourn in White River, Canada, while en route to England during the First World War. He named the bear "Winnie" after his adopted hometown in Manitoba. "Winnie" was surreptitiously brought to England with her owner, gained unofficial recognition as The Fort Garry Horse regimental mascot. Colebourn left Winnie at the London Zoo while his unit were in France. Pooh the swan appears as a character in its own right in. In the first chapter of Winnie-the-Pooh, Milne offers this explanation of why Winnie-the-Pooh is called "Pooh": But his arms were so stiff... they stayed up straight in the air for more than a week, whenever a fly came and settled on his nose he had to blow it off.
And I think – but I am not sure – that, why he is always called Pooh. The American writer William Safire surmised that the Milnes' invention of the name "Winnie the Pooh" may have been influenced by the haughty character Pooh-Bah in Gilbert and Sullivan's The Mikado; the Winnie-the-Pooh stories are set in East Sussex, England. The forest is an area of tranquil open heathland on the highest sandy ridges of the High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty situated 30 miles south-east of London. In 1925 Milne, a Londoner, bought a country home a mile to the north of the forest at Cotchford Farm, near Hartfield. According to Christopher Milne, while his father continued to live in London "...the four of us – he, his wife, his son and his son's nanny – would pile into a large blue, chauffeur-driven Fiat and travel down every Saturday morning and back again every Monday afternoon. And we would spend a whole glorious month there in the spring and two months in the summer." From the front lawn the family had a view across a meadow to a line of alders that fringed the River Medway, beyond which the ground rose through more trees until "above them, in the faraway distance, crowning the view, was a bare hilltop.
In the centre of this hilltop was a clump of pines." Most of his father's visits to the forest at that time were, he noted, family expeditions on foot "to make yet another attempt to count the pine trees on Gill's Lap or to search for the marsh gentian". Christopher added that, inspired by Ashdown Forest, his father had made it "the setting for two of his books, finishing the second little over three years after his arrival". Many locations in the stories can be associated with real places around the forest; as Christopher Milne wrote in his autobiography: "Pooh’s forest and Ashdown Forest are identical". For example, the fictional "Hundred Acre Wood" was in reality Five Hundred Acre Wood; the landscapes depicted in E. H. Shepard's illustrations for the Winnie-the-Pooh books were directly inspired by the distinctive landscape of Ashdown Forest, with its high, open heathlands of heather, gorse and silver birch punctuated by hilltop clumps of pine trees. Many of Shepard's illustrations can be matched to actual views, allowing for a degree of artistic licence.
Shepard's sketches of pine trees and other forest scenes are held at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. The game of Poohsticks was played by Christopher Milne on a footbridge across a tributary of the River Medway in Posingford Wood, close to Cotchford Farm; the wooden bridge is now a tourist attraction, it has become traditional to play the game there using sticks gathered in the nearby woodland. When the footbridge had to be replaced, the engineer designed a new structure based on the drawings of the bridge by Shepard in the books, which were somewhat different from the original structure. Christopher Robin's teddy bear, made his character début i
Mary Jane (shoe)
Mary Jane is an American term for a closed, low-cut shoe with one or more straps across the instep. Classic Mary Janes for children are made of black leather or patent leather, have one thin strap fastened with a buckle or button, a broad and rounded toebox, low heels, thin outsoles. Among girls, Mary Janes are traditionally worn with pantyhose or socks or without them, a dress or a skirt and blouse. Among boys, Mary Janes are traditionally worn with short trousers and a shirt. Children's shoes secured by a strap over the instep and fastened with a buckle or button appeared in the early 20th century. Worn by both sexes, they began to be perceived as being for girls during the 1930s in North America and the 1940s in Europe, they were popular with women in the 1920s. Today, Mary Janes for children the more classic styles, are considered semi-formal or formal shoes, appropriate for school, religious ceremonies, weddings and birthday parties for example. More modern styles are worn in casual settings, however: playgrounds, shopping centers, etc.
Although less popular than in the past, Mary Janes remain a timeless classic of children's fashion and, for many people, a symbol of girlhood. Moreover, Mary Janes are a preferred accessory of many traditional or folk costumes, such as those of the flamenco female dancer and of the typical woman in Mao's China and the Kims' North Korea. Mary Jane was a character created by Richard Felton Outcault, "Father of the Sunday Comic Strip", for his comic strip Buster Brown, first published in 1902, she was the "sweetheart" of the title character Buster Brown and was drawn from real life, as she was Outcault's daughter of the same name. In Outcault's own words—and his daughter's—she was the only character drawn from life in the Buster Brown strip, although "Mrs. Brown" did resemble Outcault's wife. In 1904, Outcault traveled to the St. Louis World's Fair and sold licenses to up to 200 companies to use the Buster Brown characters to advertise their products. Among them was the Brown Shoe Company, which hired actors to tour the country, performing as the Buster Brown characters in theaters and stores.
This strategy helped the Brown Shoe Company become the most prominently associated brand with the Buster Brown characters. The style of shoe both Buster Brown and Mary Jane wore came to be known by Mary Jane. While the classic Mary Jane still retains its wide popularity and appeal, platform style Mary Janes have evolved since the late 1990s, with 1-cm to 3-cm outsoles and 8-cm to 13-cm "chunky" heels with exaggerated grommets or buckles; the 1920s-style Mary Janes were a famous part of flappers' ensembles, thus reinforcing the childlike style the flappers had. These styles were popular in the United States in the late 1990s and early 2000s, within punk rock and goth subcultures. Many times the wearers would accent the look with knee-high knit socks in dark-colored stripes or patterns and/or some form of hosiery, complete the look with a plaid, pleated schoolgirl-style skirt. Velma Dinkley, member of the fictional Scooby-Doo gang, is most notably attributed to donning a red pair of Mary Jane shoes.
During the early 2000s, block-heeled Mary Jane shoes were popular in the United Kingdom and were fastened by a rectangular chrome buckle and were made under various brand names such as No Doubt, Koi Couture etc. Mary Janes are a popular part of Lolita fashion. A pump with a strap across the instep may be referred to as a "Mary Jane pump", although it does not have the low heels or wide toe of the original Mary Jane. Fashion portal T-bar sandal—a similar style
Christopher Robin Milne
Christopher Robin Milne was an English bookseller and the only son of author A. A. Milne; as a child, he was the basis of the character Christopher Robin in his father's Winnie-the-Pooh stories and in two books of poems. Christopher Robin Milne was born at 11 Mallord Street, London, on 21 August 1920, to author Alan Alexander Milne and Daphne Milne. Milne speculated that he was an only child because "he had been a long time coming." From an early age Milne was cared for by his nanny, Olive Brockwell, for over eight years until May 1930, when he entered boarding school. Milne called her Nou, stated "Apart from her fortnight's holiday every September we had not been out of each other's sight for more than a few hours at a time", "we lived together in a large nursery on the top floor."Milne's father explained that Rosemary was the intended name for their first born, if a girl. Realizing it was going to be a boy, he decided on "Billy", but without the intention of christening him William. Instead, each parent chose a name, hence Christopher Robin, his formal name until 1928.
He was referred to within the family as "Billy Moon", based on his childhood mispronunciation of Milne. From 1929 onwards, he was referred to as Christopher, he stated it was "The only name I feel to be mine." At his first birthday, Milne received an Alpha Farnell teddy bear, which he named Edward. This bear, along with a real Canadian bear named "Winnipeg" that Milne saw at London Zoo became the inspiration for the Winnie-the-Pooh character. Milne spoke self-deprecatingly of his own intellect, "I may have been on the dim side", or "not bright", he described himself as being "good with his hands", possessing a Meccano set. His self-descriptions included "girlish", since he had long hair and wore "girlish clothes", being "very shy and'un-self-possessed'". An early childhood friend was Anne Darlington an only child, who as Milne described it, was for his parents "the Rosemary that I wasn't." In fact Milne's mother hoped they would marry one day, hopes she abandoned when Milne turned 25. In 1925, Milne's father bought Cotchford Farm, near Ashdown Forest in East Sussex.
Though still living in London, the family would spend weekends and summer holidays there. As Milne described it, "So there we were in 1925 with a cottage, a little bit of garden, a lot of jungle, two fields, a river, all the green, hilly countryside beyond and woods, waiting to be explored." The place became the inspiration for fiction, with Milne stating "Gill's Lap that inspired Galleon's Lap, the group of pine trees on the other side of the main road that became the Six Pine Trees, the bridge over the river at Posingford that became Pooh-sticks Bridge," and a nearby "ancient walnut tree" became Pooh's House. His toys, Eeyore, plus two invented characters and Rabbit, came to life through Milne and his mother, to the point where his father could write stories about them. Kanga and Tigger were presents from his parents. Of this time, Milne states, "I loved my Nanny, I loved Cotchford. I quite liked being Christopher Robin and being famous."When his nanny departed when he was age 9, Milne's relationship with his father grew.
As he put it, "For nearly ten years I had clung to Nanny. For nearly ten more years I was to cling to him, adoring him as I had adored Nanny, so that he too became a part of me..." When Milne wrote his memoirs, he dedicated them to Olive Brockwell, "Alice to millions, but Nou to me". Of his time at boarding school, Milne says, "For it was now that began that love-hate relationship with my fictional namesake that has continued to this day." At age 6, Milne and Anne Darlington attended Miss Walters' school. On 15 January 1929, Milne started at a boys' day school in Sloane Square, London. In May 1930, he started boarding school at Boxgrove School near Guildford. Milne earned a mathematics scholarship at Stowe School and at Trinity College, Cambridge in 1939, he left Cotchford Farm in August 1942. When World War II broke out, Milne left his studies and tried to join the army, but failed the medical examination, his father used his influence to get Milne a position as a sapper with the second training battalion of the Royal Engineers.
He was posted to the Middle East and Italy. After the war, he completed a degree in English literature. On 11 April 1948, Milne became engaged to Lesley de Sélincourt, a cousin on his mother's side, they married on 24 July 1948. In 1951, he and his wife started the Harbour Bookshop on 25 August; this turned out to be a success, although his mother had thought the decision odd, as Milne did not seem to like "business", as a bookseller he would have to meet Pooh fans. Milne visited his father when the elder Milne became ill. After his father died, Milne never returned to Cotchford Farm, his mother sold the farm and moved back to London, after disposing of his father's personal possessions. Milne, who did not want any part of his father's royalties, decided to write a book about his childhood; as Milne describes it, that book, The Enchanted Places, "... combined to lift me from under the shadow of my father and of Christopher Robin, to my surprise and pleasure I found myself standing beside them in the sunshine able to look them both in the eye."Following her husband's death, Daphne Milne had little further contact with her son, did not see him during the last 15 years of her life and refused to see him on her deathbed.
A few months after his father's death in 1956, Christopher Milne
E. H. Shepard
Ernest Howard Shepard OBE, MC was an English artist and book illustrator. He is known for illustrations of the anthropomorphic soft toy and animal characters in The Wind in the Willows and Winnie-the-Pooh. Shepard was born in London. Having shown some promise in drawing at St Paul's School, in 1897 he enrolled in the Heatherley School of Fine Art in Chelsea. After a productive year there, he attended the Royal Academy Schools, winning a Landseer scholarship in 1899 and a British Institute prize in 1900. There he met Florence Eleanor Chaplin, whom he married in 1904. By 1906 Shepard had become a successful illustrator, having produced work for illustrated editions of Aesop's Fables, David Copperfield, Tom Brown's Schooldays, while at the same time working as an illustrator on the staff of Punch; the couple bought a house in London, but near Guildford. Shepard was a prolific painter, he exhibited at the Royal Society of Artists, Birmingham—a traditional venue for generic painters—as well as in the more radical atmosphere of Glasgow's Institute of Fine Arts, where some of the most innovative artists were on show.
He was twice an exhibitor at the prestigious Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool, one of the largest and most important provincial galleries in the country, another at the Manchester Art Gallery, a Victorian institution now part of the public libraries. But at heart, Shepard was a Londoner, his wife, a painter, found a home in London's West End venue for her own modest output during a 25-year career. Although in his mid-thirties when World War I broke out in 1914, Shepard received a commission as a second lieutenant in the Royal Garrison Artillery, an arm of the Royal Artillery, he was assigned to 105th Siege Battery, which crossed to France in May 1916. and went into action at the Battle of the Somme. By the autumn of 1916, Shepard started working for the Intelligence Department sketching the combat area within the view of his battery position. On 16 February 1917, he was made an acting captain whilst second-in-command of his battery, served as an acting major in late April and early May of that year during the Battle of Arras before reverting to acting captain.
He was promoted to substantive lieutenant on 1 July 1917. Whilst acting as Captain, he was awarded the Military Cross, his citation read: For conspicuous devotion to duty. As forward Observation Officer he continued to observe and send back valuable information, in spite of heavy shell and machine gun fire, his courage and coolness were conspicuous. In 1917 105th Siege Battery participated in the final stages of the Battle of Passchendaele where it came under heavy fire and suffered a number of casualties. At the end of the year it was sent to help retrieve a disastrous situation on the Italian Front, travelling by rail via Verona before coming into action on the Montello Hill. Shepard missed the Second Battle of the Piave River in April 1918, being on leave in England and attending a gunnery course, he was back in Italy with his battery for the final victory at Vittorio Veneto. After the Armistice of Villa Giusti in November 1918, Shepard was promoted to acting major in command of the battery, given the duty of administering captured enemy guns.
Demobilisation began at Christmas 1918 and 105th Siege Battery was disbanded in March 1919. Throughout the war he had been contributing to Punch, he was hired as a regular staff cartoonist in 1921 and became lead cartoonist in 1945. He was removed from this post in 1953 by Malcolm Muggeridge. Shepard was recommended to A. A. Milne in 1923 by E. V. Lucas. Milne thought Shepard's style was not what he wanted, but used him to illustrate the book of poems When We Were Very Young. Happy with the results, Milne insisted Shepard illustrate Winnie-the-Pooh. Realising his illustrator's contribution to the book's success, the writer arranged for Shepard to receive a share of his royalties. Milne inscribed a copy of Winnie-the-Pooh with the following personal verse: Eventually Shepard came to resent "that silly old bear" as he felt that the Pooh illustrations overshadowed his other work. Shepard modelled Pooh not on the toy owned by Milne's son Christopher Robin but on "Growler", a stuffed bear owned by his own son.
His Pooh work is so famous that 300 of his preliminary sketches were exhibited at the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1969, when he was 90 years old. A Shepard painting of Winnie the Pooh, believed to have been painted in the 1930s for a Bristol teashop, is his only known oil painting of the famous teddy bear, it was purchased at an auction for $243,000 in London late in 2000. The painting is displayed in the Pavilion Gallery at Assiniboine Park in Winnipeg, Canada. Shepard wrote two autobiographies: Drawn from Drawn From Life. In 1972, Shepard gave his personal collection of papers and illustrations to the University of Surrey; these now form the E. H. Shepard Archive. Shepard was made an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 1972 Birthday Honours. Shepard lived from 1955 in Lodsworth, West Sussex, he and Florence had two children and Mary, who both became illustrators. Lt. Graham Shepard died when his ship HMS Polyanthus was sunk by German submarine U-952 in September 1943. Mary married E.
V. Knox, the editor of Punch, became known as the illustrator of the Mary Poppins
A. A. Milne
Alan Alexander Milne was a British author, best known for his books about the teddy bear Winnie-the-Pooh and for various poems. Milne was a noted writer as a playwright, before the huge success of Pooh overshadowed all his previous work. Milne served in both World Wars, joining the British Army in World War I, was a captain of the British Home Guard in World War II. Alan Alexander Milne was born in Kilburn, London to parents John Vine Milne, born in Jamaica, Sarah Marie Milne and grew up at Henley House School, 6/7 Mortimer Road, Kilburn, a small public school run by his father. One of his teachers was H. G. Wells, who taught there in 1889–90. Milne attended Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge where he studied on a mathematics scholarship, graduating with a B. A. in Mathematics in 1903. He wrote for Granta, a student magazine, he collaborated with his brother Kenneth and their articles appeared over the initials AKM. Milne's work came to the attention of the leading British humour magazine Punch, where Milne was to become a contributor and an assistant editor.
Considered a talented cricket fielder, Milne played for two amateur teams that were composed of British writers: the Allahakbarries and the Authors XI. His teammates included fellow writers Arthur Conan Doyle and P. G. Wodehouse. Milne joined the British Army in World War I and served as an officer in the Royal Warwickshire Regiment and after a debilitating illness, the Royal Corps of Signals, he was commissioned into the 4th Battalion, Royal Warwickshire Regiment on 1 February 1915 as a second lieutenant. His commission was confirmed on 20 December 1915. On 7 July 1916, he was injured while serving in the Battle of the Somme and invalided back to England. Having recuperated, he was recruited into Military Intelligence to write propaganda articles for MI7 between 1916 and 1918, he was discharged on 14 February 1919, settled in Mallord Street, Chelsea. He relinquished his commission on 19 February 1920. After the war, he wrote a denunciation of war titled Peace with Honour, which he retracted somewhat with 1940's War with Honour.
During World War II, Milne was one of the most prominent critics of fellow English writer P. G. Wodehouse, captured at his country home in France by the Nazis and imprisoned for a year. Wodehouse made radio broadcasts about his internment. Although the light-hearted broadcasts made fun of the Germans, Milne accused Wodehouse of committing an act of near treason by cooperating with his country's enemy. Wodehouse got some revenge on his former friend by creating fatuous parodies of the Christopher Robin poems in some of his stories, claiming that Milne "was jealous of all other writers.... But I loved his stuff."Milne married Dorothy "Daphne" de Sélincourt in 1913 and their son Christopher Robin Milne was born in 1920. In 1925, Milne bought Cotchford Farm, in Hartfield, East Sussex. During World War II, Milne was Captain of the British Home Guard in Hartfield & Forest Row, insisting on being plain "Mr. Milne" to the members of his platoon, he retired to the farm after a stroke and brain surgery in 1952 left him an invalid, by August 1953 "he seemed old and disenchanted."
Milne died in January 1956, aged 74. After graduating from Cambridge College in 1903, A. A. Milne contributed humorous verse and whimsical essays to Punch, joining the staff in 1906 and becoming an assistant editor. During this period he published 18 plays and three novels, including the murder mystery The Red House Mystery, his son was born in August 1920 and in 1924 Milne produced a collection of children's poems, When We Were Very Young, which were illustrated by Punch staff cartoonist E. H. Shepard. A collection of short stories for children A Gallery of Children, other stories that became part of the Winnie-the-Pooh books, were first published in 1925. Milne was an early screenwriter for the nascent British film industry, writing four stories filmed in 1920 for the company Minerva Films; these were The Bump. Some of these films survive in the archives of the British Film Institute. Milne had met Howard Mr Pim Passes By in London. Looking back on this period, Milne observed that when he told his agent that he was going to write a detective story, he was told that what the country wanted from a "Punch humorist" was a humorous story.
He concluded that "the only excuse which I have yet discovered for writing anything is that I want to write it. Milne is most famous for his two Pooh books about a boy named Christopher Robin after his son, Christopher Robin Milne, various characters inspired by his son's stuffed animals, most notably the bear named Winnie-the-Pooh. Christopher Robin Milne's stuffed bear named "Edward," was renamed "Winnie" after a Canadian black bear named Winnie, used as a military mascot in World War I, left to London Zoo during the war. "The pooh" comes from