The Cologne Carnival is a carnival that takes place every year in Cologne, Germany. Traditionally, the "fifth season" is declared open at 11 minutes past 11 on the 11th of the 11th month November; the Carnival spirit is temporarily suspended during the Advent and Christmas period, picks up again in earnest after 6 January in the New Year. The time of merrymaking in the streets is declared open at downtown square "Alter Markt" on the Thursday before the beginning of Lent. Street carnival, a week-long street festival called "the crazy days", takes place between Fat Thursday and Ash Wednesday; the highlight of carnival is two days before Ash Wednesday. All through these days, Cologne folks go out masqueraded; the typical greeting during the festival is Kölle Alaaf!, a Kölsch phrase. Every year three people are granted the titles of Jungfrau and Bauer, who pay a large sum of money for the privileges; the carnival prince is deemed to be the highest representative of the festivities, leading the main parades throughout the week.
Traditionally, the Jungfrau is always portrayed by a man dressed as a female. As an entity, the trio has existed since 1883. In earlier times these were individual characters, but all three entered the Cologne carnival in the 1820s; the prince called "Seine Tollität", is the most important personage of the Cologne carnival. His float is the final one in the large parade on Shrove Monday; the naming as "prince" came as late as 1872, prior to it the name was "Held Carneval", the personification of carnival. His attributes however remained unchanged, those of a regent: crown with peacock tail, a golden chain, a girdle with glitzy stones, white undershorts and a purple jacket. A sceptre in the right hand, a slapstick in the left one; the slapstick is known as a general symbol of the fool, but it is a fertility symbol and the symbol of the princely reign over his fool people during carnival. The peasant bears the title of "Seine Deftigkeit"; as Cologne is a large city, the peasant must be a stately guy.
He expresses the boldness of the old privileged imperial city of Cologne. The sword and the flail symbolize his loyalty to his truthfulness; as the keeper of the city, he keeps the city keys at his girdle. The key symbolizes the heroes of the city militia contingent in the Battle of Worringen AD1288, whereafter the city achieved independence from the archbishop of Cologne; the maiden called "Ihre Lieblichkeit" symbolizes the patronizing mother Colonia and is traditionally played by a man. Beard or moustache are forbidden for this role. From 1936-43, the maiden was ordered by Nazi authorities to be played by a real woman; the Cologne maiden wears a mural crown. This "defender" crown and her virginity symbolize the impregnability of the city, she has a hand mirror symbolizing "female vanity", a recent attribute with no deeper meaning. Her Roman dress is a reminder of the Roman empress Agrippina, wife of emperor Claudius. Agrippina was born in the city in AD15 and succeeded in getting a renaming of the place as the new Roman city of Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium by AD50.
The official carnival with its parades and stage shows is run by the Festkomitee Kölner Karneval, founded in 1823. Alongside there are many autonomous carnival events throughout the city's bars and local communities, including "Stunksitzung", a leftist comedy show caricaturing official carnival Sitzungen in style and poking fun at both traditional, conservative carnival as well as politics. There are numerous parades in the city districts, a so-called ghost parade on Saturday evening and a colourful parade of the Cologne schools and smaller carnival clubs on carnival Sunday; as there have been continuously more than one million spectators on the streets for the Rose Monday parade every year Cologne carnival is one of the largest street festivals in Europe. An special songwritter and singer was Karl Berbuer. Two of his carnival Songs, Trizonesien-Song and Heidewitzka, Herr Kapitän were use as German anthem between 1949 and 1952. Official homepage 2000 years of carnival Carnival in Germany 2007 General info Detailed information about the Cologne Carnival
The Teddy Award is an international film award for films with LGBT topics, presented by an independent jury as an official award of the Berlin International Film Festival. Here, an "independent jury" implies that its members are not selected by the committee of the Berlinale. In the most part, the jury consists of organisers of gay and lesbian film festivals, who view films screened in all sections of the Berlinale. Subsequently, a list of films meeting criteria for LGBT content is selected by the jury, a 3,000-Euro Teddy is awarded to a feature film, a short film and a documentary. At the 66th Berlin International Film Festival in 2016, a dedicated "Teddy30" lineup of classic LGBT-related films was screened as a full program of the festival to celebrate the award's 30th anniversary. In 1987 German filmmakers Wieland Speck and Manfred Salzgeber formed a jury called the International Gay & Lesbian Film Festival Association to create an award for LGBT films, it was named the Teddy Bear Award, in accordance with the Berlinale's main awards being named as the Golden and Silver Bear.
The first Teddy Award was given to Pedro Almodóvar for his film La ley del deseo, which featured Antonio Banderas. The awards were founded in a gay bookshop in West Berlin, they were named after the cuddly toys which were sent as prizes to the winners, they were upgraded to metal trophies but are still thought to be a deliberate parody of the main Berlin Film Festival’s Golden Bear trophy.1990 was the first bigger festival in the LGBT centrum SchwuZ in Berlin with around 400 guests. The evening was organized from workers of the bookstore Eisenherz in Berlin. In 1992 the award was made part of the Berlin International Film Festival. In 1997 TEDDY e. V. A non-profit organisation was founded. There are three main categories in which the award is given: feature film documentary short filmOne additional film is singled out for a Jury Award. A Special Award is given for a distinguished achievement in LGBT cinema, such as a career lifetime achievement as a director or performer, or for a person's role in a project of significance to the history of LGBT cinema.
The German LGBT magazine Siegessäule sponsored an award, given to a film selected by a panel of the magazine's readers. This was discontinued after 2012, but was reinstituted in 2016 under the new sponsorship of the magazine Männer. Best feature film: Law of Desire – Pedro Almodóvar Best short film: Five Ways to Kill Yourself and My New Friend – Gus Van Sant Best feature film: The Last of England – Derek Jarman Best documentary: Rights and Reactions – Phil Zwickler Best documentary: The Meadow of Things – Heinz Emigholz Best short film: Alfalfa – Richard Kwietniowski Jury award: Tilda Swinton Siegessäule reader award: The Last of England – Derek Jarman Best film: Fun Down There – Roger Stigliano, Looking for Langston – Isaac Julien Best documentary: Tiny and Ruby: Hell Divin' Women – Greta Schiller and Andrea Weiss, Urinal – John Greyson Best feature film: Coming Out – Heiner Carow Best documentary: Tongues Untied – Marlon T. Riggs Best short film: Trojans – Constantine Giannaris Jury award: Silence = Death – Rosa von Praunheim Best feature film: Poison – Todd Haynes Best documentary: Paris Is Burning – Jennie Livingston Best short film: Relax – Chris Newby Jury award: The Making of Monsters – John Greyson Special award: Forbidden Love – Vladislav Kvasnička Best feature film: Together Alone – P. J. Castellaneta Best documentary: Voices from the Front – Testing The Limits video collective: Jean Carlomusto, Gregg Bordowitz, Hilary Joy Kipnis, David Meieran, Robyn Hut and Sandra Elgear Best short film: Caught Looking – Constantin Giannaris Jury award: Edward II – Derek Jarman Guests award: Swoon – Tom Kalin Best feature film: Wittgenstein – Derek Jarman Best documentary: Silverlake Life – Tom Joslin and Peter Friedman Best short film: Pain Truth – Ilppo Pohjola Guests award: Sex is...
– Marc Huestis Best feature film: Go Fish – Rose Troche Best documentary: Coming Out Under Fire – Arthur Dong Best short film: Carmelita Tropicana – Ela Troyano Jury award: Remembrance of Things Fast: True Stories Visual Lies – John Maybury Siegessäule reader award: Heavy Blow – Hoang A. Duong Guests award: Fresa y chocolate – Tomas Gutierrez Alea and Juan Carlos Tabio Best feature film: The Last Supper – Cynthia Roberts Best documentary: Complaints of a Dutiful Daughter – Deborah Hoffmann Best short film: Trevor – Peggy Rajski Jury award: Dupe od mramora – Želimir Žilnik Siegessäule reader award: Ballot Measure 9 – Heather McDonald Guests award: Priest – Antonia Bird Best feature film: The Watermelon Woman – Cheryl Dunye Best documentary: The Celluloid Closet – Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman Best documentary: I'll Be Your Mirror – Nan Goldin and Edmund Coulthard Best short film: Unbound – Claudia Morgado Escanilla Best short film: Alkali, Iowa – Mark Christopher Jury award: Jerry Tartaglia for the Konservierung of the films from Jack Smith Siegessäule award: Paris Was a Woman – Greta Schiller Best feature film: All Over Me – Alex Sichel Best documentary: Murder and Murder – Yvonne Rainer Best short film: Heroines of Love – Nathalie Percillier and Lily Besilly Special award: Romy Haag Siegessäule reader award: All Over Me – Alex Sichel Best feature film: Hold You Tight – Stanley Kwan Best documentary: The Brandon Teena Story – Susan Muska and Gréta Olafsdóttir Best short film: Peppermills – Isabel Hegner Jury award: The Man in Her Life – Carlos
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, contiguous with its capital, Potsdam; the two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics.
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale, that once constituted, together with the River Elbe, the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city, it is therefore a canting arm. Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a Slavic-derived name: Pankow, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau. Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Buch, Gatow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Marzahn, Prenzlauer Berg, Schmöckwitz, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz and Zehlendorf; the neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from 1192, remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, subsequent members of the Hohenzol
Judith Pamela Butler is an American philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy and the fields of third-wave feminist and literary theory. Since 1993, she has taught at the University of California, where she is now Maxine Elliot Professor in the Department of Comparative Literature and the Program of Critical Theory, she is the Hannah Arendt Chair at the European Graduate School. Butler is best known for her books Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity and Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex, in which she challenges conventional notions of gender and develops her theory of gender performativity; this theory has had a major influence on queer scholarship. Her works are studied in film studies courses emphasizing gender studies and performativity in discourse. Butler has supported lesbian and gay rights movements and has spoken out on many contemporary political issues. In particular, she is a vocal critic of Zionism, Israeli politics, its effect on the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, emphasizing that Israel does not and should not be taken to represent all Jews or Jewish opinion.
Judith Butler was born on February 24, 1956, in Cleveland, Ohio, to a family of Hungarian-Jewish and Russian-Jewish descent. Most of her maternal grandmother's family perished in the Holocaust; as a child and teenager, she attended both Hebrew school and special classes on Jewish ethics, where she received her "first training in philosophy". Butler stated in a 2010 interview with Haaretz that she began the ethics classes at the age of 14 and that they were created as a form of punishment by her Hebrew school's Rabbi because she was "too talkative in class". Butler stated that she was "thrilled" by the idea of these tutorials, when asked what she wanted to study in these special sessions, she responded with three questions preoccupying her at the time: "Why was Spinoza excommunicated from the synagogue? Could German Idealism be held accountable for Nazism? And how was one to understand existential theology, including the work of Martin Buber?"Butler attended Bennington College before transferring to Yale University, where she studied philosophy, receiving her Bachelor of Arts degree in 1978 and her Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1984.
She spent one academic year at Heidelberg University as a Fulbright Scholar. She taught at Wesleyan University, George Washington University, Johns Hopkins University before joining University of California, Berkeley, in 1993. In 2002 she held the Spinoza Chair of Philosophy at the University of Amsterdam. In addition, she joined the department of English and Comparative Literature at Columbia University as Wun Tsun Tam Mellon Visiting Professor of the Humanities in the spring semesters of 2012, 2013 and 2014 with the option of remaining as full-time faculty. Butler serves on the editorial board or advisory board of several academic journals, including JAC: A Journal of Rhetoric and Politics and Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. In the essay "Performative Acts and Gender Constitution", Judith Butler proposes that gender is a performance, she draws on the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and the feminism of Simone de Beauvoir, noting that both thinkers ground their theories in "lived experience" and view the sexual body as a historical idea or situation.
Butler distinguishes "between sex, as biological facticity, gender, as the cultural interpretation or signification of that facticity."Butler argues that gender is best perceived as a performance, which suggests that it has a social audience. For Butler, the "script" of gender performance is effortlessly transmitted generation to generation in the form of established "meanings": She states, "gender is not a radical choice... imposed or inscribed upon the individual". Given the social nature of human beings, most actions are witnessed and internalized and thus take on a performative or theatric quality. According to Butler's theory, gender is a performative repetition of acts associated with the male or female; the actions appropriate for men and women have been transmitted to produce a social atmosphere that both maintains and legitimizes a natural gender binary. With her acceptance of the body as a historical idea, she suggests that our concept of gender is seen as natural or innate because the body "becomes its gender through a series of acts which are renewed and consolidated through time".
Butler argues. Additionally, she compares the performativity of gender to the performance of the theater, she brings many similarities, including the idea of each individual functioning as an actor of their gender. However, she brings to light a critical difference between gender performance in reality and theater performances, she explains how the theater is much less threatening and does not produce the same fear that gender performances encounter because of the fact that there is a clear distinction from reality within the theater. Butler uses Sigmund Freud's notion of, she revises Freud's notion of this concept's applicability to lesbianism, where Freud says that lesbians are modeling their behavior on men, the perceived normal or ideal. She instead says that all gender works in this way of performativity and a representing of an internalized notion of gender norms. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity was first published in 1990, selling over 100,000 copies internationally, in multiple languages.
The book's title alludes to the 1974 John Waters film Female Trouble, which stars the drag queen Divine. Gender Trouble discusses
Easter in Berlin
Easter in Berlin is the biggest Leather- and Fetish Event in Europe. It takes place in Berlin every year at Easter; the meeting is organized by the members of the club BLF, Berlin Leder und Fetisch e. V. which in the past used the event to elect their titleholder German Mr Leather on Easter Sunday. Each year thousands of Leather-, Rubber-, Sportswear-, Skin- and Uniformlovers from all over the World comes together to join all the different kinds of Fetish Events in Berlin; the centre of this Fetish Event is at Nollendorfplatz, the classical Gay Area in the Western part of Berlin. BLF (Berlin Leather & Fetish Folsom Europe Lesbian and Gay City Festival Berlin Pride Kreuzberg Pride
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Pride parades are outdoor events celebrating lesbian, bisexual and queer social and self acceptance, legal rights and pride. The events at times serve as demonstrations for legal rights such as same-sex marriage. Most pride events occur annually, many take place around June to commemorate the 1969 Stonewall riots in New York City, a pivotal moment in modern LGBTQ social movements. At the beginning of the gay rights protest movement, news on Cuban prison work camps for homosexuals inspired the Mattachine Society to organize protests at the United Nations and the White House, in 1965. Early on the morning of Saturday June 28, 1969, gay and transgender persons rioted following a police raid on the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City; the Stonewall Inn was a gay bar which catered to an assortment of patrons, but, popular with the most marginalized people in the gay community: transvestites, transgender people, effeminate young men and homeless youth. On Saturday, June 27, 1970, Chicago Gay Liberation organized a march from Washington Square Park to the Water Tower at the intersection of Michigan and Chicago avenues, the route planned, many of the participants spontaneously marched on to the Civic Center Plaza.
The date was chosen because the Stonewall events began on the last Saturday of June and because organizers wanted to reach the maximum number of Michigan Avenue shoppers. Subsequent Chicago parades have been held on the last Sunday of June, coinciding with the date of many similar parades elsewhere; the West Coast of the United States saw a march in Los Angeles on June 28, 1970 and a march and'Gay-in' in San Francisco. In Los Angeles, Morris Kight, Reverend Troy Perry and Reverend Bob Humphries gathered to plan a commemoration, they settled on a parade down Hollywood Boulevard. But securing a permit from the city was no easy task, they named their organization Christopher Street West, "as ambiguous as we could be." But Rev. Perry recalled the Los Angeles Police Chief Edward M. Davis telling him, “As far as I’m concerned, granting a permit to a group of homosexuals to parade down Hollywood Boulevard would be the same as giving a permit to a group of thieves and robbers.” Grudgingly, the Police Commission granted the permit.
After the American Civil Liberties Union stepped in, the commission dropped all its requirements but a $1,500 fee for police service. That, was dismissed when the California Superior Court ordered the police to provide protection as they would for any other group; the eleventh hour California Supreme Court decision ordered the police commissioner to issue a parade permit citing the “constitutional guarantee of freedom of expression.” From the beginning, L. A. parade organizers and participants knew. Kight received death threats right up to the morning of the parade. Unlike what we see today, the first gay parade was quiet; the marchers convened on McCadden Place in Hollywood, marched north and turned east onto Hollywood Boulevard. The Advocate reported "Over 1,000 homosexuals and their friends staged, not just a protest march, but a full blown parade down world-famous Hollywood Boulevard."On Sunday, June 28, 1970, at around noon, in New York gay activist groups held their own pride parade, known as the Christopher Street Liberation Day, to recall the events of Stonewall one year earlier.
On November 2, 1969, Craig Rodwell, his partner Fred Sargeant, Ellen Broidy, Linda Rhodes proposed the first gay pride parade to be held in New York City by way of a resolution at the Eastern Regional Conference of Homophile Organizations meeting in Philadelphia. That the Annual Reminder, in order to be more relevant, reach a greater number of people, encompass the ideas and ideals of the larger struggle in which we are engaged-that of our fundamental human rights-be moved both in time and location. We propose that a demonstration be held annually on the last Saturday in June in New York City to commemorate the 1969 spontaneous demonstrations on Christopher Street and this demonstration be called CHRISTOPHER STREET LIBERATION DAY. No dress or age regulations shall be made for this demonstration. We propose that we contact Homophile organizations throughout the country and suggest that they hold parallel demonstrations on that day. We propose a nationwide show of support. All attendees to the ERCHO meeting in Philadelphia voted for the march except for the Mattachine Society of New York City, which abstained.
Members of the Gay Liberation Front attended the meeting and were seated as guests of Rodwell's group, Homophile Youth Movement in Neighborhoods. Meetings to organize the march began in early January at Rodwell's apartment in 350 Bleecker Street. At first there was difficulty getting some of the major New York organizations like Gay Activists Alliance to send representatives. Craig Rodwell and his partner Fred Sargeant, Ellen Broidy, Michael Brown, Marty Nixon, Foster Gunnison of Mattachine made up the core group of the CSLD Umbrella Committee. For initial funding, Gunnison served as treasurer and sought donations from the national homophile organizations and sponsors, while Sargeant solicited donations via the Oscar Wilde Memorial Bookshop customer mailing list and Nixon worked to gain financial support from GLF in his position as treasurer for that organization. Other mainstays of the GLF organizing committee were Judy Miller, Jack Waluska, Steve