American Law Institute
The American Law Institute was established in 1923 to promote the clarification and simplification of United States common law and its adaptation to changing social needs. Members of ALI include law professors, attorneys and other professionals in the legal industry. ALI writes documents known as "treatises", which are summaries of state common law Many courts and legislatures look to ALI's treatises as authoritative reference material concerning many legal issues. However, some legal experts and the late Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia have voiced concern about ALI rewriting the law as they want it to be instead of as it is; the ALI drafts and publishes Restatements of the Law, Principles of the Law, model codes, other proposals for law reform. The ALI is headquartered in Pennsylvania. At any time, ALI is engaged in up to 20 projects examining the law; some current projects have been watched by the media the revision of the Model Penal Code Sexual Assault provisions. The American Law Institute was founded in 1923 on the initiative of William Draper Lewis, Dean of the University of Pennsylvania Law School, following a study by a group of prominent American judges and teachers who sought to address the uncertain and complex nature of early 20th century American law.
According to the "Committee on the Establishment of a Permanent Organization for the Improvement of the Law," part of the law's uncertainty stemmed from the lack of agreement on fundamental principles of the common-law system, while the law's complexity was attributed to the numerous variations within different jurisdictions. The Committee recommended that a perpetual society be formed to improve the law and the administration of justice in a scholarly and scientific manner; the organization was incorporated on February 23, 1923, at a meeting called by the Committee in the auditorium of Memorial Continental Hall in Washington, D. C. According to ALI's Certificate of Incorporation, its purpose is "to promote the clarification and simplification of the law and its better adaptation to social needs, to secure the better administration of justice, to encourage and carry on scholarly and scientific legal work". Membership in the American Law Institute is limited to 3,000 elected members who are judges and legal scholars from a wide range of practice areas, from all areas of the United States and from many foreign countries.
The total membership of more than 4,200 includes ex officio members and life members who, after 25 years as an elected member, are no longer required to pay dues. New members must be proposed by an existing member, who writes a letter of recommendation, seconded by two others. Proposals are evaluated by a Membership Committee that selects members based on several factors, including professional achievement, personal character, demonstrated interest in improving the law. ALI members support the work of the Institute, including attending Annual Meetings and other project conferences, joining Members Consultative Groups for Institute projects, submitting comments on project drafts. Members are asked to write and vote on the basis of their own personal and professional convictions, without regard to client interests, so as to maintain ALI's respected reputation for thoughtful and impartial analysis; the Institute is governed by its Council, a volunteer board of directors that oversees the management of ALI's business and projects.
Having no fewer than 42 and no more than 65 members, the Council consists of lawyers and academics, reflects a broad range of specialties and experiences. George W. Wickersham George Wharton Pepper Harrison Tweed Norris Darrell R. Ammi Cutter Roswell B. Perkins Charles Alan Wright Michael Traynor Roberta Cooper Ramo David F. Levi William Draper Lewis Herbert Funk Goodrich Herbert Wechsler Geoffrey C. Hazard, Jr. Lance Liebman Richard Revesz Restatements are codifications of case law, common law judge-made doctrines that develop over time because of the principle of stare decisis. Although Restatements are not binding authority in and of themselves, they are persuasive because they are formulated over several years with extensive input from law professors, practicing attorneys, judges, they are meant to reflect the consensus of the American legal community as to. All told, the Restatement of the Law is one of the most respected and well-used sources of secondary authority, covering nearly every area of common law.
Restatements are addressed to courts and aim at clear formulations of common law and its statutory elements, reflect the law as it presently stands or might appropriately be stated by a court. Although Restatements aspire toward the precision of statutory language, they are intended to reflect the flexibility and capacity for development and growth of the common law; that is why they are phrased in the descriptive terms of a judge announcing the law to be applied in a given case rather than in the mandatory terms of a statute. ALI completed the Fourth Restatement of U. S. Foreign Relations Law and the Principles of Election Administration. Beginning with the Principles of Corporate Governance, the American Law Institute has more undertaken intensive studies of areas of law thought to need reform; this type of analysis results in a publication that recommends changes in the law. Principles of the Law issued so far include volumes on Aggrega
Washington and Lee University
Washington and Lee University is a private liberal arts university in Lexington, Virginia. Established in 1749, the university is a colonial-era college and the ninth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. Washington and Lee's 325-acre campus sits at the edge of Lexington and abuts the campus of the Virginia Military Institute in the Shenandoah Valley region between the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Allegheny Mountains; the campus is 50 miles northeast from Roanoke, 140 miles west from the state capital of Richmond, 180 miles inland southwest from the national capital at Washington, D. C. Washington and Lee was founded as a small classical school named Augusta Academy by Scots-Irish Presbyterian pioneers, though the University has never claimed any sectarian affiliation. In 1796, shortly before the end of his second term as American President, George Washington endowed the struggling academy with a gift of stock, one of the largest gifts to an educational institution at that time.
In gratitude, the school was renamed for the commander of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War, president at the Federal Constitutional Convention meeting in Philadelphia, framer of the American Constitution, the first President of the United States. In 1865, shortly after his April 9 surrender to Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, commander of the Union Armies, former Confederate States Army General-in-Chief Robert E. Lee was called and served as president of the college for five years until his death in 1870, when the college was thereafter renamed the "Washington and Lee University". One of the oldest institutions of higher education in the American South, W&L is the second-oldest in the Commonwealth of Virginia; the University consists of three academic units: The College itself. The University hosts 24 intercollegiate varsity athletic teams which compete as part of the Old Dominion Athletic Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the classical school from which Washington and Lee descended was established in 1749 by Scots-Irish Presbyterian pioneers and soon named Augusta Academy, about 20 miles north of its present location.
In 1776, it was renamed Liberty Hall in a burst of revolutionary fervor. The academy moved to Lexington in 1780, when it was chartered as Liberty Hall Academy, built its first facility near town in 1782; the academy granted its first bachelor's degree in 1785. Liberty Hall is said to have admitted its first African-American student when John Chavis, a free black, enrolled in 1795. Chavis accomplished much in his life including fighting in the American Revolution, studying at both Liberty Hall and the College of New Jersey, becoming an ordained Presbyterian minister, opening a school that instructed white and poor black students in North Carolina, he is believed to be the first black student to enroll in higher education in the United States, although he did not receive a degree. Washington and Lee enrolled its next African-American student in 1966 in the law school. In 1796, George Washington endowed the academy with $20,000 in James River Canal stock, at the time one of the largest gifts given to an educational institution in the United States.
Washington's gift continues to provide nearly $1.87 a year toward every student's tuition. The gift rescued Liberty Hall from near-certain insolvency. In gratitude, the trustees changed the school's name to Washington Academy. An 8-foot tall statue of George Washington, carved by Matthew Kahle and known as Old George, was placed atop Washington Hall on the historic Colonnade in 1844 in memory of Washington's gift; the current statue is made of bronze. The campus took its current architectural form in the 1820s when a local merchant, "Jockey" John Robinson, an uneducated Irish immigrant, donated funds to build a central building. For the dedication celebration in 1824, Robinson supplied a huge barrel of whiskey, which he intended for the dignitaries in attendance, but according to a contemporary history, the rabble broke through the barriers and created pandemonium, which ended only when college officials demolished the whiskey barrel with an axe. A justice of the Virginia State Supreme Court, Alex.
M. Harman, Jr. re-created the episode in 1976 for the dedication of the new law school building by having several barrels of Scotch imported. Robinson left his estate to Washington College; the estate included between 70 and 80 slaves. Until 1852, the institution benefited from their enslaved labor and, in some cases, from their sale. In 2014, Washington and Lee University joined such colleges as Harvard University, Brown University, the University of Virginia, The College of William & Mary in researching and publicly regretting their participation in the institution of slavery. During the Civil War, the students of Washington College raised the Confederate flag in support of Virginia's secession; the students formed the Liberty Hall Volunteers, as part of the Stonewall Brigade under General Stonewall Jackson and marched from Lexington. In the war, during Hunter's Raid, Union Captain Henry A. du Pont refused to destroy the Colonnade due to its support of the statue of George Washington, Old George.
After the Civil War, General Robert E. Lee turned down several financially tantalizing offers of
The Anti-Defamation League is an international Jewish non-governmental organization based in the United States. The ADL states that its mission is to " anti-Semitism and all forms of bigotry, democratic ideals, civil rights for all", doing so through "information, education and advocacy". Founded in late September 1913 by the Independent Order of B'nai B'rith, a Jewish service organization in the United States, its original mission statement was "to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people." The ADL has stated that its primary purpose is "to secure justice and fair treatment to all citizens alike, to put an end forever to unjust and unfair discrimination against and ridicule of any sect or body of citizens." The ADL has 29 offices in the United States and three offices in other countries, with its headquarters located in New York City. Abraham Foxman was the national director from 1987 for more than a quarter century.
In November 2014, it was announced that Jonathan Greenblatt would succeed Foxman as national director in July 2015. The national chair is Barry Curtiss-Lusher; the ADL has faced criticism for its support for Israel, charges of defamation, spying allegations, its former stance on the Armenian Genocide, possible conflation of opposition to Israel with antisemitism. Founded in late September 1913 by B'nai B'rith, with Sigmund Livingston as its first leader, the ADL's charter states, The immediate object of the League is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people, its ultimate purpose is to secure justice and fair treatment to all citizens alike and to put an end forever to unjust and unfair discrimination against and ridicule of any sect or body of citizens. The Anti-Defamation League was founded by B'nai B'rith as a response to attacks on Jews; the stated purpose of the ADL is to fight: anti-Semitism and all forms of bigotry and abroad, combat international terrorism, probe the roots of hatred, advocate before the United States Congress, come to the aid of victims of bigotry, develop educational programs, serve as a public resource for government, law enforcement, the public, all towards the goal of countering and reducing hatred.
The ADL has opposed groups and individuals it considered to be anti-Semitic and/or racist, including: Nazis, the Ku Klux Klan, Henry Ford, Father Charles Coughlin, the Christian Identity movement, the German-American Bund, neo-Nazis, the American militia movement and white power skinheads. The ADL publishes reports on a variety of countries, regarding alleged incidents of anti-Jewish attacks and propaganda; the ADL maintains that some forms of anti-Zionism and criticism of Israel cross the line into anti-Semitism. The Anti-Defamation League states: Criticism of particular Israeli actions or policies in and of itself does not constitute anti-Semitism; the sovereign State of Israel can be legitimately criticized just like any other country in the world. However, it is undeniable that there are those whose criticism of Israel or of "Zionism" is used to mask anti-Semitism. Since 2010, the ADL has published a list of the "ten leading organizations responsible for maligning Israel in the US", which has included ANSWER, the International Solidarity Movement, Jewish Voice for Peace for its call for BDS.
One of the ADL's major focuses is religious freedom for people of all faiths. In the context of public schools, the ADL has taken the position that because creationism and intelligent design are religious beliefs, the government is prohibited from endorsing the beliefs of any particular religion, they should not be taught in science classrooms: "The U. S. Constitution guarantees the rights of Americans to believe the religious theories of creation, but it does not permit them to be taught in public school science classes." The ADL supports the legal precedent that it is unconstitutional for the government to post the Ten Commandments in courthouses and other public places: "True religious liberty means freedom from having the government impose the religion of the majority on all citizens." The ADL has condemned the public school Bible curriculum published by the National Council on Bible Curriculum in Public Schools, saying that it raises "serious constitutional problems" and "advocates the acceptance of one faith tradition's interpretation of the Bible over another".
The ADL supported the Matthew Shepard Act. The ADL keeps track of the activities of various extremist movements. According to ADL Director Abe Foxman, "Our mission is to monitor and expose those who are anti-Jewish, anti-democratic, violence-prone, we monitor them by reading publications and attending public meetings …; because extremist organizations are secretive, sometimes ADL can learn of their activities only by using undercover sources … function in a manner directly analogous to investigative journalists. Some have performed great service to the American people—for example, by uncovering the existence of right-wing extremist paramilitary training camps—with no recognition and at considerable personal risk." A person apprehended in connection to the 2002 white supremacist terror plot had drawn a cartoon of himself blowing up the Boston offices of the ADL. The ADL releases reports on anti-Semitism and extremist act
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti