Middle Irish is the Goidelic language, spoken in Ireland, most of Scotland and the Isle of Man from circa 900–1200 AD. The modern Goidelic languages—Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx—are all descendants of Middle Irish; the Lebor Bretnach, the "Irish Nennius", survives only from manuscripts preserved in Ireland. Middle Irish is a VSO, nominative-accusative language. Nouns decline for two genders: masculine, though traces of neuter declension persist. Adjectives agree with nouns in gender and case. Verbs conjugate for three tenses: past, future. Verbs conjugate for an impersonal, agentless form. There are a number of preverbal particles marking the negative, subjunctive, relative clauses, etc. Prepositions inflect for number. Different prepositions govern different cases, depending on intended semantics; the following is a poem in Middle Irish about King of Connacht. Dún Eogain Bél forsind loch forsrala ilar tréntroch, ní mair Eogan forsind múr ocus maraid in sendún. Maraid inad a thige irraibe' na chrólige, ní mair in rígan re cair nobíd.
Cairptech in rí robúi and, innsaigthech oirgnech Érenn, ní dechaid coll cána ar goil, rocroch tríchait im óenboin. Roloisc Life co ba shecht, rooirg Mumain tríchait fecht, nír dál do Leith Núadat nair co nár dámair immarbáig. Doluid fecht im-Mumain móir do chuinchid argait is óir, d’iaraid sét ocus móine do gabail gíall dagdóine. Trían a shlúaig dar Lúachair síar co Cnoc mBrénainn isin slíab, a trían aile úad fo dess co Carn Húi Néit na n-éces. Sé fodéin oc Druimm Abrat co trían a shlúaig, nísdermat, oc loscud Muman maisse, ba subach don degaisse. Atchím a chomarba ind ríg a mét dorigne d’anfhír, nenaid ocus tromm ’malle, conid é fonn a dúine. Dún Eogain. MacManus, Damian. "A chronology of the Latin loan words in early Irish". Ériu. 34: 21–71. McCone, Kim. "The dative singular of Old Irish consonant stems". Ériu. 29: 26–38. McCone, Kim. "Final /t/ to /d/ after unstressed vowels, an Old Irish sound law". Ériu. 31: 29–44. McCone, Kim. "Prehistoric and Middle Irish". Progress in medieval Irish studies. Pp. 7–53.
McCone, Kim. A First Old Irish Reader, Including an Introduction to Middle Irish. Maynooth Medieval Irish Texts 3. Maynooth. Dictionary of the Irish Language
Kenneth II of Scotland
Cináed mac Maíl Coluim was King of Scots. The son of Malcolm I, he succeeded King Cuilén on the latter's death at the hands of Rhydderch ap Dyfnwal in 971; the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba was compiled in Kenneth's reign, but many of the place names mentioned are corrupt, if not fictitious. Whatever the reality, the Chronicle states that "e plundered in part. Kenneth's infantry were slain with great slaughter in Moin Uacoruar." The Chronicle further states that Kenneth plundered Northumbria three times, first as far as Stainmore to Cluiam and lastly to the River Dee by Chester. These raids may belong to around 980. In 973, the Chronicle of Melrose reports that Kenneth, with Máel Coluim I, the King of Strathclyde, "Maccus, king of many islands" and other kings and Norse, came to Chester to acknowledge the overlordship of the English king Edgar the Peaceable at a council in Chester, it may be that Edgar here regulated the frontier between the southern lands of the kingdom of Alba and the northern lands of his English kingdom.
Cumbria was English, the western frontier lay on the Solway. In the east, the frontier lay somewhere in Lothian, south of Edinburgh; the Annals of Tigernach, in an aside, name three of the Mormaers of Alba in Kenneth's reign in entry in 976: Cellach mac Fíndgaine, Cellach mac Baireda and Donnchad mac Morgaínd. The third of these, if not an error for Domnall mac Morgaínd, is likely a brother of Domnall, thus the Mormaer of Moray; the Mormaerdoms or kingdoms ruled by the two Cellachs cannot be identified. The feud which had persisted since the death of King Indulf between his descendants and Kenneth's family persisted. In 977 the Annals of Ulster report that "Amlaíb mac Iduilb, King of Scotland, was killed by Cináed mac Domnaill." The Annals of Tigernach give the correct name of Amlaíb's killer: Cináed mac Maíl Coluim, or Kenneth II. Thus if only for a short time, Kenneth had been overthrown by the brother of the previous king. Adam of Bremen tells that Sweyn Forkbeard found exile in Scotland at this time, but whether this was with Kenneth, or one of the other kings in Scotland, is unknown.
At this time, Njal's Saga, the Orkneyinga Saga and other sources recount wars between "the Scots" and the Northmen, but these are more wars between Sigurd Hlodvisson, Earl of Orkney, the Mormaers, or Kings, of Moray. The Chronicle says. Kenneth was killed in 995, the Annals of Ulster say "by deceit" and the Annals of Tigernach say "by his subjects"; some sources, such as the Chronicle of Melrose, John of Fordun and Andrew of Wyntoun provide more details or not. The simplest account is that he was killed by his own men in Fettercairn, through the treachery of Finnguala, daughter of Cuncar, Mormaer of Angus, in revenge for the killing of her only son; the Prophecy of Berchán adds little to our knowledge, except that it names Kenneth "the kinslayer", states he died in Strathmore. Kenneth's son Malcolm II was king of Alba. Kenneth may have had a second son, named either Gille Coemgáin. Sources differ as to whether Boite mac Cináeda should be counted a son of Kenneth II or of Kenneth III. Another son of Kenneth may have been Suibne mac Cináeda, a king of the Gall Gaidheil who died in 1034.
Kenneth's rival Amlaíb, King of Scotland is omitted by the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba and Scottish king-lists. The Irish Annals of Tigernach appear to better reflect contemporary events. Amlaíb could be a direct predecessor of Kenneth who suffered damnatio memoriae, or the rival king recognized in parts of Scotland. A period of divided kingship appears likely. Amlaíb was the heir of his brother Cuilén, killed in a hall-burning, he might have served during the absence of his brother. Kenneth was brother to the deceased Dub, King of Scotland and was most an exile, he could claim the throne due to the support of friends and maternal kin. He was older and more experienced than his rival king. Amlaíb is the Gaelic form of Óláfr, he could claim descent from the Uí Ímair dynasty. Alex Woolf suggests he was a grandson of Amlaíb Cuarán, King of Dublin or his cousin Olaf Guthfrithson, which suggests his own group of supporters. According to John of Fordun, Kenneth II of Scotland attempted to change the succession rules, allowing "the nearest survivor in blood to the deceased king to succeed", thus securing the throne for his own descendants.
He did so to exclude Constantine and Kenneth, called Gryme in this source. The two men jointly conspired against him, convincing Lady Finella, daughter of Cuncar, Mormaer of Angus, to kill the king, she did so to achieve personal revenge, as Kenneth II had killed her own son. Entries in the Chronicles of the Picts and Scots, collected by William Forbes Skene, provide the account of Finnela killing Kenneth II in revenge, but not her affiliation to Constantine or his cousins; these entries date to the 13th centuries. The Annals of Ulster record "Cinaed son of Mael Coluim, king of Scotland, was deceitfully killed", with no indication of who killed him. In the account of John of Fordun, Const
The Duan Albanach is a Middle Gaelic poem found with the Lebor Bretnach, a Gaelic version of the Historia Brittonum of Nennius, with extensive additional material. Written during the reign of Mael Coluim III, it is found in a variety of Irish sources, the usual version comes from the Book of Lecan and Book of Ui Maine, it follows on from the Duan Eireannach. It is a praise poem of 27 stanzas sung at court to a musical accompaniment by the harp. If performed in a public context, it is possible that the audience would have participated in the performance; the Duan recounts the kings of the Scots. The poem begins with the following stanzas. In the final stanzas it is seen that the poem dates from the time of Malcolm III, in the second half of the 11th century; the Prophecy of Berchán Pictish Chronicle Chronicle of the Kings of Alba Senchus fer n-Alban Flann Mainistreach Duan Albanach - English Trans. by William F. Skene Duan Albanach at CELT
"Alba" is the Scottish Gaelic name for Scotland. It is cognate with the Irish term Alba and the Manx term Nalbin, the two other Goidelic Insular Celtic languages, as well as contemporary words used in Cornish and Welsh, both of which are Brythonic Insular Celtic languages. In the past these terms were names for Great Britain as a whole, related to the Brythonic name Albion; the term first appears in classical texts as Ἀλβίων Albíon or Ἀλουΐων Alouíon, as Albion in Latin documents. The term refers to Britain as a whole and is based on the Indo-European root for "white", it came to be used by Gaelic speakers in the form of Alba as the name given to the former kingdom of the Picts which when first used in this sense had expanded. The region Breadalbane takes its name from it as well; the Pictish, Scottish, Kings were crowned at the seat on Moot Hill Scone. It was this stone, taken to Westminster Abbey and used in Coronations for the monarchs of the United Kingdom; as time passed that kingdom incorporated others to the southern territories.
It became re-Latinized in the High Medieval period as "Albania". This latter word was employed by Celto-Latin writers, most famously by Geoffrey of Monmouth, it was this word which passed into Middle English as Albany, although rarely was this used for the Kingdom of Scotland, but rather for the notional Duchy of Albany. It is from the latter that Albany, the capital of the US state of New York, Albany, Western Australia take their names, it appears in the anglicised literary form of Albyn, as in Byron's Childe Harold: And wild and high the'Cameron's gathering' rose, The war-note of Lochiel, which Albyn's hills Have heard, heard, have her Saxon foes Belgian Michel Roger Lafosse, who claims the Scottish throne, has styled himself as "HRH Prince Michael James Alexander Stewart, 7th Count of Albany" since 1978. BBC Alba, a television channel broadcasting in Scottish Gaelic, was launched in September 2008 as a joint venture between MG Alba and the BBC. A new version of Runrig's song Alba was featured on the channel's launch.
In the mid-1990s, the Celtic League started a campaign to have the word "Alba" on the Scottish football and rugby tops. Since 2005, the SFA have supported the use of Scottish Gaelic by adding Alba on the back of the official team strip. However, the SRU is still being lobbied to have Alba added to the national rugby union strip. In 2007, the Scottish Executive re-branded itself as "The Scottish Government" and started to use a bilingual logo with the Gaelic name Riaghaltas na h-Alba. However, the Gaelic version from the outset had always been Riaghaltas na h-Alba; the Scottish Parliament uses the Gaelic name Pàrlamaid na h-Alba. A new welcome sign on the historic A7 route into Scotland was erected in 2009, with the text Fàilte gu Alba. Phrases such as Alba gu bràth may be used as a rallying cry, it was used in the movie Braveheart as William Wallace encouraged the troops at the Battle of Stirling Bridge. Albanactus Caledonia Kingdom of Alba Scotia
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Francization or Francisation, Frenchification, or Gallicization designates the extension of the French language by its adoption as a first language or not, adoption that can be forced upon or desired by the concerned population. The number of Francophones in the world has been rising since the 1980s. In 1985, there were 106 million Francophones around the world; that number rose to 173.2 million in 1997, 200 million in 2005, 220 million in 2010. and reached 274 million in 2014, Forecasts expect that the number of French speakers in Africa alone will reach 400 million in 2025, 715 million by 2050 and reach 1 billion and 222 million in 2060. The worldwide French speaking population is expected to multiply by a factor of 4, whereas the world population is predicted to multiply by a factor of only 1.5. According to the OIF, the figure of 220 million Francophones is "sous-évalué" or under-evaluated because it only counts people that can write and speak French fluently, thus excluding a large part of the countdown of the African population that does not know how to write.
French is the language in which the relative share of speakers is the world's fastest growing. The French Conseil économique, social et environnemental estimate that if the population that does not know how to write would be included as francophones the total number of French speakers passed the 500 million in the year 2000. In 2014, a study from the French Bank, Natixis Bank, claims that French will become the world's most spoken language by 2050; however critics of the study state that French coexists with other languages in many countries and that the estimations of the study are overstated. Out of 53 countries, Africa has 32 more than half. However, the most populous country on the continent, is predominantly English speaking; the Francophone zone of Africa is two times the size of the United States of America French was introduced in Africa by France and Belgium during the colonial period. The process of francization continued after the colonial period, so that English-speaking countries like Ghana or Nigeria feel strong French influences from their French-speaking neighbors.
French became the most spoken language in Africa after Arabic and Swahili in 2010. The number of speakers changed rapidly between 1992 and 2002, with the number of learners of French in sub-Saharan and southeastern Africa increasing by 60.37%, from 22,33 million to 34,56 million people. A similar trend in the Maghreb region is occurring. However, the figures provided by the OIF for the Maghreb region were combined with those of the Middle East; the exact count for the Maghreb countries alone is not possible, but an increase was observed from 10.47 million to 18 million people learning French between 1992 and 2002 where French is not an official language. Consideration should be given to the number of French speakers in each country to get an idea of the importance the French language holds in Africa. List of counties with French as a non official language that have decided to join the OIF in view of frenchifying their countries: Cape Verde Egypt Ghana Guinea Bissau Mozambique São Tomé and Príncipe The French language plays an important role in Africa, serving more and more as a common language or mother tongue.
The African Academy of Languages was established in 2001 to manage the linguistic heritage. Francophone African countries counted 370 million inhabitants in 2014; this number is expected to reach between 700 and 750 million by 2050. There are more francophones in Africa than in Europe. Vietnam and Laos were once part of French Indochina, part of the French Empire. French influence, including buildings and cuisine have been influenced from this, but they are still distinct in their own cultures. Great Britain, therefore the English language, was francized during the Middle Ages; this was a result of the conquest of England by William the Conqueror from Normandy in 1066, a king who spoke French and imposed the French language in England. Old English became the language of the poor population and French the language of the court and wealthy population, it is said. Today, it is estimated that 70 % to 72 % of the English language comes from Latin, it is easy to observe this tendency in the cooking world.
The names of living farm animals have Anglo-Saxon roots. However, the names of cooked animals, once served to the wealthier, have Old French origins: Pig – Pork from the Old French porc Cow – Beef from the Old French bœuf Chicken – Poultry from the Old French pouletrie or pouleThere is an incomplete list of French expressions used in English, containing however only pure French expressions: List of French expressions in English Francization is a designation applied to a number of ethnic assimilation policies implemented by French authorities from the French Revolution to present; these policies aimed to impose or to maintain the dominance of French language and culture by encouraging or compelling people of