Chronology of Tamil history

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The following is a chronological overview of the history of the Tamil people, who trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union territory of Puducherry, or the Northern, Eastern Province and Puttalam District[1] of Sri Lanka.[2]

Pre-historic period[edit]

Period Events
c. 150,000-100,000 BCE Evidence for presence of Hominins with Acheulean technology in north Tamil Nadu.[3]
c. 30,000 BCE Paleolithic industries in north Tamil Nadu[4]
c. 8000-3000 BCE Pre-pottery microlithic industries[5]
c. 3000-1000 BCE Neolithic and fine microlithic industries[6]

Pre-Sangam period[edit]

Period Events
c. 1000-300 BCE Megalithic age[7]
c. 600 BCE Tamil-Brahmi prevalent as the Tamil script [8]
c. 300 BCE Greek ethnographer Megasthenes describes Pandyan capital Madurai.,[9][10]
c. 250 BCE Asoka's inscription recording the four kingdoms (Chera, Cholas, Pandya and Satyaputra) of the ancient Tamil country
c. 200 BCE Elara, a Tamil prince and contemporary of Dutte Gamini, rules Lanka

Sangam age[edit]

Period Events
c. 200 BCE-200 CE Sangam age during which books of Sangam Literature are created [11]
c. 150 BCE Kharavela of Kalinga records his conquest of a federation of Tamil kings in his Hathigumpha inscription [12]
c. 13 Greek historian Nicolaus of Damascus met an ambassador sent by Pandyan King to Caesar Augustus, Strabo XV.1-73.[13]
c. 1-100 The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea gives a detailed description of early Chera and Pandya kingdom and mentions a part of the Tamil country as Lymirike (misread as "Damirica" by some modern scholars).[14]
c. 77 and 140 Greco-Roman writers Pliny the Elder and Ptolemy mention Madurai ruled by Pandyan.
c. 130 Chera king Udayanjeral rules in the Chera country
c. 175-195 Gajabahu I of Lanka a contemporary of Chera Senguttuvan and Karikala Chola (the Gajabahu synchronism)
c. 190 Chera Kadukko Ilanjeral Irumporai rules in the Chera country [15]
c. 200 Writing becomes widespread and vattezuttu evolved from the Tamil Brahmi becomes a mature script for writing Tamil [16]
c. 210 Pandya Neduncheliyan rules in Madurai and defeats his enemies at the battle of Talaiyalanganam

Post-Sangam period[edit]

Period Events
c. 300-590 Kalabhras invade the Tamil country and displace the traditional rulers
c. 300-500 Post-Sangam period, Tamil epics such as Silappatikaram written

Pallava and Pandya[edit]

Period Events
c. 560-580 Pallava Simhavishnu overthrows the Kalabhras in Tondaimandalam
c. 560-590 Pandya Kadungon rules from Madurai and displaces the Kalabhras from the south
c. 590-630 Pallava Mahendravarman I rules in Kanchipuram
c. 610 Saiva saint Thirunavukkarasar (Appar) converts Mahendravarman from Jainism
c. 628 Chalukya Pulakesi II invades the Pallava kingdom and lays siege on Kanchipuram
c. 630-668 Pallava Narasimhavarman I (Mamalla) rules in Tondaimandalam
c. 642 Pallava Narasimhavarman I launches a counter invasion into the Chalukya country and sacks Vatapi. Pulakesi is killed in battle
c. 670-700 CE-Pandya Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman rules in Madurai
c. 700-728 Pallava Rajasimha builds the Kailasanatha temple in Kanchipuram and many of the shore temples in Mamallapuram
c. 710-730 Pandya king Kochadaiyan Ranadhiran expands the Pandya kingdom into the Kongu country
c. 731 Pandya Maravarman Rajasimha aligns with the Chalukya Vikramaditya II and attacks the Pallava king Nandivarmam
c. 731-765 Pandya Maravarman Rajasimha aligns with the Chalukya Vikramaditya II and attacks the Pallava king Nandivarmam
c. 735 Chaluka Vikramaditya II invades the Pallava country and occupies the capital Kanchipuram
c. 760 Pallava Nandivarman II invades and defeats the Ganga kingdom at the battle of Villande
c. 768-815 Pandya Parantaka Nedunchadaiyan (Varaguna Pandyan) rules in Madurai[17]
c. 767 Pandya forces defeat the Pallavas on the south banks of the Kaveri
c. 800-830 Varagunan I becomes Pandya king and extends his empire up to Tiruchirapalli by defeating the Pallava king Dandivarman
c. 830-862 Pandya Sirmara Srivallabha rules in Madurai
c. 840 Srimara invades Lanka and captures the northern provinces of the Lanka king Sena I[18]
c. 848 Rise of Vijayalaya Chola in Tanjavur after defeating the Muttaraiyar[19]Muthuraja rulers of kaveri delta
c. 846-869 Pallava Nadivarman III leads an invasion against the Pandya kingdom and defeats the Pandyas
at the battle of Tellaru. Pallava kingdom extends up to the river Vaigai
c. 859 Pandya Srivallaba defeats the Pallavas at a battle at Kumbakonam
c. 862 Sinhala forces under Sena II invade the Pandya country and sack Madurai. Srimara is killed in battle

Chola period[edit]

Period Events
c. 903 Chola defeats the Pallava king Adithya Aparajita [20]
c. 949 Battle of Takkolam. Rashtrakuta Krishna III defeats the Chola army [20]
c. 985 Accession of Rajaraja Chola I [20]
c. 1010 Rajaraja completes the Brihadisvara Temple
c. 1012 Accession of Rajendra Chola I [20]
c. 1023 Rajendra's Expedition to the Ganges [21]
c. 1025 Chola navies defeat the king of Srivijaya [22]
c. 1041 Rajendra invades Lanka [23]
c. 1054 Rajadhiraja Chola dies in the battle of Koppam against Western Chalukyas [22]
c. 1070 Accession of Kulothunga Chola I [22]
c. 1118 Vikrama Chola [22]
c. 1133 Kulothunga Chola II [22]
c. 1146 Rajaraja Chola II [22]
c. 1163 Rajadhiraja Chola II [22]
c. 1178 Kulothunga Chola III [22]
c. 1216 Rajaraja Chola III [22]
c. 1246 Rajendra Chola III [22]

Chola to Pandya transition[edit]

Period Events
c. 1190-1260 Bana Dynasty rule Magadaimandalam with family title of 'ponparappinan' and headquarters at Aragalur [22]
c. 1216 - 1238 Kadava Dynasty and Maravarman Sundara Pandyan ruled regions of South India[24]

Pandiya revival and Muslim rule[edit]

Period Events
1251 Accession of Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan I[25]
1279 End of the Chola dynasty with the death of Rajendra Chola III[22]
1268-1310 Kulasekara Pandiyan rules in Madurai[25]
1308 Malik Kafur a general of Allaudin Khilji invades Devagiri en route to Tamil Nadu[26]
1310 Sundara Pandian, son of Kulasekara Pandiyan, kills his father and becomes king. In the ensuing civil war he is defeated by his brother Vira Pandiyan.[27]
1311 Malik Kafur, invades Pandiya country and attacks Madurai[26]
1327-1370 Madurai under the rule of Madurai Sultanate[26]

Vijayanagar and Nayak period[edit]

Period Events
1370 Bukka, the Vijayanagara ruler and his son Kumara Kamapna capture the entire Tamil country
1518 Portuguese land on the Coromandel Coast in Pulicat[28]
1532 to 1580 Sevappa Nayak rules as the first independent Nayak ruler in Tanjavur
1600to 1645 Ragunatha Nayak, the greatest of the Tanjavur Nayaks
1609 the Dutch establish a settlement in Pulicat
1623 to 1659 Tirumalai Nayak rules in Madurai
1639 British East India Company purchases Chennapatinam and establishes Fort St. George
1652 Tanjavur and Gingee fall to the Bijapur Sultan
1656 Mysore army invades Salem against the Madurai Nayak Tirumalai
1676 Maratha army from Bijapur marches into Tanjavur, Ekoji declares himself king[29]
1692 Nawab of Arcot established by Nawab Zulfiqar Ali Khan, a viceroy of the Moghul Emperor
1746 La Bourdonnais of the French East India company attacks and takes Fort St. George

East India Company[edit]

Period Events
1749 British regain Fort St. George through the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle arising out of the War of the Austrian Succession
1751 Robert Clive attacks Arcot and captures it.[30]
1756 The British and the French sign the first Carnatic treaty. Mahommed Ali Walajah was recognized as Nawab of the Carnatic
1759 French under Thomas Arthur, Comte de Lally, attack Madras
1760 Battle of Vandavasi between the British and the French. Birth of Veerapandya Kattabomman
1767 Hyder Ali, Sultan of Mysore attacks Madras against British, but defeated by the British at the Battle of Chengam
1773 British Government passes the Regulating Act. The administration of Madras comes under British Government review
1777-1832 Serfoji II rules in Tanjavur
1799 Serfoji cedes the Tanjavur kingdom to the British. Kattabomman executed by British
1803 Bentinck appointed governor of Madras
1800-1805 Poligar Wars
1806 Vellore Mutiny East India Company's Indian soldiers in Vellore mutiny against governor Bentinck in Vellore fort. 114 British officers killed and 19 mutineers executed.

British rule[edit]

Period Events
1892 British government passes the Indian Councils Act
1909 'Minto-Morley Reforms'. Madras Legislative Council formed
1921 First regional elections held in Madras. Justice party forms government[31]
1927 Madras Congress passes a resolution for 'Full Independence'
1928 Simon Commission visits Madras. Mass protests result in several deaths
1937 Congress party under C. Rajagopalachari wins provincial elections and forms government in Madras
1938 Periyar E. V. Ramasamy organises a separatist agitation demanding Dravida Nadu consisting of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala
1941 Indian Muslim League holds its congress in Madras. Muhammad Ali Jinnah delivers keynote speech
1944 Periyar E. V. Ramasamy and C. N. Annadurai organise Dravidar Kazhagam

Post independence period[edit]

Period Events
1947 Madras Presidency, comprising Tamil Nadu and parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka established
1953 'Madras state comes into being along linguistic lines
1965 Widespread agitations in response to the Federal Government's directive of Hindi being the National Language
1969 Madras state is renamed as Tamil Nadu (Country of the Tamils)[32][33]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Manual of the Puttalam District of the North-Western Province of Ceylon (1908), Frank Modder, p.55.
  2. ^ Minahan, James (2012). Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-659-1. 
  3. ^ Pappu, Shanni; et al. "Early Pleistocene Presence of Acheulian Hominins in South India". Science Magazine. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  4. ^ "Excavations at the Palaeolithic Site of Attirampakkam, South India". Antiquity journal. September 2003. Retrieved 17 May 2013. 
  5. ^ "Evidence of pre-historic humans in Thanjavur". The Hindu. Thanjavur, India. 10 May 2009. 
  6. ^ "Bedrock on which Neolithic man sharpened stone tools found in T.N." The Hindu. India. 3 April 2013. 
  7. ^ "Kanchi district, gold mine of megalithic sites". IBN Live. Tamil Nadu, India. 14 March 2012. 
  8. ^ Coningham, R.A.E.; Allchin, F.R.; Batt, C.M. (1996). "Passage to India: Anuradhapura and the early use of Brahmi Script". Cambridge Archaeological Journal. 6:2: 73–97. doi:10.1017/s0959774300001608. 
  9. ^ Allan Dahlaquist. Megasthenes and Indian Religion
  10. ^ Keay, John (2000) [2001]. India: A history. India: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0.
  11. ^ Singh, Upinder (2009). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India 1st Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson. ISBN 8131716775. 
  12. ^ "Hathigumpha Inscription of Kharavela of Kalinga" (PDF). Project South Asia. South Dakota State University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  13. ^ Strabo XV.1
  14. ^ Lionel Casson (2012). The Periplus Maris Erythraei: Text with Introduction, Translation, and Commentary. Princeton University Press. pp. 213–214. ISBN 1-4008-4320-0. 
  15. ^ Zvelebil, Kamil Veith (1991). Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9004093656. 
  16. ^ Coningham (), Robin; et al. "Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka) Project, Phase I: ASW2". Arts and Humanities Research Council. Archived from the original on 7 March 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  17. ^ "Preserving the past". The Hindu. India. 3 February 2010. 
  18. ^ "Sinhala king and South Indian invasions". Daily News. Sri Lanka. 20 October 2009. 
  19. ^ "Chapter 1-4.pmd" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  20. ^ a b c d Kulke and Rothermund (2010). A History of India. Routledge. p. 115. ISBN 9780415485432. 
  21. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (1934). Ancient Indian Colonies In The Far East. Dacca: Asoke Humar Majumdar Ramna. p. 407. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (2005). A History of South India. New Age International Limited (P). p. 158. 
  23. ^ Meyer, Holger (1999). Umsatzsteuer - Binnenmarkt. Berlin: Boorberg. p. 73. ISBN 978-3415026131. 
  24. ^ Sethuraman, N (1980). Medieval Pandyas, A.D. 1000-1200. University of Michigan. 
  25. ^ a b Thinakaran, Alice Justina (15 May 2007). The Second Pandyan Empire, A.D. 1190-1312. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. p. 225. 
  26. ^ a b c Aiyangar, Sakkottai Krishnaswami (1921). South India and her Muhammadan Invaders. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 222–223. 
  27. ^ Aiyangar, Sakkottai Krishnaswami (1921). South India and her Muhammadan Invaders. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 97. 
  28. ^ "Portuguese on the Coromandel". The Hindu. India. 17 May 2004. 
  29. ^ "Historical Moments". Thanjavur Municipality, Tamil Nadu state Government. Retrieved 28 May 2013. 
  30. ^ "Excerpts from a Sergeant's Diary recounting Robert Clive's capture of Arcot, September-October 1751". Project South Asia. South Dakota State University, USA. Retrieved 11 July 2013. 
  31. ^ "A history of agitational politics". Frontline. India. 10 April 2004. 
  32. ^ http://www.assembly.tn.gov.in/archive/index.htm
  33. ^ http://www.assembly.tn.gov.in/archive/reviews/Review%204_67-70.pdf
  • Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. A History of South India, OUP, Reprinted 2000
  • Nilakanta Sastri, K.A., Srinivasachari, Advanced History of India, Allied Publishers Ltd, New Delhi, Reprinted 2000
  • Read, Anthony, The Proudest Day - India's Long Ride to Independence, Jonathan Cape, London, 1997

External links[edit]