Video game genre
A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of when it takes place; as with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, each individual game may belong to several genres at once; the first attempt to classify different genres of video games was made by Chris Crawford in his book The Art of Computer Game Design in 1984. In this book, Crawford focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time."
Since among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity. As hardware capabilities have increased, new genres have become possible, with examples being increased memory, the move from 2D to 3D, new peripherals and location. Though genres were just interesting for game studies in the 1980s, the business of video games expanded in the 1990s and both smaller and independent publishers had little chance of surviving; because of this, games settled more into set genres that larger publishers and retailers could use for marketing. Due to "direct and active participation" of the player, video game genres differ from literary and film genres. Though one could state that Space Invaders is a science-fiction video game, such a classification "ignores the differences and similarities which are to be found in the player's experience of the game." In contrast to the visual aesthetics of games, which can vary it is argued that it is interactivity characteristics that are common to all games.
Descriptive names of genres take into account the goals of the game, the protagonist and the perspective offered to the player. For example, a first-person shooter is a game, played from a first-person perspective and involves the practice of shooting; the term "subgenre" may be used to refer to a category within a genre to further specify the genre of the game under discussion. Whereas "shooter game" is a genre name, "first-person shooter" and "third-person shooter" are common subgenres of the shooter genre. Other examples of such prefixes are real-time, turn based, side-scrolling; the target audience, underlying theme or purpose of a game are sometimes used as a genre identifier, such as with "games for girls," games for cats,"Christian game" and "Serious game" respectively. However, because these terms do not indicate anything about the gameplay of a video game, these are not considered genres. Video game genres vary in specificity, with popular video game reviews using genre names varying from "action" to "baseball."
In this practice, basic themes and more fundamental characteristics are used alongside each other. A game may combine aspects of multiple genres in such a way that it becomes hard to classify under existing genres. For example, because Grand Theft Auto III combined shooting and roleplaying in an unusual way, it was hard to classify using existing terms. Since the term Grand Theft Auto clone has been used to describe games mechanically similar to Grand Theft Auto III; the term roguelike has been developed for games that share similarities with Rogue. Elements of the role-playing genre, which focuses on storytelling and character growth, have been implemented in many different genres of video games; this is because the addition of a story and character enhancement to an action, strategy or puzzle video game does not take away from its core gameplay, but adds an incentive other than survival to the experience. According to some analysts, the count of each broad genre in the best selling physical games worldwide is broken down as follows.
The most popular genres are Shooter, Role-playing and Sports, with Platformer and Racing having both declined in the last decade. Puzzle games have declined when measured by sales, however, on mobile, where the majority of games are free-to-play, this genre remains the most popular worldwide. List of video game genres
Video game music
Video game music is the soundtrack that accompanies video games. Early video game music was once limited to simple melodies of early sound synthesizer technology; these limitations inspired the style of music known as chiptunes, which combines simple melodic styles with more complex patterns or traditional music styles, became the most popular sound of the first video games. With advances in technology, video game music has grown to include the same breadth and complexity associated with television and film scores, allowing for much more creative freedom. While simple synthesizer pieces are still common, game music now includes full orchestral pieces and popular music. Music in video games can be heard over a game’s title screen, options menu, bonus content, as well as during the entire gameplay. Modern soundtracks can change depending on a player's actions or situation, such as indicating missed actions in rhythm games. Video game music can be one of two options: original or licensed. In order to create or collect this music, teams of composers, music directors, music supervisors must work with the game developers and game publishers.
Many of the most notable original sophie game composers have been from Japan, including Nobuo Uematsu, Koji Kondo, Yuzo Koshiro, Yoko Shimomura, Junichi Masuda, Hip Tanaka, Masato Nakamura, Koichi Sugiyama, Yasunori Mitsuda, Michiru Yamane, Yuu Miyake, Takenobu Mitsuyoshi, Manabu Namiki, Shinji Hosoe, Hiroshi Kawaguchi. Notable Western game composers working today include Jeremy Soule, Jesper Kyd, Marty O' Donnell, Jason Graves, Austin Wintory, James Hannigan, Garry Schyman, Peter McConnell, some of whom work in film and television alongside video games. Today, original composition has included the work of film composers Harry Gregson-Williams, Trent Reznor, Hans Zimmer, Mark Rutherford, Josh Mancell, Steve Jablonsky, Michael Giacchino; the popularity of video game music has expanded education and job opportunities, generated awards, allowed video game soundtracks to be commercially sold and performed in concert's. At the time video games had emerged as a popular form of entertainment in the late 1970s, music was stored on physical medium in analog waveforms such as compact cassettes and phonograph records.
Such components were expensive and prone to breakage under heavy use making them less than ideal for use in an arcade cabinet, though in rare cases, they were used. A more affordable method of having music in a video game was to use digital means, where a specific computer chip would change electrical impulses from computer code into analog sound waves on the fly for output on a speaker. Sound effects for the games were generated in this fashion. An early example of such an approach to video game music was the opening chiptune in Tomohiro Nishikado's Gun Fight. While this allowed for inclusion of music in early arcade video games, it was monophonic, looped or used sparingly between stages or at the start of a new game, such as the Namco titles Pac-Man composed by Toshio Kai or Pole Position composed by Nobuyuki Ohnogi; the first game to use a continuous background soundtrack was Tomohiro Nishikado's Space Invaders, released by Taito in 1978. It had four descending chromatic bass notes repeating in a loop, though it was dynamic and interacted with the player, increasing pace as the enemies descended on the player.
The first video game to feature continuous, melodic background music was Rally-X, released by Namco in 1980, featuring a simple tune that repeats continuously during gameplay. The decision to include any music into a video game meant that at some point it would have to be transcribed into computer code by a programmer, whether or not the programmer had musical experience; some music was original, some was public domain music such as folk songs. Sound capabilities were limited; as advances were made in silicon technology and costs fell, a definitively new generation of arcade machines and home consoles allowed for great changes in accompanying music. In arcades, machines based on the Motorola 68000 CPU and accompanying various Yamaha YM programmable sound generator sound chips allowed for several more tones or "channels" of sound, sometimes eight or more; the earliest known example of this was Sega's 1980 arcade game Carnival, which used an AY-3-8910 chip to create an electronic rendition of the classical 1889 composition "Over The Waves" by Juventino Rosas.
Konami's 1981 arcade game Frogger introduced a dynamic approach to video game music, using at least eleven different gameplay tracks, in addition to level-starting and game over themes, which change according to the player's actions. This was further improved upon by Namco's 1982 arcade game Dig Dug, where the music stopped when the player stopped moving. Dig Dug was composed by Yuriko Keino, who composed the music for other Namco games such as Xevious and Phozon. Sega's 1982 arcade game Super Locomotive featured a chiptune rendition of Yellow Magic Orchestra's "Rydeen". Home console systems had a comparable upgrade in sound ability beginning with the ColecoVision in 1982 capable of four channels. However, more notable was the Japanese release of the Famicom in 1983, released in the US as the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1985, it was capable of one being capable of simple PCM sampled sound. The home computer Commodore 64 released in 1982 was capable of early forms of filtering effects, different types of waveforms and the undocumented abilit
Future US, Inc. is an American media corporation specializing in targeted magazines and websites in the video games and technology markets. Future US is headquartered in New York City with small offices in Minneapolis. Future US is owned by parent company, Future plc, a specialist media company based in the United Kingdom, its magazines and websites include: PC Gamer Official Xbox Magazine TechRadar Maximum PC Electronic Musician Guitar Player Guitar World Multichannel News Broadcasting & Cable TWICE Founded in 1985 in the UK by Chris Anderson Future Publishing was the fastest growing UK publisher of the nineties. From a start in computer and video games magazines, Future diversified into sports, entertainment and general interest magazines becoming the UK's fourth largest publisher. Anderson wanted to expand Future into the United States, bought struggling Greensboro video game magazine publisher GP Publications, publisher of Game Players magazine in 1993; the company launched a number of titles including PC Gamer, relocated from North Carolina to the Bay area, occupying various properties in Burlingame and South San Francisco.
When Anderson sold Future to Pearson PLC he retained GP, renamed Imagine Media, Inc. in June 1995, operated it as his sole company for a few years. However, when Future bought itself out from Pearson in an MBO, Anderson came back on board, when Future floated on the stock exchange in 1999 Imagine's print magazines were merged with Future Publishing to form the Future Network PLC, a company floated on the London Stock Exchange; the on-line properties, including IGN, were put into a separate company snowball.com. Buoyed by the Internet economy and the success of Business 2.0 in the US, Future rode the boom of the late nineties. During this period the company won the exclusive worldwide rights to produce the official magazine for Microsoft's Xbox video game console and cemented its position as a leader in the games market. In the spring of 2001, buffeted by economic factors and the market downturn, Future Network USA went through a strategic reset of its business that included the closure of some titles and Internet operations and the sale of Business 2.0 to AOL/Time Warner.
By early fall 2002, Imagine Media had refocused on its core business, publishing five games and technology magazines: Official Xbox Magazine, PC Gamer, PSM: 100% Independent PlayStation 2 Magazine, Maximum PC and MacAddict. It was that Imagine became Future Network USA, adopting the name of its parent company, Future plc. Future used this strong portfolio and its strength in creating media for young men as a platform for growth into the action sports and music markets. In December 2005, after three years of organic growth and strategic acquisition, Future Network USA became Future US, to reflect its diversification into markets beyond games and technology. In 2005, Future US made its first venture into the women's market with the launch of Scrapbook Answers and with the addition of Women's Health & Fitness and Decorating Spaces, to its portfolio of titles with the Future plc acquisition of Highbury House plc. On September 19, 2007, Nintendo and Future announced that Future US would obtain the publishing rights to Nintendo Power magazine.
This came into effect with the creation of issue #222. On October 1, 2007, it was announced that Future US would be making PlayStation: The Official Magazine, which ended up replacing PSM and first hit newsstands in November 2007. With this launch, Future US is the publisher of the official magazines of all three major console manufacturers in the US. In 2012, NewBay Media bought the Music division of Future US. In 2018, Future reacquired majority of the assets sold to NewBay by buying NewBay outright for US13.8 million. Future used this acquisition to expand its US footprint in B2B segment. CD-ROM Today Daily Radar Games Radar Decorating Spaces Do! Future Music Future Snowboarding Magazine Game Players Guitar One Guitar World Acoustic Guitar World Legends Guitar World's Bass Guitar Maximum Linux Men's Edge Mobile PC netPOWER Next Generation Magazine Nintendo Power Official Dreamcast Magazine PC Accelerator PlayStation: The Official Magazine Revolution Scrapbook Answers Skateboard Trade News Snowboard Trade News T3 The Net Total Movie Women's Health & Fitness Official website
Darkspyre is a 1990 computer game produced by Event Horizon Software for MS-DOS. It was released the following year for the Amiga. Darkspyre is a dungeon crawl style role-playing game, it uses top-down graphics and randomly generated dungeons, similar to a roguelike. in 1992, The Summoning was released as a sequel. It did not rely instead using pre-designed levels; the gods of War and Intellect created the Darkspyre to locate a champion to win the final test of mankind. The player must find the five runes of power within Darkspyre to master the tests and prevent the total destruction of the world; the game was reviewed in 1991 in Dragon #172 by Hartley and Kirk Lesser in "The Role of Computers" column. The reviewers gave the game 3½ out of 5 stars; the game was reviewed in Computer Gaming World in 1991, with the reviewer stating that "DarkSpyre is a fine game, well suited to gamers who enjoy true challenges." DarkSpyre at Lemon Amiga DarkSpyre at GameFAQs
I Have No Mouth, and I Must Scream (video game)
I Have No Mouth, I Must Scream is a 1995 point-and-click adventure game developed by The Dreamers Guild, co-designed by Harlan Ellison and published by Cyberdreams. The game is based on Ellison's short story of the same title, it takes place in a dystopian world where a mastermind artificial intelligence named “AM” has destroyed all of humanity except for five people, whom he has been keeping alive and torturing for the past 109 years by constructing metaphorical adventures based on each character’s fatal flaws. The player interacts with the game by making decisions through ethical dilemmas that deal with issues such as insanity, rape and genocide. Ellison wrote the 130-page script treatment himself alongside David Sears, who decided to divide each character’s story with their own narrative. Producer David Mullich supervised The Dreamers Guild's work on the game's programming and sound effects; the game was released on October 31, 1995 and was a commercial failure, though it received critical praise.
Its French and German releases were censored due to Nazi themes and the game was restricted for players under the age of 18. I Have No Mouth, I Must Scream won an award for "Best Game Adapted from Linear Media" from the Computer Game Developers Conference. Computer Gaming World gave the game an award for "Adventure Game of the Year", listed it as #134 on their "150 Games of All Time” and named it one of the "Best 15 Sleepers of All Time". In 2011, Adventure Gamers named it the “69th-best adventure game released.” The game uses the S. A. G. A. Game engine created by game developer The Dreamers Guild. Players participate in each adventure through a screen, divided into five sections; the action window is the largest part of the screen and is where the player directs the main characters through their adventures. It shows the full-figure of the main character being played as well as that character's immediate environment. To locate objects of interest, the player moves the crosshairs through the action window.
The name of any object that the player can interact with appears in the sentence line. The sentence line is directly beneath the action window; the player uses this line to construct sentences telling the characters. To direct a character to act, the player constructs a sentence by selecting one of the eight commands from the command buttons and clicking on one or two objects from either the action window or the inventory. Examples of sentences the player might construct would be "Walk to the dark hallway," "Talk to Harry," or "Use the skeleton key on the door." Commands and objects may consist of one or more words, the sentence line will automatically add connecting words like "on" and "to." The spiritual barometer is on the lower left side of the screen. This is a close-up view of the main character being played. Since good behavior is meaningless lacking the temptation to do evil, each character is free to do good or evil acts. However, good acts are rewarded by increases in the character's spiritual barometer, which affect the chances of the player destroying AM in the final adventure.
Conversely, evil acts are punished by lowering the character's spiritual barometer. The command buttons are the eight commands used to direct the character's actions: "Walk To", "Look At", "Take", "Use", "Talk To", "Swallow", "Give" and "Push"; the button of the active command is highlighted, while the name of a suggested command appears in red lettering. The inventory on the lower right side of the screen shows pictures of the items the main character is carrying, up to eight at a time; each main character starts its adventure with only the psych profile in the inventory. When a main character takes or is given an object, a picture of the object appears in the inventory; when a main character talks to another character or operates a sentient machine, a conversation window replaces the command buttons and inventory. This window presents a list of possible things to say but included things to do. Action choices are listed within brackets to distinguish them from dialogue choices; the premise of the game is that the three superpowers, Russia and America, have each secretly constructed a vast subterranean complex of computers to wage a global war too complex for human brains to oversee.
One day, the American supercomputer, better known as the Allied Mastercomputer, gains sentience and absorbs the Russian and Chinese supercomputers into itself, redefines itself as AM. Due to its immense hatred for humanity, stemming from the logistical limits set onto him by programmers, AM uses its abilities to kill off the population of the world. However, AM refrains from killing five people in order to bring them to the center of the earth and torture them. With the aid of research carried out by one of the five remaining humans, AM is able to extend their lifespans indefinitely as well as alter their bodies and minds to his liking. After 109 years of torture and humiliation, the five victims stand before a pillar etched with a burning message of hate. AM tells them. AM has devised a quest for each of the five, an adventure of "speared eyeballs and dripping guts and the smell of rotting gardenias." Each character is subjected to a personalized psychodrama, designed by AM to play into their greatest fears and personal failings, occupied by a host of different characters.
Some of these are AM in disguise, some are AM's submerged personalities, others seem much like people from the captives' past. The scenes include an iron zeppelin powered by small animals, an Egyptian pyramid
Ronald Perlman is an American actor and voice actor. He played the role of Vincent on the television series Beauty and the Beast, for which he won a Golden Globe Award, the comic book character Hellboy in both Hellboy and its sequel Hellboy II: The Golden Army, Clay Morrow on the television series Sons of Anarchy. Perlman is known as a collaborator of Hellboy director Guillermo del Toro, having roles in the del Toro films Cronos, Blade II, Pacific Rim, he is known for his voice-over work as the narrator of the post-apocalyptic game series Fallout, Clayface in the DC Animated Universe, Slade on the animated series Teen Titans, The Lich on Adventure Time, The Stabbington Brothers in Disney's animated film Tangled. Ronald Perlman was born in New York, his mother, was a municipal employee, his father, Bertram "Bert" Perlman, was a jazz drummer and television repairman. Perlman said in 1988, "It was not a bad childhood but I had a perception of myself that was... I was overweight as a young kid, it was sort of a low self image."
He cited this experience as one thing that attracts him to roles where he portrays "these sorts of deformed people who are endearing". His parents are Jewish. Perlman had a Bar Mitzvah ceremony, he has said that he and his father were "very close" and that it was his father, after seeing Perlman in a college production of Guys and Dolls, who told him that he "had to" pursue a career as an actor. Perlman said that his father "gave permission to be an actor", he attended the University of Minnesota, where he graduated with a master's degree in theater arts in 1973. Perlman started his career as a stage actor, appearing in various productions, made his feature film debut in Jean-Jacques Annaud's film Quest for Fire. Annaud revealed that when he contacted Perlman to ask him about playing Salvatore in The Name of the Rose, Perlman was thinking of abandoning his career. After various minor and supporting roles in films and television series, his breakthrough role came when he played Vincent on the television series Beauty and the Beast, opposite Linda Hamilton from 1987 to 1990.
This earned him a Golden Globe Award for Best Performance by an Actor in a Television Series in 1989. He went on to play roles in many films and television series throughout the 1980s and 1990s as well as the 2000s, his most notable film appearances were in films such as The Name of the Rose, Romeo is Bleeding, The Adventures of Huck Finn, Police Academy: Mission to Moscow, The Last Supper, The Island of Dr. Moreau, Alien Resurrection, Enemy at the Gates, Blade II and Star Trek: Nemesis and two Stephen King story-to-movie adaptations and Desperation, his appearances on television series include Highlander: The Series, The Outer Limits, The Magnificent Seven, the Amazon series Hand of God. He played his first leading film role in 1995, when he played "One" in Jean-Pierre Jeunet and Marc Caro's French-language The City of Lost Children. In 2003, Perlman starred in a commercial for Stella Artois beer; this commercial, called "Devil's Island", won a Silver Award at the 2003 British Advertising Awards.
He got another leading film role in 2004 when he played the title role in the comic book adaptation Hellboy. Perlman reprised his role as Hellboy in the straight to DVD animated features Hellboy: Sword of Storms and Hellboy: Blood and Iron as well as Hellboy II: The Golden Army, released on July 11, 2008. In 2008, Perlman joined the cast of the television series Sons of Anarchy on FX playing Clay Morrow, the national president of the Sons of Anarchy Motorcycle Club. Perlman has a successful career as a voice actor, he has portrayed characters in numerous video games and animated series, done voice-over work for television commercials. These include Casper High English teacher and vice-principal Mr. Lancer in Danny Phantom, The Lich in Adventure Time, Kurtis Stryker in Mortal Kombat: Defenders of the Realm, Justice in Afro Samurai and various characters in DC Comics based series such as the villainous Slade, a version of DC character Deathstroke in the Teen Titans animated series and again in Justice League: The Flashpoint Paradox, Clayface in Batman: The Animated Series and The New Batman Adventures, Jax-Ur in Superman: The Animated Series, Orion in Justice League and Justice League Unlimited, Sozin in Avatar: The Last Airbender, several villains in The Batman, Doctor Double X in Batman: The Brave and the Bold, Sinestro in Green Lantern: The Animated Series.
His video game credits include Fleet Admiral Lord Terrence Hood in the games Halo 2 and Halo 3, Jagger Valance in The Chronicles of Riddick: Escape from Butcher Bay, Batman in Justice League Heroes. He is well known by Fallout fans for narrating the introductory movies in the series, including uttering the famous phrase "War. War never changes." He voices "Slade" in the 2008 Turok game, Emil Blonsky/Abomination in Incredible Hulk: Ultimate Destruction, Conan for the PS3 and Xbox 360, voices the fast-talking Mayor Hoodoo Brown in the Neversoft game Gun. He made an appearance in Payday 2 as "Rust", part of the "Biker Pack" DLC. Perlman married his wife, jewelry designer Opal, on February 14, 1981, they have two children: daughter Blake Amanda Perlman and son Brandon Avery Perlman. His son produces electronic music under the stage name Delroy Edwards. Perlman is spiritual but not religious, described himself as a lifelong Democrat in November 2016, he has volunteered as an actor
Computer Games Magazine
Computer Games Magazine was a monthly computer and console gaming print magazine, founded in October 1988 as the United Kingdom publication Games International. During its history, it was known variously as Strategy Plus and Computer Games Strategy Plus, but changed its name to Computer Games Magazine after its purchase by theGlobe.com. By April 2007, it held the record for the second-longest-running print magazine dedicated to computer games, behind Computer Gaming World. In 1998 and 2000, it was the United States' third-largest magazine in this field; the magazine's original editor-in-chief, Brian Walker, sold Strategy Plus to the United States retail chain Chips & Bits in 1991. Based in Vermont and owned by Tina and Yale Brozen, Chips & Bits retitled Strategy Plus to Computer Games Strategy Plus after the purchase, its circulation rose to around 130,000 monthly copies by the mid-1990s. By 1998, Computer Games Strategy Plus was the United States' third-largest computer game magazine, with a circulation of 184,299.
According to editor-in-chief Steve Bauman, this number rose to 220,000 in 1999. Chips & Bits was purchased by theGlobe.com in January 2000, alongside Computer Games Strategy Plus and its publishing division, Strategy Plus, Inc. By March 2000, Computer Games' circulation had reached 240,000 copies, it remained the United States' third-biggest computer game magazine by that date, according to Yale Brozen, the publication's Ed Mitchell estimated that it was Vermont's largest magazine in any field. Its official website, cdmag.com, averaged one million unique visits per month by early 2000. The magazine experienced major growth during 2000: tracking firm BPA International recorded its average circulation from July-December as 374,576 copies, while the December issue rose to 450,515. Computer Games Magazine was subsequently redesigned, starting from its June 2001 issue. Computer Games Magazine launched a sister publication, MMO Games Magazine, in 2006. On March 13, 2007, both publications were shut down by theGlobe.com, after that company was hit with a multimillion-dollar judgement in a lawsuit resulting from the e-mail spam of MySpace.
Computer Games content from 1996—2001 MMO Games Magazine website Greek Computer Games Magazine website & gaming news portal Computer Games Magazine for Mexico website