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Chrysler PowerFlite transmission

PowerFlite is a two-speed automatic transmission engineered and produced by the Chrysler Corporation and used in their passenger cars from 1954 to 1961. Production began in late 1953. Chrysler was the last of Detroit's Big Three automakers to introduce a automatic transmission, some 14 years after General Motors had introduced Oldsmobile's Hydramatic automatic transmission and nearly three years after Ford's Ford-O-Matic. Packard's Ultramatic debuted in 1949, Studebaker's Automatic Drive was introduced in 1950; the PowerFlite was simple in its construction and operation, with fewer parts than competing transmissions. It was quite durable, being used behind every Chrysler Corporation engine from the lowly Plymouth Six to the Imperial's Hemi V-8. Unlike most other automatic transmissions, PowerFlite did not feature a "Park" range, making it necessary to use the handbrake whenever the car was parked. All Chrysler products at the time had a parking brake independent from the vehicle's wheel brakes, a single brake drum mounted on the driveshaft, just behind the transmission.

This had the effect of locking both rear wheels in the same way that the "Park" setting did in other transmissions. When first introduced, PowerFlite was controlled by a single lever mounted on the steering column; the shift quadrant sequence was R-N-D-L, which differed from the more common P-N-D-L-R on other makes. In most other makes, it was necessary to pass through all forward ranges to put the car in reverse, back through some of those ranges to drive forward. Chrysler promoted the greater safety of the PowerFlite pattern. Many years when the U. S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration began regulating vehicle controls and displays, the Chrysler pattern, became mandatory for the safety reasons stated by Chrysler. In 1955, Chrysler moved the shift lever to the dashboard in a vertical slot with "R" at the top and "L" at the bottom. In 1956, Chrysler switched to pushbutton transmission controls, which remained the only PowerFlite shift mechanism; as happened with many technological inventions pioneered by America across not only the automotive industry but all conceivable fields, the PowerFlite was reverse engineered and copied by the Russians in the Soviet Union and an adapted counterfeit ersatz was for instance utilized and fitted into the ZIL-111 limousine, used by member of the Soviet politbureu as a representative fleet vehicle.

"Chrysler Drops Clutch Pedal With New Automatic Transmission." Popular Mechanics,August 1953, p. 81

Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt

Michiel Janszoon van Mierevelt abbreviated as Michiel Jansz. and the surname spelled Miereveld or Miereveldt, was a Dutch Golden Age painter and draftsman. Van Mierevelt was born and died in Delft, as a son of a goldsmith, who apprenticed him to the copperplate engraver Hieronymus Wierix, he subsequently became a pupil of Willem Willemz and Augusteyn of Delft, until Anthonie van Montfoort, who had seen and admired two of Mierevelt's early engravings and the Samaritan and Judith and Holofernes, invited him to enter his school at Utrecht. He registered as a member of the Guild of St. Luke in The Hague in 1625. Devoting himself first to still lifes, he took up portraiture, in which he achieved such success that the many commissions entrusted to him necessitated the employment of numerous assistants, by whom hundreds of portraits were turned out in factory fashion. Today over 500 paintings have been attributed to him; the works that can with certainty be ascribed to his own brush are remarkable for their sincerity, severe drawing and harmonious color, but comparatively few of the two thousand or more portraits that bear his name are wholly his own handiwork.

So great was his reputation that he was patronized by royalty in many countries and acquired great wealth. The king of Sweden and the count palatine of Neuburg presented him with golden chains. Though Mierevelt is chiefly known as a portrait painter, he executed some mythological pieces of minor importance. Many of his portraits have been reproduced in line by the leading Dutch engravers of his time, he died at Delft. The Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam has the richest collection of Mierevelt's works, chief of them being the portraits of William, Philip William and Frederick Henry of Orange, of the count palatine Frederick V. At the Mauritshuis in The Hague are the portraits of four princes of the house of Orange, of Frederick V as king of Bohemia, of Louise de Coligny as a widow. Other portraits by him are at nearly all the leading continental galleries, notably at Brunswick, Schwerin, Paris, Dresden and Darmstadt; the town hall of Delft has numerous examples of his work. Many of his pupils and assistants rose to fame.

The most gifted of them were Jan Antonisz. Van Ravesteyn, Daniel Mijtens, Anthonie Palamedesz, Johan van Nes, Hendrick Cornelisz. Van Vliet, his sons Pieter and Jan, his son-in-law Jacob Delff painted many of the pictures which go under his name. His portrait was engraved by Jacob Delff. Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt's works Gilman, D. C.. "Mierevelt, Michiel Jansze". New International Encyclopedia. 13. New York: Dodd, Mead. P. 469. Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Mierevelt, Michiel Jansz van". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 424–425. 73 paintings by or after Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt at the Art UK site Works and literature on Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt Vermeer and The Delft School, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt

La Mairena

La Mairena is a hill top residential resort on the Costa del Sol, just 5 km from the coastal ruralisation of Elviria, on the eastern outskirts of Marbella, Spain. At 400 m above sea level, the village offers stunning views towards the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the Mediterranean Sea, the Rock of Gibraltar and the African coast; the village is located within the municipalities of Ojen and Marbella, in the Andalusian province of Málaga. The village was the brain child of the Massoud family, was developed by their real estate company, Sarena SA. Development company Sarena SA created and trademarked the name La Mairena, which gave the name to the village, with construction beginning in the late 1980s. Many developments of apartment complexes and villas have since been completed, with only a few still under construction. There is an approximate 50/50 mix between individual villas and apartment complexes, with many green zones and forested areas in between; the village is home to the Hofsaess Tennis Academy, which has coached grand slam winners including Steffi Graf and Sánchez Vicario.

The Academy’s tennis courts and cafe are available for use by members of the public. Adjacent to the tennis academy is the popular Kudu Bar and Restaurant, open all year round; the El Soto de Marbella development in the village has a 9 hole practice golf course, gym and restaurant. Non residents of El Soto are welcome in the bar and restaurant, which hosts live entertainment throughout the year. There are a further five golf courses within a few minutes drive of La Mairena. La Cala Golf, on the road to Mijas has three courses, the Santa Maria and Greenlife Golf Clubs are in Elviria. Walking, mountain biking are popular with many accessible trails from the village leading into the Sierra de la Nieves National Park and along the nearby River Ojen The village is home to two international private schools: the German Hoffman College and the bilingual Colegio ECOS. La Mairena is on the eastern edge of the Sierra de la Nieves National Park, a Unesco biosphere. Reserve:unesco biosphere reserve. 36.530719°N 4.753592°W / 36.530719.

Jake and Dinos Chapman

Iakovos "Jake" and Konstantinos "Dinos" are British visual artists known as the Chapman Brothers. Their subject matter tries to be deliberately shocking, including, in 2008, a series of works that appropriated original watercolours by Adolf Hitler. In the mid-1990s, their sculptures were included in the YBA showcase exhibitions Brilliant! and Sensation. In 2003, the two lost out to Grayson Perry. In 2013, their painting One Day You Will No Longer Be Loved III was the subject of Derren Brown's Channel 4 special, The Great Art Robbery. Jake Chapman was born in Dinos Chapman in London, their father was their mother an orthodox Greek Cypriot. They were moved to Hastings where they attended a local comprehensive. Dinos studied at the Ravensbourne College of Art, Jake at the North East London Polytechnic before both together enrolled at the Royal College of Art, when they worked as assistants to the artists Gilbert and George, they began their own collaboration in 1991. The brothers have made pieces with plastic models or fibreglass mannequins of people.

An early piece consisted of eighty-three scenes of torture and disfigurement derivative of those recorded by Francisco Goya in his series of etchings, The Disasters of War rendered into small three-dimensional plastic models. One of these was turned into a life-size work, Great Deeds Against the Dead, shown along with Zygotic Acceleration, Biogenetic, De-Sublimated Libidinal Model at the Sensation exhibition in 1997; the Chapman brothers continued the theme of anatomical and pornographic grotesque with a series of mannequins of children, sometimes fused together, with genitalia in place of facial features. Their sculpture Hell consisted of a large number of miniature figures of Nazis arranged in nine glass cases laid out in the shape of a swastika. In 2003, with a series of works named Insult to Injury, they altered a set of Goya's etchings by adding funny faces; as a protest against this piece, Aaron Barschak threw a pot of red paint over Jake Chapman during a talk he was giving in May 2003.

The Chapmans' oeuvre has referenced work by William Blake, Auguste Rodin and Nicolas Poussin. Jake Chapman has published a number of catalogue essays and pieces of art criticism in his own right, as well as a book, Meatphysics; the brothers have designed a label for Becks beer as part of a series of limited edition labels produced by contemporary artists. Using a title from the Tim Burton film, in 2004 they curated A Nightmare Before Christmas as part of the occasional All Tomorrow's Parties music festival at Camber Sands. In October 2013 the Chapman brothers took part in Art Wars at the Saatchi Gallery curated by Ben Moore; the artists were issued with a stormtrooper helmet. Proceeds went to the Missing Tom Fund set up by Moore to find his brother Tom, missing for over ten years; the work was shown on the Regents Park platform as part of Art Below Regents Park. From April–June 2003, the Chapmans held a solo show at Modern Art Oxford entitled The Rape of Creativity in which "the enfants terribles of Britart, bought a mint collection of Francisco Goya's most celebrated prints – and set about systematically defacing them".

The Goya prints referred to his Disasters of War set of 80 etchings. The duo named their newly defaced works Insult to Injury. BBC described more of the exhibition's art: "Drawings of mutant Ronald McDonalds, a bronze sculpture of a painting showing a sad-faced Hitler in clown make-up and a major installation featuring a knackered old caravan and fake dog turds." While The Daily Telegraph commented that the Chapman brothers had "managed to raise the hackles of art historians by violating something much more sacred to the art world than the human body – another work of art", they noted that the effect of their work was powerful. The Chapman brothers were nominated for the Turner Prize in 2003; as well as including Insult to Injury, their Turner Prize exhibit debuted two new works Sex and Death. Sex directly referenced their previous work Great Deeds against the Dead; the original work shows three dismembered corpses hanging from a tree, Sex shows the same scenario, but in a heightened state of decay.

Additionally clown's noses are now present on the skulls of the corpses. Death is two sex dolls, placed on top of each other, head-to-toe in the 69 sex position: despite appearing to be made of plastic it is in fact cast in bronze and painted to look like plastic; that year the prize was won by Grayson Perry. On 24 May 2004, a fire in a storage warehouse destroyed many works from the Saatchi collection including Hell; the brothers subsequently made a similar, though more extensive, work called Fucking Hell. In 2006, the journalist Lynn Barber claimed that she had received a death threat from the brothers, following conducting an interview with them. In 2007, they were criticised by journalist Johann Hari for adopting an anti-Enlightenment philosophy, for Jake Chapman saying that the boys who murdered Liverpool toddler James Bulger performed "a good social service"; this followed a public media brawl between Jake Chapman and journalist Carole Cadwalladr in The Observer and on the internet the previous year.

Cadwalladr told readers that Chapman threw her out of

Electrophilic addition

In organic chemistry, an electrophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where, in a chemical compound, a π bond is broken and two new σ bonds are formed. The substrate of an electrophilic addition reaction must have triple bond; the driving force for this reaction is the formation of an electrophile X+ that forms a covalent bond with an electron-rich unsaturated C=C bond. The positive charge on X is transferred to the carbon-carbon bond, forming a carbocation during the formation of the C-X bond. In step 2 of an electrophilic addition, the positively charged intermediate combines with, electron-rich and an anion to form the second covalent bond. Step 2 is the same nucleophilic attack process found in an SN1 reaction; the exact nature of the electrophile and the nature of the positively charged intermediate are not always clear and depend on reactants and reaction conditions. In all asymmetric addition reactions to carbon, regioselectivity is important and determined by Markovnikov's rule.

Organoborane compounds give anti-Markovnikov additions. Electrophilic attack to an aromatic system results in electrophilic aromatic substitution rather than an addition reaction. In Electrophilic addition the electrophile with the positive charge effects the formation of the total structure, which thus bears a positive charge as well, to make up for the new addition, which results in the intermediate, bearing that positive charge; this intermediate is the key to understanding the electrophilic addition, due to the positive nature of the particles involved. If this is done the reactions can be understood by these additions as positively charged reactions; the positive charge bears result as the intermediate form otherwise known as the total structure of such an intermediate. The end product thus contains the complete structure, with the addition of a nucleophile. Typical electrophilic additions to alkenes with reagents are: dihalo addition reactions: X2 Hydrohalogenations: HX Hydration reactions: H2O Hydrogenations: H2 Oxymercuration reactions: mercuric acetate, water Hydroboration-oxidation reactions: diborane the Prins reaction: formaldehyde, water

1978–79 Montreal Canadiens season

The 1978–79 Montreal Canadiens season was the club's 70th season. The franchise had 11 ties, but finished second overall in the league; the New York Islanders finished first overall by one point over the Canadiens. The Canadiens won the Stanley Cup for the fourth consecutive time, the 15th time in the past 24 seasons, their 22nd overall; the Canadiens won the Stanley Cup on home ice for the first time since 1968. Note: W = Wins, L = Losses, T = Ties, GF = Goals For, GA = Goals Against, Pts = Points Teams that qualified for the playoffs are highlighted in bold. ScoringGoaltending ScoringGoaltending Prince of Wales Trophy Ken Dryden and Michel Larocque, Vezina Trophy Bob Gainey, Conn Smythe Trophy Bob Gainey, Selke Trophy Guy Lafleur, Runner-Up, Hart Memorial Trophy Serge Savard, Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy Montreal's draft picks at the 1978 NHL Amateur Draft held at the Queen Elizabeth Hotel in Montreal, Quebec. 1978–79 NHL season 1979 Stanley Cup Final The Game Canadiens on Hockey Database Canadiens on NHL Reference