3rd Marine Expeditionary Brigade (United States)
The 3rd Marine Expeditionary Brigade is a United States Marine Corps unit, the "middleweight" crises response force of choice in the Pacific Area of Operation. It is the Marine Corps’ only permanently forward-deployed Brigade sized Marine Air-Ground Task Force, is a force in readiness able to deploy by any and all means and conduct operations across the spectrum from humanitarian assistance and disaster relief to amphibious assault and high intensity combat. 3d MEB maintains a forward presence in the Pacific Theater to support contingencies and alliance relationships. 3d MEB conducts combined operations and training throughout the region in support of United States national security strategy. In December 1917 the 3rd Provisional Brigade was activated in Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia from elements of the Advanced Base Force and was subsequently deployed to Cuba to protect U. S. sugar producing interests, which were becoming victim to sabotage by German-backed Cuban rebels. Upon arrival in Cuba with the 9th Marine Regiment, the Brigade took control of the 7th Marine Regiment and began to protect U.
S. owned property. In early 1918 rebel activity had subsided and the Brigade was relocated in August 1918 to Galveston, Texas to serve as a ready force should a contingency arise in the Caribbean; the following April the Brigade was deactivated. In March 1927, the 3rd Marine Brigade was again activated at MCB Quantico under the command of Brigadier General Smedley Butler; the Brigade subsequently deployed to China with artillery and aviation assets. Once they arrived in China, the brigade took control of the 4th Marine Regiment and the 6th Marine Regiment upon their arrival in May. During this period, the Brigade was responsible for aiding the foreign powers present in keeping the Chinese out of the international settlement, becoming a target of Chinese anti-foreign sentiment. In 1928, Chiang Kai-shek became president of China and the Brigade was subsequently withdrawn and deactivated in January 1929. In March 1942, the Brigade was reactivated at Marine Corps Air Station New River, North Carolina and deployed to Western Samoa, to garrison and defend the island.
The Brigade was again deactivated in November 1943. In 1946 the Marine Corps was ordered to begin demobilizing its ranks; when the 6th Marine Division, stationed in Tsingtao, China began to deactivate, the remaining headquarters, service and artillery battalions along with the 4th Marine Regiment were redesignated the 3d Marine Brigade in April. They continued to perform occupation duties until the remaining Brigade personnel were absorbed into the 4th Marine Regiment in June and the Brigade again ceased to exist. Post-war Southern California and the newly established Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton saw massive numbers of Marines and units returning from the war in the Pacific. In September 1946 as replacement draftees were being sent overseas to allow the combat veterans performing occupation duties to return home, the 3rd Marine Brigade was again established with the 6th Marine Regiment as its nucleus; the Brigade consisted of administrative groups and some infantry units as they returned to the states to be deactivated.
In May 1947 the 1st Marine Division reclaimed the rest of the personnel returning from overseas as well as those in the Brigade, which again was deactivated. After the Marine Corps’ quick response to the Korean War and expansion of its ranks, the Brigade headquarters was again established in June 1951 around the 3rd Marine Regiment at MCB Camp Pendleton. In 1952 Congress mandated that the Marine Corps be maintained at a strength no less than three divisions and aircraft wings. In response, the Commandant of the Marine Corps designated the 3rd Marine Brigade as the nucleus of the soon to be reactivated 3rd Marine Division. In January 1952, the Brigade was absorbed by the division and once again ceased to exist. In May 1962, in response to the Soviet Union aiding the Pathet Lao Army in Laos, the 3d Marine Expeditionary Brigade was formed from 3rd Marine Division personnel and began landing 3000 Marines as a show of force in Thailand as a component of Joint Task Force 116; the MEB forces included the 3rd Battalion, 9th Marines, HMR-261 and VMA-332.
The show of force was over by August and the MEB was reabsorbed into the 3rd Marine Division. In April 1965 as the forces began to build up in the Republic of Vietnam, the 3d MEB was reactivated at Camp Hague, boarded transport ships of the 7th Fleet and sailed for the Republic of Vietnam. En route to the Republic of Vietnam, the MEB was redesignated the 3rd Marine Amphibious Brigade, they arrived off the coast that month, conducted a landing in Chu Lai and established an expeditionary airfield. At the end of the month the MAB was absorbed into the III Marine Amphibious Force. In April 1971, III MAF withdrew from the Republic of Vietnam and the 3rd MAB was reactivated at Da Nang to oversee the 13,600 Marines of the 1st Marine Regiment, MAG-11 and MAG-16, which remained in country while the Combined Action Program was phased out. On 7 May and air operations ceased, the last ground troops sailed in June, the 3d MAB was subsequently deactivated. In January 2000 III MEF Forward, in the midst of supporting International Force for East Timor during Operation Stabilize, stood down and the 3d Marine Expeditionary Brigade was reactivated.
Since its reactivation, it has been engaged in regional contingency planning as well as numerous joint and combined exercises. In late 2004, 3rd MEB provided most of the forces for Joint Task Force 535, which provided disaster relief after floods in the Philippines. During May and June 2006 the 3d MEB provided logistics and medical support to thousands of victims of the 2006 Yogyak
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps referred to as the United States Marines or U. S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force; the U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States; the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working with naval forces; the USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers; the history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore.
In the Pacific theater of World War II the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island. As of 2017, the USMC has around some 38,500 personnel in reserve, it is the smallest U. S. military service within the DoD. As outlined in 10 U. S. C. § 5063 and as introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are: Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns. This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps", it noted that the Corps has more than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties, World War I, the Korean War.
While these actions are not described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests. The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House. Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively. The Executive Flight Detachment provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.
The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies and legations throughout the world. In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December 1948, 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions. During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide; the Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny.
Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montague and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas; the role of the Marine Corps has expanded since then. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries.
Chu Lai Air Base
Chu Lai Air Base was a military airport in Chu Lai, operated by the United States Marine Corps between 1965 and 1970. It was located near the largest city in Quảng Nam Province. Abandoned after the end of the Vietnam War, it was reopened as Chu Lai International Airport in 2005. On 8 March 1965, the U. S. 9th Marine Expeditionary Brigade landed at Da Nang to protect the Danang Air Base from possible communist attack. On 6 May units from the Army of the Republic of Vietnam 2nd Division and 3rd Battalion, 9th Marines secured the Chu Lai area. On 7 May, the 3rd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, composed of the 4th Marine Regiment, 3rd Reconnaissance Battalion, elements of Marine Aircraft Group 12 and Naval Mobile Construction Battalion 10 landed at Chu Lai to establish a jet-capable airfield and base area. At first, only a "short airfield for tactical support" was installed; the SATS consisted of a 1,200 m runway with an aluminum surface of interlocking lightweight metal alloy planking, a catapult and a carrier deck-type arresting gear.
It included a tactical airfield fuel dispensing system. The base of soft sand at Chu Lai caused much difficulty with the installation of the SATS, but the first landing of an A-4 Skyhawk was made on 1 June 1965, by Colonel John D. Noble, Commanding Officer of MAG-12 from Marine All- Weather Fighter Attack Squadron 242 landed. On the same day, the first combat mission was flown, led by Lieutenant Colonel R. W. Baker, CO of VMA-225; the aircraft took off using jet-assisted takeoff rockets on the completed runway as the Seabees continued lengthening the runway. It was involved in Operation Starlite on 18 August 1965, when the Marines made a pre-emptive strike on gathering Viet Cong forces who were preparing to attack the base. By mid-October 1965, the base was home to more than 80 A-4 Skyhawks from MAG-12. On the night of 27 October 1965 the Viet Cong penetrated the air base destroying 2 A-4s and damaging a further six; the Marines killed 15 of the attacking 20-man sapper squad. In September 1966, a new 10,000 ft runway, with taxiways, was completed, just west of the SATS strip.
With the opening of the new runway, Marine Aircraft Group 13 with three F-4 Phantom squadrons arrived at Chu Lai and remained until September 1970. In April 1967, Marine All-Weather Fighter Attack Squadron 533, equipped with the A-6A Intruder all-weather attack aircraft, arrived to provide air support for Marines in I Corps, to deliver ordinance on targets in North Vietnam under all weather conditions. On the morning of 31 January 1968 as part of the Tet Offensive, the Viet Cong attacked the base with rockets and mortars triggering an explosion in the bomb dump. MAGs 12 and 13 suffered 23 damaged; the last Marine sorties were flown from Chu Lai by aircraft from Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 314 on 11 September 1970. The Marines departed Chu Lai on 13 October 1970. Http://vimeo.com/10196438 video of the construction of the airfield and air operations This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps
3rd Reconnaissance Battalion
The 3rd Reconnaissance Battalion conducts amphibious and ground reconnaissance in support of the 3rd Marine Division and Marine Forces Pacific, operating in the commander's areas of influence. The Battalion is based out of Camp Schwab, a satellite base of Marine Corps Base Camp Smedley D. Butler, it is geographically located on the Okinawa Prefecture in Japan. The 3rd Recon Battalion consists of 450 Marines and Fleet Marine Force sailors that falls under the command of the 3rd Marine Division, III Marine Expeditionary Force. Company B was formed from the 5th Force Reconnaissance Company due to the formation of the Marine Special Operations Teams in 2006. 3rd Recon Battalion supports the 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit by augmenting a Reconnaissance and Surveillance Platoon. The 3rd Reconnaissance Company was activated on 16 September 1942 at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California as the Company E, 3rd Tank Battalion, assigned to the 3rd Marine Division. On 20 April 1943, they were redesignated as 3rd Scout Company, Headquarters Battalion, 3rd Marine Division.
On 1 July 1943, they were redesignated as 3rd Tank Battalion. On 1 April 1944, they were redesignated Division Reconnaissance Company, Headquarters Battalion, 3rd Marine Division. Reactivated on 1 March 1952 at Camp Pendleton, they were designated as Reconnaissance Company, Headquarters Battalion and assigned to the 3rd Marine Division, Fleet Marine Force. In August 1953, they deployed to Japan, they were deactivated on 14 April 1958 and reactivated the following day, 15 April 1958, at Camp Schwab, Okinawa, as the 3rd Reconnaissance Battalion, 3rd Marine Division. 3rd Recon Battalion deployed to various locations in the Western Pacific until its stand down and deactivation in 1992. After de-activation, 3rd Recon Battalion companies devolved to three Regiments in 3rd Marine Division: A Company- Recon Company, 3rd Marine Regiment, B Company - Recon Company, 9th Marine Regiment, D Company - Recon Company, 4th Marine Regiment. C Company personnel were folded into D companies prior to disbandment.
In January 1994, Recon companies, 4th Marine Regiment and 9th Marine Regiment merged to form Recon Company, Headquarters Battalion, 3rd Marine Division at Camp Schwab, Okinawa. Recon Company, 3rd Marine Regiment remained at the Regimental level. On 2 June 2000, 3rd Reconnaissance Battalion was again reactivated by combining the force and company reconnaissance elements. In January -- February 1943, they deployed to New Zealand. During the recapture of Guam, the 3rd Marine Division and the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade each had its own reconnaissance company. Major General Lemuel C. Shepherd split the 3rd Division's scout and sniper company into its three platoons to attach each to the brigade's regiments, the 4th and 22nd; the 22nd Marine Regiment's commander, Colonel Merlin F. Schneider, kept his regiment's assigned recon platoon close to the command post, they were used to for rapid deployment on recon missions for the regimental commander, or when not being used on a specific mission, they guarded the CP.
Colonel Schneider retired with the rank of brigadier general after receiving the Navy Cross and Bronze Star. At night, a landing was made on W-Day, General Shepherd and each of his regimental commanders waited for the usual nightly Japanese counterattacks; the Japanese forces was led by Japanese Colonel Tsunetaro Suenaga of the 38th Regiment from the Imperial Japanese Army's 29th Division. At 2130, Colonel Suenaga probed his attacks at the juncture of the regimental boundaries between the 3rd Marine Division's 4th Marines and the Marine Brigade's 22nd Marines; the enemy charged in force and overran the forward Marine lines and began to penetrate the thinly held rear areas. Using grenades, small arms, mortars and close quarters combat, they were able to hold of the attacking Japanese army. However, one Japanese element during their counterattack managed to reach the 75 mm pack howitzer artillery position before they were stopped by the gun crews. A Japanese company of infiltrators approached the regimental command post.
At this point, the Marine defenders, all hands—clerks and supernumeries, rallied around 1st Lt. Dennis Chavez, Jr. recon platoon. They too stopped the Japanese attack. By dawn, the Japanese 28th Infantry Regiment was eliminated. Colonel Suenaga was wounded and killed in these attacks. Within the 1st Marine Prov. Brigade, on the night of 25–26 July 1944, Colonel Craig, the commanding officer of 9th Marines and the adjoining 21st Marines were concerned about the front line, left open. Craig opted to use his regimental scout platoon to help fill the gap between the regiments. At about 2330, a forward operating post reported increased activity. By midnight and mortar fire bombarded the area starting another major counterattack by the Japanese; as a consequence, the armed scout platoon was forced to fall back. The last reconnaissance on Guam was conducted by a mechanized reconnaissance-in-force. A force consisted of Alpha, H&S Company of 3rd Tank Battalion. During the last major actions beginning 3 August 1944, the 1st Battalion, 9th Marines had secured a series of roads that junctioned in Finegayan Village, in the northern section of the islands.
Lieutenant Colonel Hartnoll J. Withers led the group. Two M3 Half-track, two jeeps for communications purposes and one platoon of tanks supported by an infantry platoon were maneuvering toward Road Junction 177, their column was hit by heavy concentrated fire from 75-mm and 105-m artillery, tanks and heavy smal
Fleet Marine Force, Pacific
The United States Fleet Marine Force, Pacific is the largest maritime landing force in the world. Its units are spread across reports to the United States Pacific Command, it is headquartered at MCB Camp H. M. Smith, HI and directs and commands all the subordinate elements of the Navy Expeditionary Strike Force and Marine Air-Ground Task Force components that follow under the 3rd, 5th, 7th Fleet and the Marine Corps Forces, Pacific; the Commanding General of Marine Corps Forces, Pacific is dual-posted as the Commanding General of Fleet Marine Force, Pacific. FMFPAC is under operational control of United States Pacific Fleet, when deployed. FMFPac was established by General'Howling Mad' Smith in 1944 to assume command of large USMC forces in the Pacific, of the order of 500,000. Reporting directly to the Commanding General, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific are the Commanding Generals of two Marine Expeditionary Forces, the Commanding Generals of two Marine Expeditionary Brigades, the Commanding Officers of four Marine Expeditionary Units.
The Commanding General, I MEF, exercises operational control over the 1st Marine Division, the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, the 1st Marine Logistics Group, while the Commanding General, III MEF, exercises operational control over the 3d Marine Division, the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, the 3rd Marine Logistics Group. Camp H. M. SmithSalt Lake, Hawaii Advanced Base Force Fleet Marine Force, Atlantic Marine Corps Forces, Pacific Marine Corps Forces, Command http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1989/SJH.htm http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1995/MJS.htm
Chu Lai International Airport
For the military use of the facility prior to April 1975, see Chu Lai Air BaseChu Lai International Airport is an airport in Chu Lai, Vietnam. It is near the largest city in Quảng Nam Province; the airport is located in Núi Thành District. The airfield was established in the Vietnam War, as Chu Lai Air Base, by the United States Marines; the airport was nearly abandoned after the fall of Saigon, only used irregularly for military flights. On March 22, 2004, the construction of the terminal began and on March 22, 2005, the first commercial flight from Ho Chi Minh City's Tan Son Nhat International Airport landed here; as of 2008, Chu Lai International Airport is the largest airfield in Vietnam in terms of area, covering 30 km². The runway is 3050 m long. To facilitate the travel arrangement to two major towns in the neighborhoods, free shuttle bus services are provided from and to the airport for Tam Ky city and Quang Ngai city; the government of Vietnam has approved an investment plan for this airport.
According to this plan, Chu Lai airport will receive nearly VND 11,470 billion in investment for enlarging its capacity to 25 landing places by 2015 and 46 by 2025. The project will include renovation and new infrastructure, including two runways, 3,800m and 4,000m long, 60 meters wide each, six parking lots and two transit stations. By 2010, existing runways and parking lots will be upgraded; the airport will receive a new signal light system and control station for average sized aircraft, such as Boeing 767s and Airbus A320s. Vietnamese officials hope the airport will be able to handle 4 million passengers by completion in 2025; the airport is projected to become an air cargo transport hub, with 5 million metric tons of cargo per year. In November 2015, a collaboration between Vietnam and New Zealand governments has initiated a project to establish a pilot training school in the Chu Lai Airport; this is projected to train 300 pilots a year in 2020
The hectare is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100-metre sides, or 10,000 m2, is used in the measurement of land. There are 100 hectares in one square kilometre. An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres. In 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the "are" was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 "ares" or 1⁄100 km2; when the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units, the are was not included as a recognised unit. The hectare, remains as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI units, mentioned in Section 4.1 of the SI Brochure as a unit whose use is "expected to continue indefinitely". The name was coined from the Latin ārea; the metric system of measurement was first given a legal basis in 1795 by the French Revolutionary government. The law of 18 Germinal, Year III defined five units of measure: The metre for length The are for area The stère for volume of stacked firewood The litre for volumes of liquid The gram for massIn 1960, when the metric system was updated as the International System of Units, the are did not receive international recognition.
The International Committee for Weights and Measures makes no mention of the are in the current definition of the SI, but classifies the hectare as a "Non-SI unit accepted for use with the International System of Units". In 1972, the European Economic Community passed directive 71/354/EEC, which catalogued the units of measure that might be used within the Community; the units that were catalogued replicated the recommendations of the CGPM, supplemented by a few other units including the are whose use was limited to the measurement of land. The names centiare, deciare and hectare are derived by adding the standard metric prefixes to the original base unit of area, the are; the centiare is one square metre. The deciare is ten square metres; the are is a unit of area, used for measuring land area. It was defined by older forms of the metric system, but is now outside the modern International System of Units, it is still used in colloquial speech to measure real estate, in particular in Indonesia, in various European countries.
In Russian and other languages of the former Soviet Union, the are is called sotka. It is used to describe the size of suburban dacha or allotment garden plots or small city parks where the hectare would be too large; the decare is derived from deca and are, is equal to 10 ares or 1000 square metres. It is used in Norway and in the former Ottoman areas of the Middle East and the Balkans as a measure of land area. Instead of the name "decare", the names of traditional land measures are used, redefined as one decare: Stremma in Greece Dunam, donum, or dönüm in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey Mål is sometimes used for decare in Norway, from the old measure of about the same area; the hectare, although not a unit of SI, is the only named unit of area, accepted for use within the SI. In practice the hectare is derived from the SI, being equivalent to a square hectometre, it is used throughout the world for the measurement of large areas of land, it is the legal unit of measure in domains concerned with land ownership and management, including law, agriculture and town planning throughout the European Union.
The United Kingdom, United States, to some extent Canada use the acre instead. Some countries that underwent a general conversion from traditional measurements to metric measurements required a resurvey when units of measure in legal descriptions relating to land were converted to metric units. Others, such as South Africa, published conversion factors which were to be used "when preparing consolidation diagrams by compilation". In many countries, metrication clarified existing measures in terms of metric units; the following legacy units of area have been redefined as being equal to one hectare: Jerib in Iran Djerib in Turkey Gong Qing in Hong Kong / mainland China Manzana in Argentina Bunder in The Netherlands The most used units are in bold. One hectare is equivalent to: 1 square hectometre 15 mǔ or 0.15 qǐng 10 dunam or dönüm 10 stremmata 6.25 rai ≈ 1.008 chō ≈ 2.381 feddan Conversion of units Hecto- Hectometre Order of magnitude Official SI website: Table 6. Non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units