Warner Bros. Records
Warner Bros. Records Inc. is an American record label owned by Warner Music Group and headquartered in Burbank, California. It was founded in 1958 as the recorded music division of the American film studio Warner Bros. and was one of a group of labels owned and operated by larger parent corporations for much of its existence. The sequence of companies that controlled Warner Bros. and its allied labels evolved through a convoluted series of corporate mergers and acquisitions from the early 1960s to the early 2000s. Over this period, Warner Bros. Records grew from a struggling minor player in the music industry to one of the top record labels in the world. In 2004, these music assets were divested by their owner Time Warner and purchased by a private equity group; this independent company traded as the Warner Music Group and was the world's last publicly traded major music company before being bought and privatized by Access Industries in 2011. Warner Music Group is the smallest of the three major international music conglomerates that include Universal Music Group and Sony Music Entertainment.
Max Lousada oversees recorded music operations of the company. Notable artists signed to Warner Bros. Records have included Prince, Kylie Minogue, Goo Goo Dolls, Sheryl Crow, Lil Pump, Green Day, Adam Lambert, Bette Midler, Duran Duran, Fleetwood Mac, Liam Gallagher, Fleet Foxes, Jason Derulo, Lily Allen and Sara, Dua Lipa, Linkin Park, Nile Rodgers, Red Hot Chili Peppers, the Black Keys, My Chemical Romance, Mr. Bungle, Regina Spektor, Van Halen. At the end of the silent movie period, Warner Bros. Pictures decided to expand into publishing and recording so that it could access low-cost music content for its films. In 1928, the studio acquired several smaller music publishing firms which included M. Witmark & Sons, Harms Inc. and a partial interest in New World Music Corp. and merged them to form the Music Publishers Holding Company. This new group controlled valuable copyrights on standards by George and Ira Gershwin and Jerome Kern and the new division was soon earning solid profits of up to US$2 million every year.
In 1930, MPHC paid US$28 million to acquire Brunswick Records, whose roster included Duke Ellington, Red Nichols, Nick Lucas, Al Jolson, Earl Burtnett, Ethel Waters, Abe Lyman, Leroy Carr, Tampa Red and Memphis Minnie, soon after the sale to Warner Bros. the label signed rising radio and recording stars Bing Crosby, Mills Brothers, Boswell Sisters. For Warner Bros. the dual impact of the Great Depression and the introduction of broadcast radio harmed the recording industry—sales crashed, dropping by around 90% from more than 100 million records in 1927 to fewer than 10 million by 1932 and major companies were forced to halve the price of records from 75c to 35c. In December 1931, Warner Bros. offloaded Brunswick to the American Record Corporation for a fraction of its former value, in a lease arrangement which did not include Brunswick's pressing plants. Technically, Warner maintained actual ownership of Brunswick, which with the sale of ARC to CBS in 1939 and their decision to discontinue Brunswick in favor of reviving the Columbia label, reverted to Warner Bros.
Warner Bros. sold Brunswick a second time, this time along with the old Brunswick pressing plants Warner owned, to Decca Records in exchange for a financial interest in Decca. The studio stayed out of the record business for more than 25 years, during this period it licensed its film music to other companies for release as soundtrack albums. Warner Bros. returned to the record business in 1958 with the establishment of its own recording division, Warner Bros. Records. By this time, the established Hollywood studios were reeling from multiple challenges to their former dominance—the most notable being the introduction of television in the late 1940s. Legal changes had a major impact on their business—lawsuits brought by major stars had overthrown the old studio contract system by the late 1940s. Pictures sold off much of its film library in 1948 and, beginning in 1949, anti-trust suits brought by the US government forced the five major studios to divest their cinema chains. In 1956, Harry Warner and Albert Warner sold their interest in the studio and the board was joined by new members who favoured a renewed expansion into the music business—Charles Allen of the investment bank Charles Allen & Company, Serge Semenenko of the First National Bank of Boston and investor David Baird.
Semenenko in particular had a strong professional interest in the entertainment business and he began to push Jack Warner on the issue of setting up an'in-house' record label. With the record business booming - sales had topped US$500 million by 1958 - Semnenko argued that it was foolish for Warner Bros. to make deals with other companies to release its soundtracks when, for less than the cost of one motion picture, they could establish their own label, creating a new income stream that could continue indefinitely and provide an additional means of exploiting and promoting its contract actors. Another impetus for the label's creation was the brief music career of Warner Bros. actor Tab Hunter. Although Hunter was signed to an exclusive acting contract with the studio, it did not prevent him from signing a recording contract, which he did with Dot Records, owned at the time by Paramount Pictures. Hunter scored several hits for Dot, including the US #1 single, "Young Love", to Warner Bros.' chagrin, reporters were asking about the hit record, rather than
The Sermon on Exposition Boulevard
The Sermon on Exposition Boulevard is an album by American singer-songwriter Rickie Lee Jones, released in February 2007 on the independent New West label. It was produced by Lee Cantelon, Peter Atanasoff and Rob Schnapf, additional production by Bernie Larsen, it was inspired by Lee Cantelon's book The Words, which contains the essential teachings of Jesus rewritten for a modern audience. A special edition was released, with an expanded booklet, a 5.1 surround mix, a Super Audio CD version of the record, MP3 copies of the album, a 50-minute DVD that documents the project from its beginning. "Nobody Knows My Name" – 3:24 "Gethsemane" – 2:23 "Falling Up" – 4:39 "Lamp of the Body" – 2:57 "It Hurts" – 3:45 "Where I Like It Best" – 5:44 "Tried to Be a Man" – 3:44 "Circle in the Sand" – 3:29 "Donkey Ride" – 2:52 "7th Day" – 3:59 "Elvis Cadillac" – 3:57 "Road to Emmaus" – 4:18 "I Was There" – 8:21 Rickie Lee Jones – vocals, keyboards, percussions, toy xylophone, finger cymbals, electric piano, bowed dulcimer, tambourine Bernie Larsen – guitar, synthesizer, vocals, additional production Pete Thomas – guitar Rob Schnapf – guitar Steve Abagon – guitar Peter Atanasoff – guitar, background vocals Joey Maramba – bass guitar Jay Bellerose – drums Joey Waronker – drums Lee Cantelon – background vocals Jonathan Stearns – trumpet
Thomas Alan Waits is an American singer, musician and actor. Waits' music is characterized by his distinctive deep, gravelly singing voice and lyrics focusing on the underside of U. S. society. During the 1970s, he worked in jazz, but since the 1980s his music has reflected greater influence from blues and experimental genres. Waits was raised in a middle-class family in California. Inspired by the work of Bob Dylan and the Beat Generation, as a teenager he began singing on the San Diego folk music scene. Relocating to Los Angeles in 1972, he worked as a songwriter before signing a recording contract with Asylum Records, his first albums, the jazz-oriented Closing Time and The Heart of Saturday Night, reflected his lyrical interest in nightlife and criminality. Touring the U. S. Europe, Japan, he attracted greater critical recognition and commercial success with Small Change, which he followed with Blue Valentine and Heartattack and Vine, he produced the soundtrack for Francis Ford Coppola's 1981 film One from the Heart and subsequently made cameo appearances in several Coppola films.
During the 1970s, he had relationships with two prominent performers, Bette Midler and Rickie Lee Jones. In the early 1980s, Waits married Kathleen Brennan, broke from his manager and record label, moved to New York City. Under Brennan's encouragement, he pursued a new, more experimental and eclectic musical aesthetic influenced by the work of Harry Partch and Captain Beefheart; this was reflected in a series of albums released by Island Records: Swordfishtrombones, Rain Dogs, Franks Wild Years. He continued taking a leading role in Jim Jarmusch's Down by Law. In the 1990s, his albums Bone Machine, The Black Rider, Mule Variations earned him increasing critical acclaim and various Grammy Awards. In the late 1990s, he switched to the record label Anti-, who released Blood Money, Real Gone, Bad as Me. Waits' albums have met with mixed commercial success in the U. S. although they have achieved gold status in other countries. He has a cult following and has influenced many singer-songwriters, despite having little radio or music video support.
In 2011, Waits was inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame. He was included among the 2010 list of Rolling Stone's 100 Greatest Singers, as well as the 2015 list of Rolling Stone's 100 Greatest Songwriters of All Time. Thomas Alan Waits was born on December 1949, in Pomona, California, he has one younger sister. His father, Jesse Frank Waits, was a Texas native of Scots-Irish descent, while his mother, Alma Fern, hailed from Oregon and had Norwegian ancestry. Alma was regular church-goer. Jesse was an alcoholic; the family lived at 318 North Pickering Avenue in California. He described having a "very middle-class" upbringing and "a pretty normal childhood", he attended Jordan Elementary School. There, he learned to play the guitar, while his father taught him to play the ukulele. During the summers, he visited maternal relatives in Marysville, he recalled that it was an uncle's raspy, gravelly voice that inspired the manner in which he sang. In 1959, his parents separated and his father moved away from the family home, a traumatic experience for 10-year-old Waits.
Alma relocated to Chula Vista, a middle-class suburb of San Diego. Jesse visited the family there. In Chula Vista, Waits attended O'Farrell Community School, where he fronted a school band, the Systems describing the group as "white kids trying to get that Motown sound", he developed a love of R&B and soul singers like Ray Charles, James Brown, Wilson Pickett, as well as country music and Roy Orbison. Bob Dylan became a strong influence, with Waits placing transcriptions of Dylan's lyrics on his bedroom walls, he was an avid watcher of The Twilight Zone. By the time he was studying at Hilltop High School, he related, he was "kind of an amateur juvenile delinquent", interested in "malicious mischief" and breaking the law, he described himself as a "rebel against the rebels", for he eschewed the hippie subculture, growing in popularity and was instead inspired by the 1950s Beat generation, having a love of Beat writers like Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, William S. Burroughs. In 1968, at age 18, he dropped out of high school.
Waits worked at Napoleone's pizza restaurant in National City and both there and at a local diner developed an interest in the lives of the patrons, writing down phrases and snippets of dialogue he overheard. He has claimed that he worked in the forestry service as a fireman for three years. For a time, he served with the Coast Guard, he enrolled at Chula Vista's Southwestern Community College to study photography, for a time considering a career in the field. He continued taking piano lessons, he began frequenting folk music venues around San Diego, becoming drawn into the city's folk music scene. In 1969, he gained employment as an occasional doorman for the Heritage coffeehouse, which held regular performances from folk musicians, he began to sing at the Heritage. In time he performed his own material as well parodies of country songs or bittersweet ballads influenced by
Naked Songs – Live and Acoustic
Naked Songs – Live and Acoustic is an album by American singer–songwriter Rickie Lee Jones, released in October 1995 via Reprise Records. It reached No. 121 on The Billboard 200. All tracks composed by Rickie Lee Jones.
Rickie Lee Jones
Rickie Lee Jones is an American vocalist, songwriter, producer and narrator. Over the course of a career that spans five decades, Jones has recorded in various musical styles including rock, R&B, pop and jazz. Jones is a two-time Grammy Award winner. Additionally, she was listed at number 30 on VH1's 100 Greatest Women in Rock & Roll in 1999, her album Pirates was number 49 on NPR's list of the 150 Greatest Albums Made by Women. Jones was born the third of four children to Richard and Bettye Jones, on the north side of Chicago, Illinois, on November 8, 1954, her paternal grandfather, Frank "Peg Leg" Jones, her grandmother, Myrtle Lee, a dancer, were vaudevillians based in Chicago. A singer and comedian, Peg Leg Jones' routine consisted of playing the ukulele, singing ballads, telling stories. Jones' father, one of four children, was a WWII veteran. A singer, songwriter and trumpet player, her father worked as a waiter, her mother, was raised in orphanages in Ohio with her three brothers until she was old enough to leave.
The family moved to Arizona in 1959, the landscape provided imagery for her early music. She grew up riding horses, studying dance, practicing swimming with her AAU coach before and after school; when she was 10 years old the family moved to Olympia, where her father abandoned them. At 14 and 15, she ran away to her father's in Kansas City, MO. Over the years she has returned to the Puget Sound area to reside and perform. Jones took the GED test and enrolled in college in Tacoma, she moved to California, on her 18th birthday. At 19, Jones played in bars and coffee houses in LA. At the age of 21, Jones began to play in clubs in Venice. Jones played music in showcases, worked with cover bands in clubs, sat in with Venice jazz bands. Nick Mathe, a neighbor, took an interest in Jones' music and helped her get publicity photos with Bonnie Shiftman, at A&M, in their off hours the three of them shot Jones's first photos, she met a piano player and songwriter. Together they wrote "Weasel and the White Boys Cool", "Company" which would appear on Jones' debut album.
By 1977, Jones was performing original material at the Ala Carte Club in Hollywood with Johnson. In 1977, Jones met Tom Waits at The Troubadour after her friend Ivan Ulz’ show in which she had sung her father's song "The Moon is Made of Gold", a few of her own songs. Jones and Waits were lovers at the outset of her career, creating a lifelong association with one another. Jones met Chuck E. Weiss, who would figure prominently in her early career. In early 1978, through the efforts of Ulz, she came to the attention of Dr. John and Little Feat's Lowell George. Ulz introduced Lowell George to Jones' composition "Easy Money" by singing it to him over the telephone. George recorded her song for his first solo record, Thanks, I'll Eat It Here in 1978, it became the only single from George's final record before his death. A four-song demo of material was circulated around the L. A. music scene in 1978, with Emmylou Harris recalling that she had heard an early version of "The Last Chance Texaco" on the demo tape.
The recordings came to the attention of Lenny Waronker and executive at Warner Bros. Records, Tommy LiPuma. Jones was courted by the major labels, after a bidding war, Jones chose Waronker because of his work with Randy Newman, because, she said, she had a vision of standing in his office the moment she saw his name on the back of Newman's Sail Away album. Waronker signed Jones to Warner Bros. for a five-record deal. Work commenced on her debut album, co-produced by Russ Titelman. Rickie Lee Jones was released in March 1979 and became a hit, buoyed by the success of the jazz-flavored single "Chuck E.'s In Love", which hit No. 4 on the Billboard Hot 100, featured an accompanying music video. The album, which included guest appearances by Dr. John, Randy Newman, Michael McDonald, went to No. 3 on the Billboard 200 and produced another Top 40 hit with "Young Blood" in late 1979. Her appearance – as an unknown – on Saturday Night Live on April 7, 1979, sparked an overnight sensation, she performed "Chuck E.'s in Love" and "Coolsville".
Jones was covered by Time magazine on her first professional show, in Boston, they dubbed her "The Duchess of Coolsville". Touring after the album's release, she played Carnegie Hall on July 22, 1979. Members of her group included native New York guitarist Buzz Feiten, featured on the album and would appear in her recorded works for over a decade. Following a successful world tour, Jones appeared on the cover of Rolling Stone magazine. Photographed by Annie Leibovitz, the cover image showed Jones posing in a crouched stance, wearing a black bra and a white beret; the announcement of Lowell George's death appeared in the same issue, the largest selling issue in the magazine's history up to that time. Jones secured four nominations at the 22nd Annual Grammy Awards: Song of the Year and Best Pop Vocal Performance, Female for "Chuck E.'s in Love". Before the 1980 ceremony, Jones told her mentor Bob Regher. Changing her mind at the last minute, the two raced to the event just in time for her to walk up and collect her'Best New Artist' trophy, in her leather jacket and boa, signature beret and gloves.
In her acceptance speech, she thanked her lawyers and her accountant, which earned laughter and applause from the audience. In 1980, Francis Ford Coppola asked Jones to collaborat
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45