Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives. The office was established in 1789 by Article I, Section 2 of the U. S. Constitution; the Speaker is the political and parliamentary leader of the House of Representatives, is the House's presiding officer, de facto leader of the body's majority party, the institution's administrative head. Speakers perform various other administrative and procedural functions. Given these several roles and responsibilities, the Speaker does not preside over debates; that duty is instead delegated to members of the House from the majority party. Neither does the Speaker participate in floor debates; the Constitution does not require the Speaker to be an incumbent member of the House of Representatives, although every Speaker thus far has been. The Speaker is second in the United States presidential line of succession, after the Vice President and ahead of the President pro tempore of the Senate.
The current House Speaker, Democrat Nancy Pelosi of California, was elected to the office on January 3, 2019. Pelosi served as speaker from January 4, 2007 to January 3, 2011, she has the distinction of being the first woman to serve as Speaker, is the first former Speaker to be returned to office since Sam Rayburn in 1955. The House elects its speaker at the beginning of a new Congress or when a speaker dies, resigns or is removed from the position intra-term. Since 1839, the House has elected speakers by roll call vote. Traditionally, each party's caucus or conference selects a candidate for the speakership from among its senior leaders prior to the roll call. Representatives are not restricted to voting for the candidate nominated by their party, but do, as the outcome of the election determines which party has the majority and will organize the House. Moreover, as the Constitution does not explicitly state that the speaker must be an incumbent member of the House, it is permissible for representatives to vote for someone, not a member of the House at the time, non-members have received a few votes in various speaker elections over the past several years.
Every person elected speaker has been a member. Representatives that choose to vote for someone other than their party's nominated candidate vote for someone else in their party or vote "present". Anyone who votes for the other party's candidate would face serious consequences, as was the case when Democrat Jim Traficant voted for Republican Dennis Hastert in 2001. In response, the Democrats stripped him of his seniority and he lost all of his committee posts. To be elected speaker a candidate must receive an absolute majority of the votes cast, as opposed to an absolute majority of the full membership of the House – presently 218 votes, in a House of 435. There have only been a few instances during the past century where a person received a majority of the votes cast, thus won the election, while failing to obtain a majority of the full membership, it happened most in 2015, when John Boehner was elected with 216 votes. Such a variation in the number of votes necessary to win a given election might arise due to vacancies, absentees, or members being present but not voting.
If no candidate wins a majority of the "votes cast for a person by name" the roll call is repeated until a speaker is elected. Multiple roll calls have been necessary only 14 times since 1789. Upon winning election the new Speaker is sworn in by the Dean of the United States House of Representatives, the chamber's longest-serving member; the first Speaker of the House, Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania, was elected to office on April 1, 1789, the day the House organized itself at the start of the 1st Congress. He served two non-consecutive terms in the Speaker's chair, 1789–1791 and 1793–1795; as the Constitution does not state the duties of the Speaker, the speaker’s role has been shaped by traditions and customs that evolved over time. A partisan position from early in its existence, the speakership began to gain power in legislative development under Henry Clay. In contrast to many of his predecessors, Clay participated in several debates, used his influence to procure the passage of measures he supported—for instance, the declaration of the War of 1812, various laws relating to Clay's "American System" economic plan.
Furthermore, when no candidate received an Electoral College majority in the 1824 presidential election causing the President to be elected by the House, Speaker Clay threw his support to John Quincy Adams instead of Andrew Jackson, thereby ensuring Adams' victory. Following Clay's retirement in 1825, the power of the speakership once again began to decline, despite speakership elections becoming bitter; as the Civil War approached, several sectional factions nominated their own candidates making it difficult for any candidate to attain a majority. In 1855 and again in 1859, for example, the contest for Speaker lasted for two months before the House achieved a result. During this time, Speakers tended to have short tenures. For example, from 1839 to 1863 there were eleven Speakers, only one of whom served for more than one term. To date, James K. Polk is the only Speaker of the House elected President of the United States. Towards the end of the 19th century, the office of Speaker began to develop into a po
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign is a public research university in Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System. Founded in 1867 as a land-grant institution, its campus is located in the twin cities of Champaign and Urbana; the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified as a R1 Doctoral Research University under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, which denotes the highest research activity. In fiscal year 2017, research expenditures at Illinois totaled $642 million; the campus library system possesses the second-largest university library in the United States by holdings after Harvard University. The university hosts the National Center for Supercomputing Applications and is home to the fastest supercomputer on a university campus; the university contains 16 schools and colleges and offers more than 150 undergraduate and over 100 graduate programs of study.
The university holds 651 buildings on 6,370 acres and its annual operating budget in 2016 was over $2 billion. The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign operates a Research Park home to innovation centers for over 90 start-up companies and multinational corporations, including Abbott, AbbVie, Capital One, State Farm, Yahoo, among others; as of October 2018, 30 Nobel laureates, 2 Turing Award winners, 1 Fields medalist have been affiliated with the university as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. The University of Illinois named "Illinois Industrial University", was one of the 37 universities created under the first Morrill Land-Grant Act, which provided public land for the creation of agricultural and industrial colleges and universities across the United States. Among several cities, Urbana was selected in 1867 as the site for the new school. From the beginning, President John Milton Gregory's desire to establish an institution grounded in the liberal arts tradition was at odds with many state residents and lawmakers who wanted the university to offer classes based around "industrial education".
The university opened for classes on March 2, 1868, had two faculty members and 77 students. The Library, which opened with the school in 1868, started with 1,039 volumes. Subsequently, President Edmund J. James, in a speech to the board of trustees in 1912, proposed to create a research library, it is now one of the world's largest public academic collections. In 1870, the Mumford House was constructed as a model farmhouse for the school's experimental farm; the Mumford House remains the oldest structure on campus. The original University Hall was the fourth building built. In 1885, the Illinois Industrial University changed its name to the "University of Illinois", reflecting its agricultural and liberal arts curriculum. During his presidency, Edmund J. James is credited for building the foundation for the large Chinese international student population on campus. James established ties with China through the Chinese Minister to the United States Wu Ting-Fang. In addition, during James's presidency, class rivalries and Bob Zuppke's winning football teams contributed to campus morale.
Alma Mater, a prominent statue on campus created by alumnus Lorado Taft, was unveiled on June 11, 1929. It was established from donations by the Alumni Fund and the classes of 1923–1929. Like many Universities, the economic depression slowed expansion on the campus; the university replaced the original university hall with the Illini Union. After World War II, the university experienced rapid growth; the enrollment doubled and the academic standing improved. This period was marked by large growth in the Graduate College and increased federal support of scientific and technological research. During the 1950s and 1960s the university experienced the turmoil common on many American campuses. Among these were the water fights of the fifties and sixties. By 1967 the University of Illinois system consisted of a main campus in Champaign-Urbana and two Chicago campuses, Chicago Circle and Medical Center, people began using "Urbana–Champaign" or the reverse to refer to the main campus specifically; the university name changed to the "University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign" around 1982, using the reverse of the used designation for the metropolitan area, "Champaign-Urbana".
The name change established a separate identity for the main campus within the University of Illinois system, which today includes campuses in Springfield and Chicago. In 1998, the Hallene Gateway Plaza was dedicated; the Plaza features the original sandstone portal of University Hall, the fourth building on campus. In recent years, state support has declined from 4.5% of the state's tax appropriations in 1980 to 2.28% in 2011, a nearly 50% decline. As a result, the university's budget has shifted away from relying on state support with nearly 84% of the budget now coming from other sources. On March 12, 2015, the Board of Trustees approved the creation of a medical school, being the first college created at Urbana–Champaign in over 60 years; the Carle-Illinois College of Medicine began classes in 2018. The main research and academic facilities are divided evenly between the twin cities of Urbana and Champaign, which form part of the Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area; the College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences' research fields stretch south from Urbana and Champaign into Savoy and Champaign County.
Bradley County, Tennessee
Bradley County is a county located in the southeastern portion of the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 98,963, making it the thirteen most populous county in Tennessee, its county seat is Cleveland. It is named for Colonel Edward Bradley of Shelby County, colonel of Hale's Regiment in the American Revolution and the 15th Regiment of the Tennessee Volunteers in the War of 1812. Bradley County is included in the Cleveland, Tennessee Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Chattanooga-Cleveland-Dalton, TN-GA-AL Combined Statistical Area. Bradley County was first seen by Europeans on June 2, 1540 by Hernando De Soto and his expedition while traveling through the North American continent. Bradley County was established on February 10, 1836, it was named to honor Colonel Edward Bradley who served in the War of 1812. On January 20, 1838, Cleveland, a township with a population of 400, became the seat of Bradley County. Red Clay State Park, the site of the last Cherokee council before the tribe's removal via Trail of Tears, is located in Bradley County.
Like most East Tennessee counties, Bradley County was opposed to secession on the eve of the Civil War. In Tennessee's Ordinance of Secession referendum on June 8, 1861, the county's residents voted against secession by a margin of 1,382 to 507; the bridge over the Hiwassee River was burned on November 8, 1861, by members of the East Tennessee bridge-burning conspiracy led by Alfred Cate. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 331 square miles, of which 329 square miles is land and 2.7 square miles is water. The county is situated on a series of paralleling ridges running north-northeasterly which are part of the Ridge and Valley Appalachians; the highest of these, Candies Creek Ridge, runs through the center of Cleveland. Located in between these ridges are creeks, there are several springs in the county, which made the area favorable to early settlers. Chatata is the Cherokee name for a region in the northeastern portion of the county where the so-called Chatata Wall was found in the late 19th century.
The highest point in the county is located on the Hamilton County line along White Oak Mountain. The county is bordered on the north by the Hiwassee River. Meigs County McMinn County Polk County Murray County, Georgia Whitfield County, Georgia Hamilton County Chickamauga Wildlife Management Area Charlotte Anne Finnel Neal Wildlife Management Area Red Clay State Park As of the census of 2000, there were 87,965 people, 34,281 households, 24,648 families residing in the county; the population density was 268 people per square mile. There were 36,820 housing units at an average density of 112 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.98% White, 3.99% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.89% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races. 2.07% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 34,281 households out of which 32.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.30% were married couples living together, 10.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.10% were non-families.
23.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.70% under the age of 18, 11.30% from 18 to 24, 29.80% from 25 to 44, 23.50% from 45 to 64, 11.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,034, the median income for a family was $41,779. Males had a median income of $30,654 versus $21,407 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,108. About 9.00% of families and 12.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.40% of those under age 18 and 11.60% of those age 65 or over. With thirteen Fortune 500 manufacturers, Cleveland has the fifth largest industrial economy in Tennessee. Cleveland is home to a variety of industries, including household cooking equipment, textiles, storage batteries, industrial cleaning products, photographic processing and domestic chemicals, automotive parts.
Major employers include Whirlpool, Johnston Coca-Cola, Incorporated, Procter & Gamble, Hardwick Clothes, Cleveland Chair Company. Wacker Polysilicon, Olin Corporation and Arch Chemicals have factories and distribution centers in Charleston. Resolute Forest Products Bowater, has a plant across the river from Charleston in Calhoun. Agriculture in Bradley County has an annual market value of over $115 million. Bradley County is home to farms which raise beef cattle, poultry and crops, such as corn and fruits and vegetables. Bradley County has a 14-member county commission form of government, with two commissioners from each of seven districts; the commission is headed by a vice chairman, who are chosen by fellow commissioners. The current chairman is Johnny Mull from District 3 and the vice chairman is Jeff Yarber from District 5; each district is assigned a constable elected. The county executive separately elected, is Republican D. Gary Davis. Other elected officials include county clerk and criminal court clerk, register of deeds, assessor of property and road superintendent.
Elections take place every year, with primaries in the first week
University of Tennessee
The University of Tennessee is a public research university in Knoxville, Tennessee. Founded in 1794, two years before Tennessee became the 16th state, it is the flagship campus of the University of Tennessee system, with ten undergraduate colleges and eleven graduate colleges, it hosts 28,000 students from all 50 states and more than 100 foreign countries. In its 2019 universities ranking, U. S. News & World Report ranked UT 115th among all national universities and 52nd among public institutions of higher learning. Seven alumni have been selected as Rhodes Scholars. James M. Buchanan, M. S.'41, received the 1986 Nobel Prize in Economics. UT's ties to nearby Oak Ridge National Laboratory, established under UT President Andrew Holt and continued under the UT–Battelle partnership, allow for considerable research opportunities for faculty and students. Affiliated with the university are the Howard H. Baker Jr. Center for Public Policy, the University of Tennessee Anthropological Research Facility, the University of Tennessee Arboretum, which occupies 250 acres of nearby Oak Ridge and features hundreds of species of plants indigenous to the region.
The university is a direct partner of the University of Tennessee Medical Center, one of two Level I trauma centers in East Tennessee. The University of Tennessee is the only university in the nation to have three presidential papers editing projects; the university holds collections of the papers of all three U. S. presidents from Tennessee—Andrew Jackson, James K. Polk, Andrew Johnson. UT is one of the oldest public universities in the United States and the oldest secular institution west of the Eastern Continental Divide. On September 10, 1794, two years before Tennessee became a state and at a meeting of the legislature of the Southwest Territory at Knoxville, the University of Tennessee was chartered as Blount College; the new, all-male, non-sectarian institution struggled for 13 years with a small student body and faculty, in 1807, the school was rechartered as East Tennessee College as a condition of receiving the proceeds from the settlement devised in the Compact of 1806. When Samuel Carrick, its first president and only faculty member, died in 1809, the school was temporarily closed until 1820.
When it reopened, it began experiencing growing pains. Thomas Jefferson had recommended that the college leave its confining single building in the city and relocate to a place it could spread out. Coincidentally, in the Summer of 1826, the trustees explored "Barbara Hill" as a potential site and relocated there by 1828. In 1840, the college was elevated to East Tennessee University; the school's status as a religiously non-affiliated institution of higher learning was unusual for the period of time in which it was chartered, the school is recognized as the oldest such establishment of its kind west of the Appalachian Divide. Tennessee was a member of the Confederacy in 1862 when the Morrill Act was passed, providing for endowment funds from the sale of federal land to state agricultural colleges. On February 28, 1867, Congress passed a special Act making the State of Tennessee eligible to participate in the Morrill Act of 1862 program. In January 1869, ETU was designated as Tennessee's recipient of the Land-Grant designation and funds.
In accepting the funds, the university would focus upon instructing students in military and mechanical subjects. ETU received $396,000 as its endowment under the program. Trustees soon approved the establishment of a medical program under the auspices of the Nashville School of Medicine and added advanced degree programs. East Tennessee University was renamed the University of Tennessee in 1879 by the state legislature. During World War II, UT was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. African-American attorney Rita Sanders Geier filed suit against the state of Tennessee in 1968 alleging that its higher education system remained segregated despite a federal mandate ordering desegregation, she claimed that the opening of a University of Tennessee campus at Nashville, Tennessee would lead to the creation of another predominantly white institution that would strip resources from Tennessee State University, the only state-funded Historically black university.
The suit was not settled until 2001, when the Geier Consent Decree resulted in the appropriation of $77 million in state funding to increase diversity among student and faculty populations among all Tennessee institutions of higher learning. The University of Tennessee at Knoxville is the flagship campus of the statewide University of Tennessee system, governed by a 26-member board of trustees appointed by the Governor of Tennessee; the campus is headed by a Chancellor who functions as the chief executive officer of the campus, responsible for its daily administration and management. The chancellor reports to the president of the university system and is elected annually by the UT Board of Trustees at the recommendation of the system president. Joseph A. DiPietro has been system president since January 1, 2011 until December 2018. Randy Boyd, a former candidate for governor, was appointed interim president while a search has been convened. Provost and Senior Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs Susan D. Martin is responsible for the academic administration of the Knoxville campus and reports directly to the Chancellor.
On December 15, 2016, the UT Board of Trustees confirmed Beverly J. Davenport as the next Chancellor of the Knoxville campus, succeeding Jimmy Cheek, she began her role on February
Club for Growth
The Club for Growth is a 501 conservative organization active in the United States, with an agenda focused on cutting taxes and other economic issues. The Club has two political arms: an affiliated traditional political action committee, called the Club for Growth PAC, Club for Growth Action, an independent-expenditure only committee or Super-PAC. According to its website, the Club for Growth's policy goals include cutting income tax rates, repealing the estate tax, supporting limited government and a balanced budget amendment, entitlement reform, free trade, tort reform, school choice, deregulation; the group has opposed government action to curb greenhouse gas emissions. The Club for Growth PAC endorses and raises money for candidates who meet its standards for fiscal conservatism. According to Politico, "The Club for Growth is the pre-eminent institution promoting Republican adherence to a free-market, free-trade, anti-regulation agenda." The Club for Growth was founded in 1999 by Stephen Moore, Thomas L. Rhodes, Richard Gilder.
Moore served as the first president of the Club from 1999 until December 2004, when board members voted to remove Moore as president. In 2003 through 2004, the Club for Growth was the largest single fund-raiser for Republican House and Senate candidates, outside of the Republican Party itself, raising nearly $22 million. Pennsylvania United States Senator Pat Toomey served as president from 2005 until his resignation in April 2009. Former Indiana Congressman Chris Chocola succeeded Toomey. Chocola served as president through December 2014, he remains a member of the Club's board. Former Indiana Congressman David McIntosh was named president in January 2015. On September 19, 2005, the Federal Election Commission filed suit against the Club for Growth alleging violations of the Federal Election Campaign Act for failing to register as a political action committee in the 2000, 2002, 2004 congressional elections. In September 2007, the Citizens Club for Growth and the FEC agreed to settle the lawsuit.
According to their joint filing, Citizens Club for Growth said "that it operated under the good faith belief that it had not triggered political committee status... or the purposes of this settlement, in order to avoid protracted litigation costs, without admitting or denying each specific basis for the conclusions," Citizens Club for Growth no longer contested the alleged violations and agreed to pay $350,000 in civil penalties. According to the Associated Press, the settlement was one of "a series of actions by the FEC to penalize independent political groups that spent money to influence elections but did not register as political committees; the groups, called 527 organizations for the section of the IRS code... played a significant role in the 2004 congressional and presidential elections by raising unlimited amounts of money from labor groups and wealthy individuals." On June 25, 2012, U. S. District Court Judge Robert L. Wilkins issued an order stating that the FEC "is FORMALLY REPRIMANDED as a sanction for violating explicitly clear orders" regarding confidentiality in the 2007 settlement agreement."In 2010, the Club's political arms spent about $8.6 million directly on candidates and bundled another $6 million from Club members, directing those funds to candidates.
In 2012, according to the Center for Responsive Politics, Club members donated at least $4 million, the Club's political arms spent nearly $18 million on elections. The Club for Growth's super PAC, most active in Republican primary elections, spent more in general elections in the 2018 cycle than it had before; this trend was expected to continue into 2020. Club for Growth president David McIntosh described the Club's evolution, saying "We want to be the political arm of the conservative movement—inside the Republican Party." Founder Stephen Moore has said, "We want to be seen as the tax cut enforcer in the party." Unlike many other political action committees, the Club for Growth's PAC participates in funding candidates for primary elections. The Club focuses more on open seats than on challenging sitting Republicans, but it has helped to unseat a number of incumbent Republicans; the Club for Growth has established a vetting process for potential candidates that involves one or more interviews, research on the race and the candidate's record, a poll conducted to establish whether the candidate has a viable chance for victory.
Each election cycle, the Club's PAC endorses candidates and encourages donors to support the endorsed candidates. Promoting a more conservative agenda, the Club is known for targeting "establishment" Republican candidates. In 2003, the original Club for Growth opposed the Medicare prescription drug benefit proposal; the Club for Growth supported the Bush tax cuts of 2003 and ran television ads against two Republicans who voiced opposition to the tax cuts. According to The New York Times, "Last spring, Moore attacked two Republican Senators who were resisting the latest tax cut: George Voinovich of Ohio and Olympia Snowe of Maine, he ran ads in each of their states in which he compared them with the French president, Jacques Chirac. Karl Rove, President Bush's political advisor, stated that the ads were "stupid" and "counterproductive". In 2005, Pat Toomey became the Club for Growth created a congressional scorecard; the Club's first key vote alert was an amendment sponsored by a Democrat. Representative Earl Blumenauer offered an amendment to an agricultural appropriations bill that would have reduced the sugar program by 6 percent.
The Club for Growth supported the amendment, which failed, 146–280. The Club fought to supp
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi
Polk County, Tennessee
Polk County is a county located in the southeastern corner of the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2016 census estimate, the population was 16,773, its county seat is Benton. The county was created on November 1839, from parts of Bradley and McMinn counties; the county was named after then-governor James K. Polk. Polk County is included in the Cleveland, metropolitan statistical area, included in the Chattanooga-Cleveland-Dalton, TN-GA-AL Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 442 square miles, of which 435 square miles is land and 7.7 square miles is water. The total area is 1.65% water. Located in the extreme southeastern corner of Tennessee, it is the state's only county to share borders with both Georgia and North Carolina. Much of the terrain of eastern Polk County is mountainous, including Big Frog Mountain, constituting part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Large tracts of Polk County are part of the Cherokee National Forest.
The Ocoee River, site of whitewater slalom events in the Atlanta 1996 Summer Olympic Games, runs through Polk County and is vital to one of the county's major industries, whitewater rafting. The calmer Hiwassee River, a tributary of the Tennessee River which flows through northern Polk County, is used for rafting and tubing. Monroe County Cherokee County, North Carolina Fannin County, Georgia Murray County, Georgia Bradley County McMinn County Big Frog Wilderness Cherokee National Forest William L. Davenport Refuge Ducktown Basin Museum and Burra Burra Mine Fourth Fractional Township Wildlife Management Area Hiwassee/Ocoee Scenic River State Park As of the census of 2010, there were 16,825 people, 6,653 households, 4,755 families residing in the county; the population density was 38.7 people per square mile. There were 7,991 housing units at an average density of 18.4 per square mile. There were 6,653 households out of which 26.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.60% were married couples living together, 9.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.30% were non-families.
25.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.14% under the age of 18, 5.0% from 20 to 24, 10.20% from 25 to 34, 21.60% from 35 to 49, 21.70% from 50-64, 17.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.5 years. The racial origins of the county is White alone being 97.5%, Black or African American alone, 0.3%, American Indian and Alaska Native alone, 0.4%, Asian alone, 0.1%, Two or More Races, 1.3%, Some Other Race being 0.04%. Hispanic or Latino origin being 1.3% of the population. In 2000, the median income for a household in the county was $29,643, the median income for a family was $36,370. Males had a median income of $27,703 versus $21,010 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,025. About 9.70% of families and 13.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.80% of those under age 18 and 18.40% of those age 65 or over.
Public schools in Polk County are operated by the Polk County Schools district. High Schools include Polk County High School; the district has Chilhowee Middle. The district has three elementary schools, Benton Elementary, South Polk Elementary and Copper Basin Elementary. Polk County was created by an act of the Tennessee General Assembly on November 23, 1839. Copper was discovered in Ducktown in 1843, by the 1850s a large mining operation was taking place here; this operation continued until the 1970s. In 1973, a large music festival known as the "Midwest Monster Peace Jubilee and Music Festival" known as the "Monster Peace Jubilee", was planned by Indiana-based promoter C. F. Manifest Inc. to take place on a 1,300 acre farm north of Benton on Labor Day of that year. Nicknamed "Polkstock" due to its resemblance to 1969's Woodstock in Bethel, New York, the event was expected to attract 500,000 and was opposed by locals the religious community, who believed the festival would bring sex and drugs, as well as much of the perceived rock music culture.
While the festival was still in the planning stages, the owner of the farm received a burning cross in his yard, shortly there after, a barn on his property suspiciously burned. The festival was shut down by the state circuit court, on the request of the district attorney, that the festival would constitute a public nuisance, due to drug and traffic problems. On May 27, 1983, a massive explosion at an illegal fireworks factory exploded, killing eleven workers; the operation, located on a bait farm a few miles south of Benton, was unlicensed, produced M-80 and M-100 fireworks, both illegal in Tennessee, was the largest illegal fireworks operation in the United States to date. The Ocoee Whitewater Center was the site of the canoe slalom events for the 1996 Summer Olympics. Copperhill Ducktown Benton US-64 US-74 US-411 SR-40 SR-30 SR-68 SR-74 SR-123 SR-163 SR-313 SR-314 SR-315 National Register of Historic Places listings in Polk County, Tennessee Official site Polk County/Copper Basin Chamber of Commerce Polk County, TNGenWeb - free genealogy resources for the county Polk County at Curlie