Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture
Xishuangbanna, Sibsongbanna, or Sipsong Panna, shortened to Banna is a Tai Lü autonomous prefecture in the extreme south of Yunnan, China. The prefectural seat is Jinghong, the largest settlement in the area and one that straddles the Mekong, called the "Lancang River" in Chinese; this region of China is noted for one unlike that of the Han Chinese. The people, architecture and culture more resemble those of the Shan and Tai peoples, which includes the Thai and Lao. Sipsongpanna is a Tai Lü compound consisting of sipsong "twelve", pan "township" and na "rice paddy"; the name refers to the traditional division of the mueang into twelve districts that were called panna The etymology is parallel to the autonomous Tai-speaking region in French Indochina from 1890 to 1945 called Sip Song Chau Tai meaning "twelve Tai cantons". In the chaos of the Xinhai Revolution that overthrew the Qing government in 1911 in favor of a Chinese republican government, a local official, Chao Meeng Jie, staged a rebellion against Qing remnant officials.
The Yunnan provincial government of the newly established Republic of China sent troops in 1913 to oust the rebels. Ke Shuxun remained in Xishuangbanna to govern with his "13 Principles of Governing the Frontier", which emphasized equality between Han and Dai in areas such as land ownership and taxation, allowed intermarriage between the ethnic groups and promoted education in secular and technical subjects, rather than Burmese-based monastic education; the Second Sino-Japanese War saw the heavy bombardment of Xishuangbanna by Japanese troops and a simultaneous influx of Pan-Taiist propaganda from Japan's ally, Thailand. According to Hsieh, this reduced the appeal of a broad pan-Tai identity among the Dai Lue. During the final phase of the Chinese Civil War, many remnants of the Kuomintang fled from Communists forces into Burma's Shan State from Xishuangbanna; the new People's Republic of China sent various non-military expeditions to Xishuangbanna from 1949 to provide services such as schools and hospitals to replace those from Christian western missionaries.
The Communists took control of the prefecture from Kuomintang loyalists in 1952. On January 23, 1953, the PRC established the Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Region and ended the native-chieftain system; that year, the People's Congress of Xishuangbanna created the New Tai Lue alphabet, based on the Tai Tham alphabet, for printing material in the Tai Lü language. Xishuangbanna was made an autonomous prefecture in 1955 but lost some territory on the creation of Jingdong Yi Autonomous County and Jiangcheng Hani and Yi Autonomous County. Land reform started in earnest in January 1956. State-owned rubber plantations accounted for most of the region's wealth during the early PRC period. Xishuangbanna received an influx of educated youth during the Down to the Countryside Movement of the Cultural Revolution. During this period Buddhist temples in Xishuangbanna were used as barns, only being restored to their original purpose in 1981. In 1987, the Xishuangbanna government promulgated the Law of the Xishuangbanna Dai Nationality Autonomous Prefecture for Self-government to bring local laws into line with the national Law of the People's Republic of China for Regional National Autonomy.
Shao Cunxin, former head of the Chieftain's outer council and chief of Meng Peng, was the chief of the autonomous prefecture from 1955 to 1992. Xishuangbanna governs two counties. References:Xishuangbanna Gov, Citypopulation.de Yunnan Urban Populations. The prefecture has an area of 19,700 km2. Xishuangbanna is the home of the Dai people; the region sits at a lower altitude than most of Yunnan, borders on tropical climate. It is fast becoming a sought after tourist destination, it has close proximity to Myanmar and Thailand. Xishuangbanna harbors much of the biodiversity of Yunnan, which harbors much of the biodiversity of China, its tropical climate and its remoteness until recent times account for this. In addition to an abundance of plants, Xishuangbanna is home to the last few Asian elephants still in China; the elephants are protected in a reserve, but the plant diversity is threatened by, has for five decades been threatened by, the proliferation of natural rubber plantations which destroy the rainforest and replace it with a monoculture of trees from Brazil.
Passiflora xishuangbannaensis is a discovered passiflora species, endemic to Xishuangbanna. With censuses in the year, 2000 Xishuangbanna had 993,397 inhabitants with a population density of 50.43 inhabitants per km². According to the 2000 national census, Dai people make up the plurality at 29.89%, with the Han Chinese coming in at a close second at 29.11%. At the time of the 1977 census, Han people made up the largest single ethnic group in Xishuangbanna, making up 36.53% of a population of 627,089, while Dai made up 33.15%, others 30.32%. The Xishuangbanna government has strived to maintain this ethnic balance of around 33% of each group: Han and other.
Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand and known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country; the capital and largest city is a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar, its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship. Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivaled each other.
European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign declining thereafter until being destroyed in 1767 in a war with Burma. Taksin reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom, he was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century. Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory, but it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup revived the monarchy's influential role in politics.
Thailand became a major ally of the United States and played a key anti-communist role in the region. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In the 21st century, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by the military junta. Thailand is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a military junta. Thailand is a founding member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations and remains a major ally of the US. Despite its comparatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, the second largest economy in Southeast Asia, the 20th largest by PPP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy. Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was known by the exonym Siam; the word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည. The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word; the word Śyâma is not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion. Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century; the Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. The signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, giving the name "Siam" official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed to Siam from 1946 to 1948. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".
A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" for people. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai would have evolved from the etymon *kri:'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA > tʰajA2 or > tajA2. Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for t
Royal Society of Thailand
The Royal Society of Thailand known as the Royal Society of Siam, is the national academy of Thailand in charge of academic works of the government. The secretariat of the society is the Office of the Royal Society of Thailand known as the Royal Institute of Thailand; the office is an independent department in the executive branch of Thailand and is not subject to any other agency. The Royal Society of Siam was established on 19 April 1926 and was dissolved on 31 March 1933; the dissolved society was split into the Royal Institute of Thailand and the Fine Arts Department of Thailand. On 14 February 2015, the Royal Institute of Thailand was reorganised, its administrative council became the Royal Society of Thailand, whilst the institute itself became the office of the society. According to the present structure, the members of the Royal Society of Thailand are of three types: associate fellows and honorary fellows; the associate fellows are experts appointed by the society. The fellows are associate fellows selected by the society and appointed by the monarch upon advice of the prime minister.
And the honorary fellows are prominent experts selected by the society and appointed in the same manner as the fellows. The society is known for its official roles in the planning and regulation of the Thai language, as well as its many publications the Royal Institute Dictionary, the official and prescriptive dictionary of the Thai language, the Royal Thai General System of Transcription, the official system for romanising Thai words; the budget allocated to the Royal Society for FY2019 is 192.2 million baht. On 19 April 1926, the Royal Society of Siam was established by King Prajadhipok; the society was dissolved on 31 March 1933 and its divisions were incorporated into two new agencies. The academic divisions became the Royal Institute of Thailand; the archaeological divisions became the Fine Arts Department of Thailand. According to the Act on Royal Institute, 1934, which took effect on 24 April 1933, the institute was a legal person sponsored by the government and the prime minister was in charge of the institute.
The act gave the institute three main duties: to conduct research in all fields and publish the outcomes for the common good of the nation, to exchange knowledge with foreign academic bodies, to provide academic opinions to the government and public agencies. Under the act, the institute members were selected by the institute itself and were appointed by the monarch upon approval of the cabinet and the House of Representatives. On 1 April 1942, 1942, entered into force; the act changed the status of the institute from a legal person to a public organisation and authorised the prime minister to directly command the institute. The act modified the method of selecting the institute members; the members were nominated to the monarch by the prime minister. On 31 December 1944, 1944, came into operation, it again modified the member selection method. The institute became an independent department commanded by the prime minister and its members were selected by the institute itself and were appointed by the monarch upon advice of the prime minister.
On 12 March 1952, 1952, became operative. It changed the commander of the institute from the prime minister to the culture minister. On 1 September 1958, 1958, became effective, it again changed the commander of the institute from the culture minister to the education minister. On 29 September 1972, Field Marshal Thanom Kittikachorn, leader of the junta called Revolutionary Council, issued the Revolutionary Council Announcement No. 216 which once again modified the status of the institute. According to the announcement, the institute changed its status from an independent department to a government department, not subject to any other agency and was commanded by the education minister. On 13 November 2001, 2001, entered into operation. Under the act, the institute was a government department, not subject to any other agency; the act improved the structure of the institute and increased its missions. On 14 February 2015, 2015, came into force and reorganised the institute. Under the act, the administrative council of the institute known as Council of Fellows, became the Royal Society, the institute became the secretariat of the society, known as the Office of the Royal Society.
The act granted many new powers to the office, including the powers to manage its own budgets, to provide advanced training in all fields of the society, to confer certificates upon the trainees. A welfare fund for the society members was established by the act. Many of the fellows objected to renaming the institute because no public hearing on the matter was held. On 21 August 2006, the society relocated to offices at Sanam Suea Pa, near the Royal Plaza in Bangkok; the institute was located in the Grand Palace, Bangkok. For administrative purposes, the society has four divisions: Secretariat General Moral and Political Sciences Division Science Division Arts DivisionThe society's website states that each division has a staff of civil servants and clerical employees who perform both business and academic functions facilitating the works of fellows and associate fellows as well as conducting and promoting various academic activities. Scholars from the academic community of Thailand can ap
Bayinnaung Kyawhtin Nawrahta was king of the Toungoo Dynasty of Burma from 1550 to 1581. During his 31-year reign, called the "greatest explosion of human energy seen in Burma", Bayinnaung assembled what was the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia, which included much of modern-day Burma, the Chinese Shan states, Lan Na, Lan Xang and Siam. Although he is best remembered for his empire building, Bayinnaung's greatest legacy was his integration of the Shan states into the Irrawaddy-valley-based kingdoms. After the conquest of the Shan states in 1557–1563, the king put in an administrative system that reduced the power of hereditary Shan saophas, brought Shan customs in line with low-land norms, it eliminated the threat of Shan raids into Upper Burma, an overhanging concern to Upper Burma since the late 13th century. His Shan policy was followed by Burmese kings right up to the final fall of the kingdom to the British in 1885. Bayinnaung could not replicate this administrative policy everywhere in his far flung empire, however.
His empire was a loose collection of former sovereign kingdoms, whose kings were loyal to him as the Cakkavatti, not the Kingdom of Toungoo. Indeed and Siam revolted just over two years after his death. By 1599, all the vassal states had revolted, the Toungoo Empire collapsed. Bayinnaung is considered one of the three greatest kings of Burma, along with Anawrahta and Alaungpaya; some of the most prominent places in modern Myanmar are named after him. He is well known in Thailand as Phra Chao Chana Sip Thit; the future king was born Ye Htut on 16 January 1516 to Shin Myo Myat. His exact ancestry is unclear. No extant contemporary records, including Hanthawaddy Hsinbyushin Ayedawbon, the extensive chronicle of the king's reign written two years before his death, mention his ancestry, it was only in 1724, some 143 years after the king's death that Maha Yazawin, the official chronicle of the Toungoo Dynasty, first proclaimed his genealogy. According to Maha Yazawin, he was born to a gentry family in Toungoo a former vassal state of the Ava Kingdom.
He was Minkhaung I on his father's side. Furthermore, Ye Htut was distantly related to presiding ruler of Toungoo Mingyi Nyo and his son Tabinshwehti through their common ancestor, Tarabya of Pakhan. Chronicles repeat Maha Yazawin's account. In all, the chronicles neatly tie his ancestry to all the previous main dynasties that existed in Upper Burma: the Ava, Myinsaing–Pinya and Pagan dynasties. Despite the official version of royal descent, oral traditions speak of a decidedly less grandiose genealogy: That his parents were commoners from Ngathayauk in Pagan district or Htihlaing village in Toungoo district, that his father was a toddy palm tree climber one of the lowest professions in Burmese society; the commoner origin narrative first gained prominence in the early 20th century during the British colonial period as nationalist writers like Po Kya promoted it as proof that a son of a toddy tree climber could rise to become the great emperor in Burmese society. To be sure, the chronicle and oral traditions need not be mutually exclusive since being a toddy tree climber does not preclude his having royal ancestors.
Whatever their origin and station in life may have been, both of his parents were chosen to be part of the seven-person staff to take care of the royal baby Tabinshwehti in April 1516. Ye Htut's mother was chosen to be the wet nurse of the heir apparent; the family moved into the Toungoo Palace precincts where the couple had three more sons, the last of whom died young. Ye Htut had an elder sister Khin Hpone Soe, three younger brothers: Minye Sithu, Thado Dhamma Yaza II, the youngest who died young, he had two half-brothers, Minkhaung II and Thado Minsaw who were born to his aunt and his father. Ye Htut grew up playing with the prince and the king's other children, including Princess Thakin Gyi, who would become his chief queen, he was educated in the palace along with the other children. King Mingyi Nyo required his son to receive an education in military arts. Tabinshwehti along with Ye Htut and other young men at the palace received training in martial arts, horseback riding, elephant riding, military strategy.
Ye Htut became the prince's right-hand man. On 24 November 1530, Mingyi Nyo died and Tabinshwehti ascended the throne; the 14-year-old new king took Ye Htut's elder sister Khin Hpone Soe as one of his two principal queens, rewarded his childhood staff and friends with royal titles and positions. Ye Htut a close confidant of the new king became a powerful figure in the kingdom, surrounded by hostile states. In the north, the Confederation of Shan States had conquered the Ava Kingdom just three and a half years earlier. To the west was the Confederation's ally the Prome Kingdom. To the south lay the Hanthawaddy Kingdom, the wealthiest and most powerful of all post-Pagan kingdoms; the impending threat became more urgent after the Confederation defeated its former ally Prome in 1532–1533. Tabinshwehti and the Toungoo leadership concluded that their kingdom "had to act if it wished to avoid being swallowed up" by the Confederation, it was during the kingdom's
History of Thailand
The Thai people, who lived in southwestern China, migrated into mainland Southeast Asia over a period of many centuries. The word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည the same root as Shan and Ahom. Chinese: 暹羅; the country's designation as Siam by Westerners came from the Portuguese. Portuguese chronicles noted that the Borommatrailokkanat, king of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, sent an expedition to the Malacca Sultanate at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula in 1455. Following their conquest of Malacca in 1511, the Portuguese sent a diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya. A century on 15 August 1612, The Globe, an East India Company merchantman bearing a letter from King James I, arrived in "the Road of Syam". "By the end of the 19th century, Siam had become so enshrined in geographical nomenclature that it was believed that by this name and no other would it continue to be known and styled."Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states of the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra had ruled the region.
The Thai established their own states: Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, the Kingdom of Chiang Mai, Lan Na, the Ayutthaya Kingdom. These states fought each other and were under constant threat from the Khmers and Vietnam. Much the European colonial powers threatened in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but Thailand survived as the only Southeast Asian state to avoid European colonial rule because of centralizing reforms enacted by King Chulalongkorn and because the French and the British decided it would be a neutral territory to avoid conflicts between their colonies. After the end of the absolute monarchy in 1932, Thailand endured sixty years of permanent military rule before the establishment of a democratically elected-government system. In 2014 there was yet another coup d'état. Prior to the southwards migration of the Tai peoples from Yunnan in the 10th century, mainland Southeast Asia had been a home to various indigenous communities for thousands of years; the discovery of Homo erectus fossils such as Lampang man is an example of archaic hominids.
The remains were first discovered during excavations in Lampang Province. The finds have been dated from 1,000,000–500,000 years ago in the Pleistocene. Stone artefacts dating to 40,000 years ago have been recovered from, e.g. Tham Lod rockshelter in Mae Hong Son and Lang Rongrien Rockshelter in Krabi, peninsular Thailand; the archaeological data between 18,000–3,000 years ago derive from cave and rock shelter sites, are associated with Hoabinhian foragers. There are many sites in Thailand dating to Iron Ages; the most researched of these sites are in the country's northeast in the Mun and Chi River valleys. The Mun River in particular is home to many "moated" sites composed of mounds surrounded by ditches and ramparts; the mounds contain evidence of prehistoric occupation. Around the first century, according to epigraphy of the Kingdom of Funan and the records of Chinese historians, a number of trading settlements of the south appear to have been organised into several Malay states, among the earliest of which are believed to be Langkasuka and Tambralinga.
Some trading settlements show evidence of trade with the Roman Empire: a Roman gold coin showing Roman emperor Antoninus Pius has been found in southern Thailand. Prior to the arrival of the Thai people and culture into what is now Thailand, the region hosted a number of indigenous Austroasiatic-speaking and Malayo-Sumbawan-speaking civilisations. However, little is known about Thailand before the 13th century, as the literary and concrete sources are scarce and most of the knowledge about this period is gleaned from archaeological evidence. Similar to other regions in Southeast Asia, Thailand was influenced by the culture and religions of India, starting with the Kingdom of Funan around the first century until the Khmer Empire. Indian influence on Siamese culture was the result of direct contact with Indian settlers, but it was brought about indirectly via the Indianised kingdoms of Dvaravati and the Khmer Empire. E. A. Voretzsch believes that Buddhism must have been flowing into Thailand from India at the time of the Indian emperor Ashoka of the Maurya Empire and into the first millennium.
Thailand was influenced by the south Indian Pallava dynasty and north Indian Gupta Empire. The Chao Phraya River in what is now central Thailand had once been the home of the Mon Dvaravati culture, which prevailed from the 7th century to the 10th century; the existence of the civilisations had long been forgotten by the Thai when Samuel Beal discovered the polity among the Chinese writings on Southeast Asia as "Duoluobodi". During the early 20th century archaeologists led by George Coedès made excavations in what is now Nakhon Pathom Province and found it to be a centre of Dvaravati culture; the constructed name Dvaravati was confirmed by a Sanskrit plate inscription containing the name "Dvaravati". On, many more Dvaravati sites were discovered throughout the Chao Phraya valley; the two most important sites were U Thong. The inscriptions of Dvaravati were in Sanskrit and Mon using the script derived from the Pallava alphabet of the South Indian Pallava dynasty; the religion of Dvaravati is thought to be Theravada Buddhism through contacts with Sri Lanka, with the ruling class participating in Hindu rites.
Dvaravati art, includ
Anawrahta Minsaw was the founder of the Pagan Empire. Considered the father of the Burmese nation, Anawrahta turned a small principality in the dry zone of Upper Burma into the first Burmese Empire that formed the basis of modern-day Burma. Verifiable Burmese history begins with his accession to the Pagan throne in 1044. Anawrahta unified the entire Irrawaddy valley for the first time in history, placed peripheral regions such as the Shan States and Arakan under Pagan's suzerainty, he stopped the advance of Khmer Empire into Tenasserim coastline and into Upper Menam valley, making Pagan one of two main kingdoms in mainland Southeast Asia. A strict disciplinarian, Anawrahta implemented a series of key social and economic reforms that would have a lasting impact in Burmese history, his social and religious reforms developed into the modern-day Burmese culture. By building a series of weirs, he turned parched, arid regions around Pagan into the main rice granaries of Upper Burma, giving Upper Burma an enduring economic base from which to dominate the Irrawaddy valley and its periphery in the following centuries.
He bequeathed a strong administrative system that all Pagan kings followed until the dynasty's fall in 1287. The success and longevity of Pagan's dominance over the Irrawaddy valley laid the foundation for the ascent of Burmese language and culture, the spread of Burman ethnicity in Upper Burma. Anawrahta's legacy went far beyond the borders of modern Burma, his embrace of Theravada Buddhism and his success in stopping the advance of Khmer Empire, a Hindu state, provided the Buddhist school, in retreat elsewhere in South and Southeast Asia, a much needed reprieve and a safe shelter. He helped restart Theravada Buddhism in the Buddhist school's original home; the success of Pagan dynasty made Theravada Buddhism's growth in Lan Na, Lan Xang, Khmer Empire in the 13th and 14th centuries possible. Anawrahta is one of the most famous kings in Burmese history, his life stories retold in popular literature and theater. Prior to Anawrahta, of all the early Pagan kings, only Nyaung-u Sawrahan's reign can be verified independently by stone inscriptions.
Anawrahta is the first historical king in that the events during his reign can be verified by stone inscriptions. However, Anawrahta's youth, like much of early Pagan history, is still shrouded in legend, should be treated as such. Anawrahta was born Min Saw to King Kunhsaw Kyaunghpyu and Queen Myauk Pyinthe on 11 May 1044; the Burmese chronicles do not agree on the dates regarding his reign. The table below lists the dates given by the four main chronicles. Among the chronicles, scholarship accepts Zata's dates, which are considered to be the most accurate for the Pagan period. Scholarship's dates for Anawrahta's birth and reign dates are closest to Zata's dates. In 1021, when Min Saw was about six years old, his father was deposed by his step-brothers Kyiso and Sokkate, his father had been a usurper of the Pagan throne, who overthrew King Nyaung-u Sawrahan two decades earlier. Kunhsaw married three of Nyaung-u's chief queens, two of whom were pregnant at the time, subsequently gave birth to Kyiso and Sokkate.
Kunhsaw had raised Kyiso as his own sons. After the putsch, Kyiso became Sokkate became heir-apparent, they forced their step-father to a local monastery, where Kunhsaw would live as a monk for the remainder of his life. Min Saw grew up in the shadow of his two step-brothers, who viewed Min Saw as their youngest brother and allowed him to retain his princely status at the court. Min Saw and his mother attended Kunhsaw, lived nearby the monastery. In 1038, Kyiso died, was succeeded by Sokkate. Min Saw was loyal to the new king, he took wives, had at least two sons by the early 1040s. In 1044 however, Min Saw raised a rebellion at nearby Mount Popa, challenged Sokkate to single combat. According to the chronicles, the reason for his uprising was that Sokkate had just raised Min Saw's mother as queen. Sokkate is said to have addressed Min Saw as brother-son. Sokkate accepted the challenge to single combat on horseback. On 11 August 1044, Min Saw slew Sokkate near Pagan; the king and his horse both fell into the river nearby.
Min Saw first offered the throne to his father. The former king, who had long been a monk, refused. On 16 December 1044, Min Saw ascended the throne with the title of Anawrahta, a Burmanized form of Sanskrit name Aniruddha, his full royal style was Maha Yaza Thiri Aniruddha Dewa. Burmese history now begins to be less conjectural. In the beginning, Anawrahta's principality was a small area—barely 200 miles north to south and about 80 miles from east to west, comprising the present districts of Mandalay, Myingyan, Yamethin, Magwe and Katha east of the Irrawaddy, the riverine portions of Minbu and Pakkoku. To the north lay Nanzhao Kingdom, to the east still uninhibited Shan Hills, to the south and the west the Pyus, farther south still, the Mons. Anawrahta's first acts as king were to organize his kingdom, he graded every village according to the levy it could raise. He made great efforts to turn the arid parched lands of central Burma into a rice granary, he constructed the irrigation system, still used in Upper Burma today.
He repaired the Meiktila Lake, built four weirs and canals (K