Turks in Algeria
The Turks in Algeria commonly referred to as Algerian Turks, Algerian-Turkish Algero-Turkish and Turkish-Algerians are ethnic Turkish descendants who, alongside the Arabs and Berbers, constitute an admixture to Algeria's population. During Ottoman rule, Turkish settlers began to migrate to the region predominately from Anatolia and many intermarried with the native population; the terms "Turks" and "Kouloughlis" have traditionally been used to distinguish between those of full and partial Turkish ancestry. In the late nineteenth century the French colonisers in North Africa classified the populations under their rule as "Arab" and "Berber", despite the fact that these countries had diverse populations, which were composed of ethnic Turks and Kouloughlis. According to the U. S. Department of State "Algeria's population, a mixture of Arab and Turkish in origin". Thus, numerous estimates suggest that Algerians of Turkish descent still represent 5% to 25% of the country's population. Since the Ottoman era, the Turks settled in the coastal regions of Algeria and Turkish descendants continue to live in the big cities today.
Moreover, Turkish descended families continue to practice the Hanafi school of Islam and many retain their Turkish-origin surnames—which express a provenance or ethnic Turkish origin from Anatolia. The Turkish minority have formed the Association des Turcs algériens to promote their culture; the foundation of Ottoman Algeria was directly linked to the establishment of the Ottoman province of the Maghreb at the beginning of the 16th century. At the time, fearing that their city would fall into Spanish hands, the inhabitants of Algiers called upon Ottoman corsairs for help. Headed by Oruç Reis and his brother Hayreddin Barbarossa, they took over the rule of the city and started to expand their territory into the surrounding areas. Sultan Selim I agreed to assume control of the Maghreb regions ruled by Hayreddin as a province, granting the rank of governor-general to Hayreddin. In addition, the Sultan sent 2,000 janissaries, accompanied by about 4,000 volunteers to the newly established Ottoman province of the Maghreb, whose capital was to be the city of Algiers.
These Turks from Anatolia, called each other "yoldaş" and called their sons born of unions with local women "Kuloğlu’s", implying that they considered their children's status as that of the Sultan's servants. To indicate in the registers that a certain person is an offspring of a Turk and a local woman, the note "ibn al-turki" was added to his name; the exceptionally high number of Turks affected the character of the city of Algiers, that of the province at large. In 1587, the province was divided into three different provinces, which were established where the modern states of Algeria and Tunisia, were to emerge; each of these provinces was headed by a Pasha sent from Constantinople for a three-year term. The division of the Maghreb launched the process that led to the janissary corps' rule over the province. From the end of the 16th century, Algiers's Ottoman elite chose to emphasize its Turkish identity and nurture its Turkish character to a point at which it became an ideology. By so doing, the Algerian province took a different path from that of its neighboring provinces, where local-Ottoman elites were to emerge.
The aim of nurturing the elite's Turkishness was twofold: it limited the number of the privileged group while demonstrating the group's loyalty to the Sultan. By the 18th century there was 50,000 janissaries concentrated in the city of Algiers alone; the lifestyle, language and area of origin of the Ottoman elite's members created remarkable differences between the Algerian Ottoman elite and the indigenous population. For example, members of the elite adhered to Hanafi law while the rest of the population subscribed to the Maliki school. Most of the elites originated from non-Arab regions of the Empire. Furthermore, most members of the elite spoke Ottoman Turkish while the local population spoke Algerian Arabic and differed from the rest of the population in their dress. From its establishment, the military-administrative elite worked to reinvigorate itself by enlisting volunteers from non-Arab regions of the Ottoman Empire from Anatolia. Hence, local recruiting of Arabs was unheard of and during the 18th century a more or less permanent network of recruiting officers was kept in some coastal Anatolian cities and on some of the islands of the Aegean Sea.
The recruitment policy was therefore one of the means employed to perpetuate the Turkishness of the Ottoman elite and was practiced until the fall of the province in 1830. During the 18th century, the militia practiced a restrictive policy on marriages between its members and local women. A married soldier would lose his right of residence in one of the city's eight barracks and the daily ration of bread to which he was entitled, he would lose his right to purchase a variety of products at a preferential price. Nonetheless, the militia's marriage policy made clear distinctions among holders of different ranks: the higher the rank, the more acceptable the marriage of its holder; this policy can be understood as part of th
Turkish people or the Turks known as Anatolian Turks, are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most spoken Turkic language. They are the largest ethnic group in Turkey, as well as by far the largest ethnic group among the speakers of Turkic languages. Ethnic Turkish minorities exist in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire. In addition, a Turkish diaspora has been established with modern migration in Western Europe. Turks arrived from Central Asia and settled in the Anatolian basin in around the 11th century through the conquest of Seljuk Turks, mixing with the peoples of Anatolia; the region began to transform from a predominately Greek Christian one to a Turkish Muslim society. Thereafter, the Ottoman Empire came to rule much of the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle East, North Africa over the course of several centuries, with an advanced army and navy; the Empire lasted until the end of the First World War, when it was defeated by the Allies and partitioned.
Following the successful Turkish War of Independence that ended with the Turkish national movement retaking most of the land lost to the Allies, the movement abolished the Ottoman sultanate on 1 November 1922 and proclaimed the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923. Not all Ottomans were Muslims and not all Ottoman Muslims were Turks, but by 1923, the majority of people living within the borders of the new Turkish republic identified as Turks. Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as "anyone, bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship". However, the majority of the Turkish population are of Turkish ethnicity and are estimated at 70–75 percent; the ethnonym "Turk" may be first discerned in Herodotus' reference to Targitas, first king of the Scythians. Pomponius Mela refers to the "Turcae" in the forests north of the Sea of Azov, Pliny the Elder lists the "Tyrcae" among the people of the same area; the first definite references to the "Turks" come from Chinese sources in the sixth century.
In these sources, "Turk" appears as "Tujue". In the 19th century, the word Türk only referred to Anatolian villagers; the Ottoman ruling class identified themselves as Ottomans, not as Turks. In the late 19th century, as the Ottoman upper classes adopted European ideas of nationalism the term Türk took on a much more positive connotation. During Ottoman times, the millet system defined communities on a religious basis, a residue of this remains in that Turkish villagers consider as Turks only those who profess the Sunni faith. Turkish Jews, Christians, or Alevis may be considered non-Turks. On the other hand, Kurdish followers of the Sunni branch of Islam who live in eastern Anatolia were sometimes considered "Mountain Turks". Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as anyone, "bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship." It is believed by Robert Fisk. Anatolia was first inhabited by hunter-gatherers during the Paleolithic era, in antiquity was inhabited by various ancient Anatolian peoples.
After Alexander the Great's conquest in 334 BC, the area was Hellenized, by the first century BC it is thought that the native Anatolian languages, themselves earlier newcomers to the area, as a result of the Indo-European migrations, became extinct. In Central Asia, the earliest surviving Turkic-language texts, the eighth-century Orkhon inscriptions, were erected by the Göktürks in the sixth century CE, include words not common to Turkic but found in unrelated Inner Asian languages. Although the ancient Turks were nomadic, they traded wool, leather and horses for wood, silk and grain, as well as having large ironworking stations in the south of the Altai Mountains during the 600s CE. Most of the Turkic peoples were followers of Tengrism, sharing the cult of the sky god Tengri, although there were adherents of Manichaeism, Nestorian Christianity and Buddhism. However, during the Muslim conquests, the Turks entered the Muslim world proper as slaves, the booty of Arab raids and conquests; the Turks began converting to Islam after Muslim conquest of Transoxiana through the efforts of missionaries and merchants.
Although initiated by the Arabs, the conversion of the Turks to Islam was filtered through Persian and Central Asian culture. Under the Umayyads, most were domestic servants, whilst under the Abbasid Caliphate, increasing numbers were trained as soldiers. By the ninth century, Turkish commanders were leading the caliphs’ Turkish troops into battle; as the Abbasid Caliphate declined, Turkish officers assumed more military and political power taking over or establishing provincial dynasties with their own corps of Turkish troops. During the 11th century the Seljuk Turks who were admirers of the Persian civilization grew in number and were able to occupy the eastern province of the Abbasid Empire. By 1055, the Seljuk Empire captured Baghdad and began to make their first incursions into the edges of Anatolia; when the Seljuk Turks won the Battle of Manzikert against the Byzantine Empire in 1071, it opened the gates of Anatolia to them. Although ethnically Turkish, the Seljuk Turks appreciated and became the purveyors of the Persian culture rather than the Turkish culture.
Nonetheless, the Turkish language and Islam were introduced and spread over the region and the slow transition from a predominantly Christian and Greek-speaking Anatolia to a pr
Siberian Tatars, the indigenous Tatar population of the forests and steppes of South Siberia, originate in areas stretching from somewhat east of the Ural Mountains to the Yenisei River in Russia. The Siberian Tatars call themselves Yerle Qalyq, to distinguish themselves from more recent Volga Tatar immigrants to the region; the word "Tatar" or "Tadar" is used as a self-designation by some related Siberian ethnic groups, namely the Chulym, Shor and Khakas peoples. The 2010 census counted more than 500,000 people in Siberia defined their ethnicity as "Tatar". About 200 thousand of them are considered indigenous Siberian Tatars. However, only 6779 of them called themselves "Siberian Tatars", it is not clear which part of those who called themselves “Siberian Tatars” consider themselves to be a separate ethnos, which part as a group into the Tatar people, because In the census took into account the Siberian Tatars as a subgroup of the Tatar ethnos. As of 2018 the Siberian Tatars do not yet have public education available in their own language.
Lessons in the local schools are taught only in the Volga Tatar languages. Siberian Tatars lived in the vast territory stretching from around the Yenisei river all the way to the area lying somewhat east of the Ural mountains. According to the ambassadors of the Siberian Khanate ruler Yediger Khan, who visited Moscow in 1555, the population of "the black people," not counting the aristocracy, was 30,700. In a decree concerning tribute issued by Ivan the Terrible, the population was given as 40,000. According to the results of the 1897 All-Russia Census, there were 56,957 Siberian Tatars in Tobolsk guberniya; this was the last accurate information about this population. In censuses, Tatar immigrants from the other regions of Russia were recorded under the classification of Tatar; the Siberian Tatars tried to avoid the census as much as possible, as they believed that it was an attempt to force them to pay the Yasak. Their population in the territory of the current Tyumen Oblast in 1926 was recorded as 70,000.
According to the results of the 2002 Russian Census, there were 385,949 Tatars living in the oblasts discussed above.. Of these Tatars only 9,289 identified as Siberian Tatars. 2002 Russian Census recorded a total of 9,611 Siberian Tatars in Russia. Some publications estimated their number in the range of 190,000-210,000; such significant discrepancy is explained by the fact that the immigrants from the other ethnic groups who are called Tatar by the Russians were included in the figure, though most were Volga Tatars. The term Siberian Tatar covers three autochthonous groups, all Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi madhab, found in southern Siberia, they are remnants of the Khanate of Sibir, conquered by Russia in 1582. Geographically, the Siberian Tatars are divided into three main groups, each speaking their own dialect. Although the Siberian Tatar language has been sometimes considered a dialect of Tatar, detailed linguistic study demonstrates that Siberian Tatar idioms are quite remote from Volga Tatar by origin.
Siberian Tatars' ancestry was from Turkic and Mongol peoples, but their main ancestors are Samoyedic and Ugric tribes. Siberian Tatar language is, due to the Kipchakization processes during the Middle Ages, many times classified as belonging to the Kypchak–Nogay group of the Kypchak languages. There are as many elements that could be classified in the Upper Altaian language group. Beginning in the 12th century, the Siberian Tatar language received; those Siberian Tatars who are living in ethnically mixed villages where, in the periods after Russian colonization, more numerous Volga Tatars settled, have been influenced by the Kypchak-Bulgar language. Siberian Tatar language has different dialects. Since the penetration of Islam until the 1920s after the Russian Revolution, Siberian Tatars, like all Muslim nations, were using an alphabet, based on Arabic script. In 1928 they adopted an alphabet based on Latin script, in 1939 one based on the Cyrillic script; until 2014, the written language for Siberian Tatars was Tatar, a version based on the grammar rules of Volga Tatars.
In the 21st century, work began on the rationalizing of the Siberian Tatar language. Teams have conducted scientific research in the field of literary language norms of the indigenous population of Siberia, they have published the "Русско-сибирскотатарский словарь = Урысца-сыбырца сүслек", "Грамматика современного сибирскотатарского языка". International Organization for Standardization ISO 639-3 PA with its headquarters in Washington, awarded in 2013, the Siberian Tatar language classification code'sty' in New Language Code Element in ISO 639-3; the first person who researched Siberian Tatar language was Gabdulkhay Akhatov, a Soviet Volga Tatar linguist and an organizer of science. The Tobol-Irtysh Tatars group is the most numerous out of all 3 groups of Siberian Tatars, they live in the Tyumen and Omsk Oblasts. The sub-groups are: Zabolotnie, Kurdak-Sargat, Tyumen-Turin, their self-designation is Baraba, they are found in the steppe of Baraba, in the Novosibirsk Oblast. Their population is around 8,000.
The sub-groups are: Lyubey-Tunus, Terenin-Choy. The Tom Tatars
The Selkup, until the 1930s called Ostyak-Samoyeds, are a Samoyedic ethnic group native to Northern Siberia. They live in the northern parts of Tomsk Oblast, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Selkups speak the Selkup language, which belongs to the Samoyedic languages of the Uralic language family; the Selkups originated in the middle basin of the Ob River, from interactions between the aboriginal Yeniseian population and Samoyedic peoples that came to the region from the Sayan Mountains during the early part of the first millennium CE. In the 17th century, some of the Selkups relocated up north to live along the Taz River and Turukhan River, they were engaged in hunting and reindeer breeding. In the 18th century, Selkups participated in a massive baptism campaign. However, many returned to their ancient religious customs. According to the 2002 Census, there were 4,249 Selkups in Russia. There were 62 Selkups in Ukraine. Sobanski, Florian. "The southern Selkups of Tomsk Province before and after 1991".
Nationalities Papers. 29: 171–179. Doi:10.1080/00905990120036448. Article on Selkups from the Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire A Selkup fisherman from Western Siberia
Krasnoyarsk Krai is a federal subject of Russia, with its administrative center in the city of Krasnoyarsk—the third-largest city in Siberia. Comprising half of the Siberian Federal District, Krasnoyarsk Krai is the largest krai in the Russian Federation, the second largest federal subject and the third largest subnational governing body by area in the world, after Sakha and the Australian state of Western Australia; the krai covers an area of 2,339,700 square kilometers, nearly one quarter the size of the entire country of Canada, constituting 13% of the Russian Federation's total area and containing a population of 2,828,187, or just under 2% of its population, per the 2010 Census. The krai lies in the middle of Siberia, occupies nearly half of the Siberian Federal District splitting it in half, stretching 3,000 km from the Sayan Mountains in the south along the Yenisei River to the Taymyr Peninsula in the north, it borders the Sakha Republic, the Tuva Republic, the Republic of Khakassia, Kemerovo and Tyumen Oblasts, the Kara Sea and Laptev Sea of the Arctic Ocean in the north.
The krai is located in the basin of the Arctic Ocean. The main rivers of the krai are the Yenisei, its tributaries: the Kan, the Angara, the Podkamennaya Tunguska, the Nizhnyaya Tunguska. There are several thousand lakes in the krai; the largest lakes include Beloye, Glubokoye, Khantayskoye, Lama, Pyasina and Yessey. The rivers and lakes are rich with fish; the climate is continental with large temperature variations during the year. For the central and southern regions where most of the krai's population lives, long winters and short, hot summers are characteristic; the territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai experiences conditions of three climate belts: Arctic and moderate. In the north there are less than 40 days with temperature above 10 °C, while in the south there are 110–120 such days; the average temperature in January is − 18 °C in the south. The average temperature in July is +20 °C in the south; the annual precipitation is 316 millimeters. Snow covers the central regions of the krai from early November until late March.
The peaks of the Sayan Mountains higher than 2,400–2,600 m and those of the Putorana Plateau higher than 1,000–1,300 m are covered with permanent snow. Permafrost is widespread in the north; the coastline contains a number of prominent peninsulas - from west to east the main ones are the Minina Peninsula, Mikhaylova Peninsula, the Taymyr Peninsula and the Khara-Tumus Peninsula. There are a large number of islands off the krai's coast, the most prominent of which are Sibiryakov Island, Nosok Island, Dikson Island, Vern Island, Brekhovskiye Island, Krestovskiy Island, the Kamennye Islands, the Zveroboy Islands, the Labyrintovye Islands, the Plavnikovye Islands, Kolosovykh Island, the Mona Islands, Rykacheva Island, Gavrilova Island and Prodolgovatyy Islands, the Nordenskiöld Archipelago, the Firnley Islands, the Heiberg Islands, Starokadomsky Island, Maly Taymyr Island, the Komsomolskaya Pravda Islands, the Faddey Islands, the Saint Peter Islands. There are a number of islands further out that fall under the administration of Krasnoyarsk Krai - the most prominent being Bolshoy Island, Sverdrup Island, the Izvestiy TSIK Islands, the Arkticheskiy Institut Islands, the Kirov Islands, Uyedineniya Island, Voronina Island, Severnaya Zemlya, Ushakov Island.
The highest point of the krai is Grandiozny Peak in the East Sayan Mountains at an elevation of 2,922 meters. According to archaeologists, the first people reached Siberia circa 40,000 BCE; the grave-mounds and monuments of the Scythian culture in Krasnoyarsk Krai belong to the 7th century BCE and are ones of the oldest in Eurasia. A prince's grave, the Kurgan Arshan, discovered in 2001, is located in the krai. Russian settlement of the area began in the 17th century. After the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway the Russian colonization of the area increased. During both the Tsarist and the Bolsheviks' times the territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai was used as a place of exile of political enemies; the first leaders of the Soviet state, Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin were exiled to what is now the krai in 1897–1900 and 1903, respectively. In Stalin's era numerous Gulag camps were located in the region. In 1822, the Yeniseysk Governorate was created with Krasnoyarsk as its administrative center that covered territory similar to that of the current krai.
On June 30, 1908, in the basin of the Podkamennaya Tunguska River, there occurred a powerful explosion most to have been caused by the air burst of a large meteoroid or comet fragment at an altitude of 5–10 kilometers above Earth's surface. The force of the explosion is estimated to be about 10–15 megatons, it killed thousands of reindeer. Krasnoyarsk Krai was created in 1934 after disaggregation of the West Siberian and East Siberian Krais and included Taymyr and Evenk Autonomous Okrugs and Khakas Autono
Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan known as Iranian Azerbaijan, is a historical region in northwestern Iran that borders Iraq, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and the Republic of Azerbaijan. Iranian Azerbaijan is administratively divided into West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan and Zanjan provinces; the region is populated by Azeris, with minority populations of Kurds, Tats, Talysh and Persians. Iranian Azerbaijan is the land and called Azerbaijan. Historic Azerbaijan was called Atropatene in antiquity and Aturpatakan in the pre-Islamic Middle Ages; some people refer to Iranian Azerbaijan as South Azerbaijan and the Republic of Azerbaijan as Northern Azerbaijan, although others believe that these terms are irredentist and politically motivated. This term is used by the people of the Republic of Azerbaijan and its usage in Iran is rare. Following military defeats at the hands of the Russian Empire, Qajar Persia ceded all of its territories in the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia to Russia via the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813 and the Treaty of Turkmenchay of 1828.
The territories south of the Aras River, which comprised the region known as Azerbaijan, became the new north-west frontier of the Persian Empire and Iran. The territories north of the Aras River, which were not known by the name Azerbaijan at the time of their capture by Russia, were absorbed into the Russian Empire, renamed the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic during the country's short-lived independence from 1918 to 1920, incorporated into the Soviet Union as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, became the independent Republic of Azerbaijan when the Soviet Union dissolved; the name Azerbaijan itself is derived from Atropates, the Persian Satrap of Medea in the Achaemenid empire, who ruled a region found in modern Iranian Azerbaijan called Atropatene. Atropates name is believed to be derived from the Old Persian roots meaning "protected by fire." The name is mentioned in the Avestan Frawardin Yasht: âterepâtahe ashaonô fravashîm ýazamaide which translates to: "We worship the Fravashi of the holy Atare-pata."
According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam: "In Middle Persian the name of the province was called Āturpātākān, older new-Persian Ādharbādhagān, Ādharbāyagān, at present Āzerbāydjān/Āzarbāydjān, Greek Atropatíni, Byzantine Greek Adravigánon, Armenian Atrpatakan, Syriac Adhorbāyghān." The name Atropat in Middle Persian is connected with Zoroastrianism. A famous Zoroastrian priest by the name Adarbad Mahraspandan is well known for his counsels. Azerbaijan, due to its numerous fire-temples has been quoted in a variety of historic sources as being the birthplace of the prophet Zoroaster although modern scholars have not yet reached an agreement on the location of his birth. With Qajar Iran being forced to cede to Imperial Russia its Caucasian territories north of the Aras River during the course of the 19th century, through the treaties of Gulistan and Turkmenchay, vast amounts of soil were irrevocably lost. Following the disintegration of the Russian Empire in 1917, as well as the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, in 1918, the leading Musavat government adopted the name "Azerbaijan" for the newly established Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, proclaimed on May 27, 1918, for political reasons though the name of "Azerbaijan" had always been used to refer to the adjacent region of contemporary northwestern Iran.
Thus, until 1918, when the Musavat regime decided to name the newly independent state Azerbaijan, this designation had been used to identify the Iranian province of Azerbaijan. The oldest kingdom known in Iranian Azerbaijan is that of the Mannea who ruled a region south-east of Lake Urmia centred around modern Saqqez; the Manneans were a confederation of non-Iranian groups. According to Professor Zadok: it is unlikely. Like other peoples of the Iranian plateau, the Manneans were subjected to an increasing Iranian penetration; the Mannaeans were conquered and absorbed by an Iranian people called Matieni, the country was called Matiene, with Lake Urmia called Lake Matianus. Matiene was conquered by the Medes and became a satrapy of the Median empire and a sub-satrapy of the Median satrapy of the Persian Empire. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the Medes were an: Indo-European people, related to the Persians, who entered northeastern Iran as early as the 17th century BC and settled in the plateau land that came to be known as Media.
After Alexander the Great conquered Persia, he appointed as governor the Persian general Atropates, who established an independent dynasty. The region, which came to be known as Atropatene or Media Atropatene, was much disputed. In the 2nd century BC, it was liberated from Seleucid domination by Mithradates I of Arsacid dynasty, was made a province of the Sassanid Empire of Ardashir I. Under the Sassanids, Azerbaijan was ruled by a marzubān, towards the end of the period, belonged to the family of Farrokh Hormizd. Large parts of the region were conquered by the Kingdom of Armenia. Large parts of the region made up part of historical Armenia; the parts of historical Armenia within what is m
Azerbaijanis or Azeris known as Azerbaijani Turks, are a Turkic people living in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign Republic of Azerbaijan. They are the second-most numerous ethnic group among the Turkic peoples after Anatolian Turks, they are predominantly Shi'i Muslims. They comprise the largest ethnic group in the Republic of Azerbaijan and the second-largest ethnic group in neighboring Iran and Georgia; the world's largest number of ethnic Azerbaijanis live in Iran, followed by the Republic of Azerbaijan. In spite of being speakers of a Turkic language, Iranian Azerbaijanis are believed to be descended from the earlier Iranian speakers of the region as historical research and genetic tests have proven, they are the possible descendants of the Medes, an Ancient Iranian ethnic group which inhabited the current region. Close genetics with the Kurds, an Iranian ethnic group, have supported this idea. Thus, due to their historical and cultural ties to the Iranians, Iranian Azerbaijanis are often associated with the Iranian peoples.
Genetic studies observed that they are genetically related to the Iranian peoples. The Azerbaijanis of the Republic of Azerbaijan are of Caucasian and Iranian origin and are said to be the descendants of inhabitants of Caucasian Albania. There is evidence that, despite repeated invasions and migrations, aboriginal Caucasians may have been culturally assimilated, first by Iranians, such as the Alans, Ancient Persians and by the Oghuz Turks. Considerable information has been learned about the Caucasian Albanians including their language, early conversion to Christianity, close ties to the Armenians. Many academics believe that the Udi language, still spoken in Azerbaijan, is a remnant of the Albanians' language. Genetic testing has proven that the region has a mixed population with relationships, in order of greatest similarity, with the Caucasus and Near Easterners and Turkmen. Following the Russo-Persian Wars of 1813 and 1828, the territories of the Sublime State of Iran in the Caucasus were ceded to the Russian Empire and the treaties of Gulistan in 1813 and Turkmenchay in 1828 finalized the borders between Russia and Qajar Iran.
The formation of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1918 established the territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Differences in the Azerbaijani language have arisen after centuries of separation from Iran with there being significant differences in the grammatical and lexical structures of the language. Additionally and Azeri are mutually intelligible to a high enough degree that their speakers can have simple conversation without prior knowledge of the other, which prompted some Turkic linguists to classify their relationship as a Western Oghuz dialect continuum. Azerbaijan is believed to be named after Atropates, a Persian satrap who ruled in Atropatene circa 321 BC; the name Atropates is the Hellenistic form of Aturpat which means'guardian of fire'. Present-day name Azerbaijan is the Arabicized form of Azarbaigān; the latter is derived from Ādurbādagān, itself from Āturpātakān meaning'the land associated with Aturpat'. The modern ethnonym "Azerbaijani" or "Azeri" refers to the Turkic peoples of Iranian Azerbaijan and Republic of Azerbaijan.
They called themselves or were referred to by others as Muslims, Turkmens, Persians, or Ajams –, to say that religious identification prevailed over ethnic identification. When the Southern Caucasus became part of the Russian Empire in the nineteenth century, the Russian authorities, who traditionally referred to all Turkic people as Tatars, defined Tatars living in the Transcaucasus region as Caucasian or Aderbeijanskie Tatars in order to distinguish them from other Turkic groups; the Russian Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary, written in the 1890s referred to Tatars in Azerbaijan as Aderbeijans, but noted that the term had not been adopted. This ethnonym was used by Joseph Deniker: grouping coincide with the somatological grouping: thus the Aderbeijani of the Caucasus and Persia, who speak a Turkic language, have the same physical type as the Hadjemi-Persians, who speak an Iranian tongue. In Azerbaijani language publications, the expression "Azerbaijani nation" referring to those who were known as Tatars of the Caucasus first appeared in the newspaper Kashkul in 1880.
Ancient residents of the area spoke Old Azeri from the Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. In the 11th century AD with Seljukid conquests, Oghuz Turkic tribes started moving across the Iranian plateau into the Caucasus and Anatolia; the influx of the Oghuz and other Turkmen tribes was further accentuated by the Mongol invasion. Here, the Oghuz tribes divided into various smaller groups, some of whom – Sunni – moved to Anatolia and became settled, while others remained in the Caucasus region and – due to the influence of the Safaviyya – converted to the Shia branch of Islam; the latter were to keep the name "Turkmen" or "Turcoman" for a long t