Some criminal organizations, such as terrorist groups, are politically motivated. Sometimes criminal organizations force people to do business with them, such as when a gang extorts money from shopkeepers for so-called protection, gangs may become disciplined enough to be considered organized. A criminal organization or gang can be referred to as a mafia, mob, or crime syndicate, European sociologists define the mafia as a type of organized crime group that specializes in the supply of extra-legal protection and quasi law enforcement. There is a tendency to distinguish organized crime from other forms of crime, such as crime, financial crimes, political crimes, war crime, state crimes. This distinction is not always apparent and academics continue to debate the matter, for example, in failed states that can no longer perform basic functions such as education, security, or governance, organised crime and war sometimes complement each other. The term Oligarchy has been used to describe democratic countries whose political and economic institutions come under the control of a few families, in the United States, the Organized Crime Control Act defines organized crime as he unlawful activities of a highly organized, disciplined association.
Criminal activity as a process is referred to as racketeering. In the UK, police estimate that organized crime involves up to 38,000 people operating in 6,000 various groups, bureaucratic/corporate organized crime groups are defined by the general rigidity of their internal structures. An estimate on youth street gangs nationwide provided by Hannigan, et al. marked an increase of 35% between 2002 and 2010, the term “street gang” is commonly used interchangeably with “youth gang, ” referring to neighborhood or street-based youth groups that meet “gang” criteria. Some reasons youth join gangs include to feel accepted, attain status, a sense of unity brings together many of the youth gangs that lack the family aspect at home. Zones of transition are deteriorating neighborhoods with shifting populations, in such areas, conflict between groups, turf wars, and theft promote solidarity and cohesion. Participation in gang-related events during adolescence perpetuate a pattern of maltreatment on their own children years later, klein like Spergel studied the effects on members of social workers’ interventions.
More interventions actually lead to greater participation and solidarity and bonds between members. Downes and Rock on Parker’s analysis, strain theory applies, labeling theory, control theory and these may be defined by age or peer group influences, and the permanence or consistency of their criminal activity. These groups form their own identity or public representation which are recognizable by the community at large. Some studied street gangs involved in drug dealing - finding that their structure, members saw themselves as organized criminals, gangs were formal-rational organizations, Strong organizational structures, well defined roles and rules that guided members’ behavior. Also a specified and regular means of income, padilla agreed with the two above. However some have found these to be rather than well-defined and lacking persistent focus, there was relatively low cohesion, few shared goals
Dead Man Incorporated
Roark was a close associate of the Black Guerrilla Family and received permission from them to start an organization to unite white inmates in the system. The group grew in size due to infiltration by a man named Michael Quinn. He recruited anybody who wanted to join in every location, Sweeney sought numbers as opposed to quality as he felt secure with numbers and thought numbers brought strength. Members often refer to other as Dawgs, an acronym meaning DMI Against World Government Tattoos include dogs, DMI, the numbers 4,13, and 9. These are the gangs founders Perry Roark, James Sweeney and Bryan Jordan, DMI members in each facility are collectively called a unit. Each unit is led by a commander, followed by lieutenant, field general, sergeant-at-arms, multiple subdivisions of the DMI are present throughout Maryland. Within these subdivisions, the members are associated with other widely known gangs. This led to entry into drug trafficking and other crimes to advance their own agendas as their size, the once tight-knit structure of the group has broken down with the explosion in numbers, as members compete with one another leading to violence between members.
Fueling these internal divisions is the fact that leaders disagreed about the direction of the gang, Perry Roark wanted to return the gang to its former position alongside the BGF, while other leaders want to adopt a white supremacist ideology. A federal grand jury in Baltimore has charged 22 defendants with conspiracy to participate in a violent racketeering enterprise, all but one defendant are charged with conspiring to distribute drugs. The indictment was returned on October 6,2011 and unsealed upon the arrests of seven defendants, eleven defendants were previously in custody and four defendants are still at large
Serbian Organized Crime are various criminal organizations based in Serbia or composed of ethnic Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. The organizations are involved in smuggling, arms trafficking, drug trafficking, protection rackets. The mafia is composed of major organized groups, which in turn have wider networks throughout Europe. It includes some highly successful groups, including one of the largest cocaine import enterprises in Europe, Serbian criminals have been recruited into state security forces, a notable example being Milorad Legija Ulemek, a commander in Arkans Tigers which was re-labelled as the JSO after the war. Legija planned the assassination of Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Đinđić, ethnic Serb OC groups are organized in horizontally, higher-ranked members are not necessarily coordinated by any leader. Ljubomir Magaš, aka Ljuba Zemunac, was known as the Godfather of the Serbian mafia during the 1970s and 1980s and he and his gang operated in Germany and Italy during this time. He was assassinated in 1986 by his rival Goran Majmun Vuković, the drug that was smuggled was cocaine from Colombia and Joca Amsterdam became known as the Cocaine King.
He worked for Duja Bećirović as an underboss and lived in Bulgaria where he successfully smuggled drugs until his arrest in 2002, upon returning to Serbia, he took over companies by force, utilizing the Surčin clan. He was involved in the 2008 assassination of Ivo Pukanić, Željko Arkan Ražnatović was a successful bank robber in Western Europe in the 1970s. He had convictions and warrants in Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, however, he managed to escape from several prisons and made connections with several known criminals from Yugoslavia during his time there. In the 1980s he returned to Serbia where he involved with illegal businesses. The real breakthrough for organizations in Serbia occurred in early 1990s. The Serbs and Bosniaks fought over territory in Croatia and Bosnia, international sanctions were imposed on Serbia starting in May 1992 and Serbia became economically isolated. This prompted the breakthrough for criminal organizations, desperate for money, many former soldiers and youngsters turned to a life of crime.
In 1992, members of the Peca gang were arrested in a massive police-operation, One of the gangs members was Dušan Spasojević, who became the head of the Zemun clan. A young mobster from the Belgrade suburb of Voždovac, Aleksandar Knele Knežević, was murdered in October of that year, prompting a brief, Arkan was the founder and leader of the Serb Volunteer Guard, a Serb paramilitary unit that fought during the Yugoslav Wars. The units members were newly recruited Red Star Belgrade hooligans. Those who joined the unit profited on the battlefields by looting and stealing, Arkan founded the Party of Serbian Unity in 1993
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong. Currently, a number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both sets. In contrast, simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China, the debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of Mainland China, Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China primarily in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text. They are often retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. Taiwan has never adopted Simplified Chinese characters since it is ruled by the Republic of China, the use of simplified characters in official documents is even prohibited by the government in Taiwan.
Simplified characters are not well understood in general, although some stroke simplifications that have incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, similarly, in Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, because of the influx of mainland Chinese tourists, even government websites use simplified Chinese, as they answer to the Beijing government. This has led to concerns by residents to protect their local heritage. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification, while major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, and United Daily News still use traditional characters, on the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified.
Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores. In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub that is used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan and this is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters, overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the half of the 19th century. Therefore, the majority of Chinese language signage in the United States, including street signs, Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world
Some criminal gang members are jumped in or have to prove their loyalty by committing acts such as theft or violence. A member of a gang may be called a gangster or a thug, in early usage, the word gang referred to a group of workmen. In the United Kingdom, the word is often used in this sense. In current usage, it denotes a criminal organization or else a criminal affiliation. The word gang often carries a connotation, within a gang which defines itself in opposition to mainstream norms. The word gang derives from the past participle of Old English gan and it is cognate with Old Norse gangster, meaning journey. In discussing banditry in American history Barrington Moore, Jr, according to some estimates the Thuggee gangs in India murdered 1 million people between 1740 and 1840. The 17th century saw London terrorized by a series of organized gangs, some of known as the Mims, Bugles. These gangs often came into conflict with each other, the members dressed with colored ribbons to distinguish the different factions.
Chicago had over 1,000 gangs in the 1920s, Gang involvement in drug trafficking increased during the 1970s and 1980s, but some gangs continue to have minimal involvement in the trade. In the United States, the history of gangs began on the East Coast in 1783 following the American Revolution, the emergence of the gangs was largely attributed to the vast rural population immigration to the urban areas. The first street-gang in the United States, the 40 Thieves, the gangs in Washington D. C. had control of what is now Federal Triangle, in a region known as Murder Bay. In 2007, there were approximately 785,000 active street gang members in the United States, approximately 230,000 gang members were in U. S. prisons or jails in 2011. According to the Chicago Crime Commission publication, The Gang Book 2012, traditionally Los Angeles County has been considered the Gang Capital of America, with an estimated 120,000 gang members. There were at least 30,000 gangs and 800,000 gang members active across the USA in 2007, about 900,000 gang members lived within local communities across the country, and about 147,000 were in U. S. prisons or jails in 2009.
By 1999, Hispanics accounted for 47% of all members, Blacks 31%, Whites 13%. A December 13,2009 The New York Times article about growing gang violence on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation estimated that there were 39 gangs with 5,000 members on that reservation alone. There are between 25,000 and 50,000 gang members in Central Americas El Salvador, more than 1,800 gangs were known to be operating in the UK in 2011
The Gulf Cartel is a criminal syndicate and drug trafficking organization in Mexico, and perhaps one of the oldest organized crime groups in the country. It is currently based in Matamoros, directly across the border from Brownsville and their network is international, and are believed to have dealings with crime groups in Europe, West Africa, Central America, South America, and the United States. Besides drug trafficking, the Gulf Cartel operates through protection rackets, extortions, the members of the Gulf Cartel are known for intimidating the population and for being particularly violent. As of December 2016 Los Zetas Group (Groupo Bravo & Zetas Vieja Escuela made an Alliance with the Gulf cartel to fight against Cartel Del Noroeste. Nonetheless, it was not until 1984 when his nephew Juan García Ábrego founded the Gulf Cartel and this renegotiation, forced Garcia Ábrego to guarantee the product’s arrival from Colombia to its destination. Instead, he created warehouses along the Mexican’s northern border to preserve hundreds of tons of cocaine, in addition to trafficking drugs, García Ábrego would ship cash to be laundered, in the millions.
Around 1994, it was estimated that the Gulf Cartel handled as much as one-third of all cocaine shipments into the United States from the Cali Cartel suppliers. During the 1990s, the PGR, the Mexican attorney generals office, García Ábregos ties extended beyond the Mexican government corruption and into the United States. The buses made great transportation, as Antonio Ortiz noted, since they were never stopped at the border, in 1989 Claude was removed from the case for unknown reasons, retiring a year later. García Ábrego bribed the agent in an attempt to more information on U. S. law enforcement operations. Juan García Ábregos business had grown to such length that the FBI placed him on the Top Ten Most Wanted in 1995 and he was the first drug trafficker to be on that list. On 14 January 1996, García Ábrego was arrested outside a ranch in Monterrey and he was quickly extradited to the United States where he stood trial eight months after his arrest. García Ábrego was convicted for 22 counts of money laundering, drug possession, jurors ordered the seizure of $350 million of García Ábrego’s assets — $75 million more than what was previously planned.
Juan García Ábrego is currently serving 11 life terms in a security prison in Colorado. In 1996, it was disclosed that García Ábregos organization paid millions of dollars in bribes to politicians and it was proven after his arrest that the deputy attorney general in charge of Mexicos federal Judicial Police had accumulated more than $9 million US dollars for protecting García Ábrego. García Ábregos arrest was subject to allegations of corruption. It is believed the Mexican government knew all García Ábregos whereabouts all along and had refused to arrest him due to information he possessed about the extent of corruption within the government. The arresting officer, a FJP commander, is believed to have received a bullet-proof Mercury Grand Marquis, García Ábrego was apprehended on January 14,1996, and Mexico shortly after received certification on March 1
Jewish-American organized crime
Jewish-American organized crime emerged within the American Jewish community during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It has been referred to variously in media and popular culture as the Jewish Mob, Jewish Mafia, Kosher Mafia, Kosher Nostra, or Undzer Shtik. Another notorious gang, known as the Lenox Avenue Gang, led by Harry Gyp the Blood Horowitz, consisted of mostly Jewish members and it was one of the most violent gangs of the early 20th century and became famous for the murder of gambler and gangster Herman Rosenthal. According to crime writer Leo Katcher, Rothstein transformed organized crime from an activity by hoodlums into a big business, run like a corporation. Rothstein was allegedly responsible for fixing the 1919 World Series, and becoming affiliates of the Italian-American Mafia. The largely Jewish-American and Italian-American gang known as Murder, for decades after, Jewish-American mobsters would continue to work closely and at times compete with Italian-American organized crime.
Jewish-American gangsters were involved in many different criminal activities, including murder, bootlegging and their role was significant in New Yorks burgeoning labor movement, especially the garment and trucking unions, as well as the poultry industry. Jewish organized crime fueled antisemitism and deeply concerned the Jewish community, Jewish organized crime was used by antisemites and anti-immigration supporters as arguments to bolster their agenda. Jewish gangs controlled portions of the Lower East Side and Brownsville in New York City, ethnic involvement in organized crime gave rise to alien conspiracy theories in the US law enforcement community, in which the conception of organized crime as an alien and united entity was vital. The involvement of a percentage of recent immigrants in organized crime created a lasting stereotype of devious immigrants corrupting the morality of native-born Americans. From the late 1960s, Jewish-American organized crime became part of a literature on tough Jews.
However, Cohens description of Jewish gangsters ignores their criminality and immorality and these tough characters were still gangsters who extorted and murdered other members of the Jewish-American community for profit. They forced Jewish women into prostitution, and were considered a scourge within their own community. The Yiddish press and literature of the 1920s and 1930s was resolute in its condemnation of Jewish mobsters, a significant Jewish underworld already existed in New York at the start of the 20th century, with Jewish mobsters conversing in a jargon with Yiddish origins. A pimp was known as a simcha, a detective as a shamus, the lure of quick money and the romance of the criminal lifestyle was attractive to both second-generation Jewish and Italian immigrants. There was a supposed Jewish crime wave in early-20th-century New York, in disturbing numbers young Jews had joined crime rackets, it was said, along with children of Irish and other immigrants. However, the supposed Jewish-immigrant crime may have been exaggerated by the press and population figures show that Jews in New York committed crimes at a rate far below the average for the wider society.
As described by sociologist Stephen Steinberg, about a sixth of the citys felony arrests were Jews during the 1920s, other Jewish organized crime figures involved in controlling labor unions include Moses Annenberg and Arnold Rothstein, the latter reportedly responsible for fixing the 1919 World Series
The American Mafia, referred to as the Italian Mafia or the Italian-American Mafia, is a highly organized Italian-American criminal society. The organization is referred to by members as Cosa Nostra or La Cosa Nostra. The Mafia in the United States emerged in impoverished Italian immigrant neighborhoods in New Yorks East Harlem, Lower East Side and it has its roots in the Sicilian Mafia but is a separate organization in the United States. Today, the American Mafia cooperates in various activities with Italian organized crime groups, such as the Sicilian Mafia, Camorra in Naples. The most important unit of the American Mafia is that of a family, despite the name of family to describe the various units, they are not familial groupings. The Mafia is currently most active in the Northeastern U. S. especially in New York City, New Jersey, and New England while being active in Chicago and Florida. At the Mafias peak, there were at least 26 cities around the United States with Cosa Nostra families, with many more offshoots and associates in other cities.
There are five main New York City Mafia families, known as the Five Families, the Gambino, Genovese, Bonanno, at its peak, the Mafia dominated organized crime in the U. S. Each crime family has its own territory and operates independently, while nationwide coordination is overseen by the Commission, the term Mafia was originally used in Italy by the media and law enforcement to describe criminal groups in Sicily. The origins of the term are debatable though most agree the term is derived from the word Maafir a term rooted in Arabic, like the Sicilian Mafia, the American Mafia did not use the term Mafia to describe itself. Neither group has a name and instead used the term cosa nostra when referring to themselves. Mafia properly refers to either the Sicilian or Italian-American Mafia, kennedys political team, referred to as the Irish Mafia. The press coined the name National Crime Syndicate to refer to the network of U. S. organized crime, which includes the Jewish Mafia elements. The first published account of what became the Mafia in the United States dates to the spring of 1869, emigration from southern Italy to the Americas was primarily to Brazil and Argentina, and New Orleans had a heavy volume of port traffic to and from both locales.
The Black Hand was a given to an extortion method used in Italian neighborhoods at the turn of the 20th century. It has been mistaken for the Mafia itself, which it is not. The Black Hand was a society, but there were many small Black Hand gangs. Black Hand extortion was often viewed as the activity of a single organization because Black Hand criminals in Italian communities throughout the United States used the methods of extortion
Italian Americans are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Italy, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics. Italian Americans are the fourth largest European ethnic group in the United States, about 5.5 million Italians immigrated to the United States from 1820 to 2004. Immigration began in earnest during the 1870s, when more than twice as many Italians immigrated than during the five previous decades altogether. The 1870s were followed by the greatest surge of immigration, which occurred in the period between 1880 and 1914 and brought more than 4 million Italians to America. This period of large scale immigration ended abruptly with the onset of the First World War in 1914 and, except for one year, further immigration would be greatly limited by a number of restrictive laws passed by Congress in the 1920s. Approximately 84% of the Italian immigrants came from Southern Italy and Sicily, after unification, the Italian government initially encouraged emigration to relieve economic pressures in the South.
After the American Civil War, which resulted in over a million killed or wounded, immigrant workers were recruited from Italy. In the United States, most Italians began their new lives as manual laborers in Eastern cities, mining camps, Italian Americans gradually moved from the lower rungs of the economic scale in the first generation to a level comparable to the national average by 1970. By 1990, more than 65% of Italian Americans were managerial, the Italian-American communities have often been characterized by strong ties with family, the Catholic Church, fraternal organizations and political parties. Today, over 17 million Americans claim Italian ancestry, third only to Brazil with 31 million, and Argentina and their descendants in America have helped to shape the country and, in turn, have adapted to it. They have gained prominence in politics, the media, the arts, the culinary arts. Italian navigators and explorers played a key role in the discovery, christopher Columbus, the explorer who first reached the Americas in 1492–1504, was Italian.
Another notable Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, who explored the east coast of South America between 1499 and 1502, is the source of the name America. Englands claims in North America were based on the voyages of the Italian explorer John Cabot, in 1524 the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to map the Atlantic coast of todays United States, and to enter New York Bay. In 1539, Marco da Nizza, explored the territory became the states of Arizona. In the 17th century, Henri de Tonti, together with the French explorer LaSalle, De Tonti founded the first European settlement in Illinois in 1679, and in Arkansas in 1683. With LaSalle, he co-founded New Orleans, and was governor of the Louisiana Territory for the next 20 years and his brother Alphonse de Tonty, with French explorer Antoine Cadillac, was the co-founder of Detroit in 1701, and was its acting colonial governor for 12 years. Spain and France were Catholic countries and sent many missionaries to convert the native population, included among these missionaries were numerous Italians
Jyutping is a romanisation system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong, an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese Romanisation Scheme, the LSHK promotes the use of this romanisation system. The name Jyutping is a contraction consisting of the first Chinese characters of the terms Jyut6jyu5, only the finals m and ng can be used as standalone nasal syllables. ^ ^ ^ Referring to the pronunciation of these words. There are nine tones in six distinct tone contours in Cantonese, however, as three of the nine are entering tones, which only appear in syllables ending with p, t, and k, they do not have separate tone numbers in Jyutping. Jyutping and the Yale Romanisation of Cantonese represent Cantonese pronunciations with the letters in, The initials, b, p, m, f, d, t, n, l, g, k, ng, h, s, gw, kw. The vowel, aa, a, e, i, o, u, the coda, i, u, m, n, ng, p, t, k. But they differ in the following, The vowels eo and oe represent /ɵ/ and /œː/ respectively in Jyutping, the initial j represents /j/ in Jyutping whereas y is used instead in Yale.
The initial z represents /ts/ in Jyutping whereas j is used instead in Yale, the initial c represents /tsʰ/ in Jyutping whereas ch is used instead in Yale. In Jyutping, if no consonant precedes the vowel yu, the initial j is appended before the vowel, in Yale, the corresponding initial y is never appended before yu under any circumstances. Jyutping defines three finals not in Yale, eu /ɛːu/, em /ɛːm/, and ep /ɛːp/ and these three finals are used in colloquial Cantonese words, such as deu6, lem2, and gep6. To represent tones, only tone numbers are used in Jyutping whereas Yale traditionally uses tone marks together with the letter h. Jyutping and Cantonese Pinyin represent Cantonese pronunciations with the letters in, The initials, b, p, m, f, d, t, n, l, g, k, ng, h, s, gw, kw. The vowel, aa, a, e, i, o, u, the coda, i, u, m, n, ng, p, t, k. But they have differences, The vowel oe represents both /ɵ/ and /œː/ in Cantonese Pinyin whereas eo and oe represent /ɵ/ and /œː/ respectively in Jyutping.
The vowel y represents /y/ in Cantonese Pinyin whereas both yu and i are used in Jyutping, the initial dz represents /ts/ in Cantonese Pinyin whereas z is used instead in Jyutping. The initial ts represents /tsʰ/ in Cantonese Pinyin whereas c is used instead in Jyutping. To represent tones, the numbers 1 to 9 are usually used in Cantonese Pinyin, only the numbers 1 to 6 are used in Jyutping
Chinese Americans, known as the American Chinese, are Americans who have full or partial Han Chinese ancestry. Chinese Americans constitute one group of overseas Chinese and a subgroup of East Asian Americans, the Chinese American community is the largest overseas Chinese community outside of Asia. It is the third largest in the Chinese diaspora, behind the Chinese communities in Thailand, the Chinese American community comprises the largest ethnic group of Asian Americans, comprising 25. 9% of the Asian American population as of 2010. Americans of Chinese descent, including those with partial Chinese ancestry constitute 1. 2% of the total U. S. population as of 2010, according to the 2010 census, the Chinese American population numbered approximately 3.8 million. In 2010, half of Chinese-born people living in the United States resided in the states of California, the first Chinese immigrants arrived in 1820, according to U. S. government records. 325 men are known to have arrived before the 1849 California Gold Rush, There were 25,000 immigrants by 1852, and 105,465 by 1880, most of whom lived on the West Coast.
They formed over a tenth of Californias population, nearly all of the early immigrants were young males with low educational levels from six districts in Guangdong Province. In the 1850s, Chinese workers migrated to the United States, first to work in the mines, but to take agricultural jobs. As the numbers of Chinese laborers increased, so did the strength of anti-Chinese attitude among other workers in the American economy, the Chinese laborers worked out well and thousands more were recruited until the railroads completion in 1869. Chinese labor provided the workforce needed to build the majority of the Central Pacifics difficult route through the Sierra Nevada mountains. American objections to Chinese immigration took many forms, and generally stemmed from economic and cultural tensions, Most Chinese laborers who came to the United States did so in order to send money back to China to support their families there. At the same time, they had to repay loans to the Chinese merchants who paid their passage to America and these financial pressures left them little choice but to work for whatever wages they could.
Non-Chinese laborers often required much higher wages to support their wives and children in the United States, many of the non-Chinese workers in the United States came to resent the Chinese laborers, who might squeeze them out of their jobs. Some advocates of anti-Chinese legislation therefore argued that admitting Chinese into the United States lowered the cultural and moral standards of American society, others used a more overtly racist argument for limiting immigration from East Asia, and expressed concern about the integrity of American racial composition. Because anti-Chinese discrimination and efforts to stop Chinese immigration violated the 1868 Burlingame-Seward Treaty with China, the Chinese population rose from 2,716 in 1851 to 63,000 by 1871. In the decade 1861-70,64,301 were recorded as arriving, 77% were located in California, with the rest scattered across the West, the South, and New England. Most came from Southern China looking for a life, escaping a high rate of poverty left after the Taiping Rebellion.
In 1879, advocates of immigration restriction succeeded in introducing and passing legislation in Congress to limit the number of Chinese arriving to fifteen per ship or vessel, republican President Rutherford B. Hayes vetoed the bill because it violated U. S. treaty agreements with China
The Tijuana Cartel or Arellano-Félix Organization is a Mexican drug cartel based in Tijuana. The cartel once was described as one of the biggest and most violent criminal groups in Mexico, since the 2006 Sinaloa Cartel incursion in Baja California and the fall of the Arellano-Félix brothers, the Tijuana Cartel had been reduced to few cells. Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo, the founder of the Guadalajara Cartel was arrested in 1989, while incarcerated, he remained one of Mexicos major traffickers, maintaining his organization via mobile phone until he was transferred to a new maximum security prison in the 1990s. k. a. Currently, the majority of Mexicos smuggling routes are controlled by three key cartels, Gulf and Tijuana —though Tijuana is the least powerful. The Tijuana cartel was further weakened in August 2006 when its chief, as a result of these efforts, the Tijuana cartel is unable to project much power outside of its base in Tijuana. Much of the violence that emerged in 2008 in Tijuana was a result of conflicts within the Tijuana cartel, on one side, the other faction, led by Luis Fernando Sánchez Arellano, focused primarily on drug trafficking.
The faction led by Sánchez Arellano demanded the reduction of the kidnappings in Tijuana, the Mexican federal government responded by implementing Operation Tijuana, a coordination carried out between the Mexican military and the municipal police forces in the area. To put down the violence, InSight Crime states that a pact was created between military officials and members of the Sánchez Arellano faction to eliminate Simentals group. The U. S. authorities speculated through WikiLeaks in 2009 that Tijuanas former police boss, with the arrest of El Teo in January 2010, much of his faction was eliminated from the city of Tijuana, some of its remains went off and joined with the Sinaloa Cartel. The relative peace in the city of Tijuana in 2010–2012 has raised speculations of an agreement between the Tijuana Cartel and the Sinaloa Cartel to maintain peace in the area. The Tijuana cartel, has something their rivals do not have, the Tijuana cartel charges a toll on the Sinaloa cartel for trafficking drugs in their territory, which serves as an illustration of the Tijuana cartels continued hegemony as a local group.
The brothers death and arrests during the 2000s did impact the Arellano Felix cartel, today the group is led by the Arellanos nephew, Luis Fernando Sánchez Arellano. The Tijuana Cartel has infiltrated the Mexican law enforcement and judicial systems and is involved in street-level trafficking within the United States. The organization has a reputation for extreme violence, Ramón Arellano Félix ordered a hit which resulted in the mass murder of 18 people in Ensenada, Baja California, on September 17,1998. Ramón was eventually killed in a gun battle with police at Mazatlán Sinaloa, eduardo Arellano Félix was captured by the Mexican Army after a shootout in Tijuana, Baja California, on October 26,2008, he had been the last of the Arellano Félix brothers at large. Enedinas son, Luis Fernando Sánchez Arellano, took over the cartels operations and his two top lieutenants were Armando Villareal Heredia and Edgardo Leyva Escandon. Fernando Sanchez Arellano was arrested by Mexican police in June 2014 Leyva remains at large, on November 5,2011, Mexican troops arrested cartel lieutenant Francisco Sillas Rocha, who was reported to the cartels number two leader, and some of his close associates.
Experts argued that Rochas arrest put the Tijuana Cartel on the ropes, the Tijuana cartel is present in at least 15 Mexican states with important areas of operation in Tijuana, Mexicali and Ensenada in Baja California, in parts of Sinaloa and Zacatecas