Sucre is the constitutional capital of Bolivia, the capital of the Chuquisaca Department and the 6th most populated city in Bolivia. Located in the south-central part of the country, Sucre lies at an elevation of 2,810 meters; this high altitude gives the city a cool temperate climate year-round. On November 30, 1538, Sucre was founded under the name Ciudad de la Plata de la Nueva Toledo by Pedro Anzures, Marqués de Campo Redondo. In 1559, the Spanish King Philip II established the Audiencia de Charcas in La Plata with authority over an area which covers what is now Paraguay, southeastern Peru, Northern Chile and Argentina, much of Bolivia; the Audiencia de Charcas was a subdivision of the Viceroyalty of Peru until 1776, when it was transferred to the newly created Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. In 1601 the Recoleta Monastery was founded by the Franciscans and in 1609 an archbishopric was founded in the city. In 1624 St Francis Xavier University of Chuquisaca was founded. Much a Spanish city during the colonial era, the narrow streets of the city centre are organised in a grid, reflecting the Andalusian culture, embodied in the architecture of the city's great houses and numerous convents and churches.
Sucre remains the seat of the Roman Catholic Church in Bolivia, a common sight is members of religious orders dressed in traditional costume. For much of its colonial history, Sucre's temperate climate was preferred by the Spanish royalty and wealthy families involved in silver trade coming from Potosí. Testament to this is the Glorieta Castle. Sucre's University is one of the oldest universities in the new world. On May 25, 1809 the Bolivian independence movement was started with the ringing of the bell of the Basilica of Saint Francisco; this bell was rung to the point of breakage, but it can still be found in the Basilica today: it is one of the most precious relics of the city. Until the 19th century, La Plata was the judicial and cultural centre of the region, it was proclaimed provisional capital of the newly independent Alto Peru in July 1826. On July 12, 1839, President José Miguel de Velasco proclaimed a law naming the city as the capital of Bolivia, renaming it in honor of the revolutionary leader Antonio José de Sucre.
After the economic decline of Potosí and its silver industry, Sucre lost the Bolivian seat of government when it was moved to La Paz in 1898. Many argue Sucre was the location of the beginning of the Latin American independence movement against Spain; the first "Grito Libertario" in any Western Hemisphere Spanish colony is said to have taken place in Sucre in 1809. From that point of view, Bolivia was the last Spanish imperial territory in South America to gain its independence, in 1825. In 1991 Sucre became a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the city attracts thousands of tourists every year due to its well-preserved downtown with buildings from the 18th and 19th centuries. Nestled at the foot of the twin hills of Churuquella and Sika Sika, Sucre is the gateway to numerous small villages that date from the colonial era, the most well-known of, Tarabuco, home of the colorful "Pujllay" festival held each March. Most of these villagers are members of one of the indigenous ethnicities. Many dress in clothing distinctive to their respective villages.
Sucre is the capital of Chuquisaca department and one of the capitals of Bolivia, where the Supreme Court is located. The government of the City of Sucre is divided into legislative branches; the Mayor of Sucre is the head of the city government, elected for a term of five years by general election. The legislative branch consists of the Municipal Council, which elects a President, Vice President and Secretary from a group of eleven members; the current mayor of Sucre is Iván Arciénega, who defeated former mayor Jaime Barrón in elections held on March 30, 2015. The current Municipal Council was elected in the regional election of April 4, 2010; the election was by proportional representation with the Pact of Social Integration and the Movement Towards Socialism gaining the largest and second largest shares of the vote. The council elected in April 2010 and seated in late December 2010 is as follows: Sucre is divided into eight numbered districts: the first five of these are urban districts, while Districts 6, 7, 8 are rural districts.
Each is administered by a Sub-Mayor, appointed by the Mayor of Sucre. The rural districts include numerous rural communities outside the urban area. Sucre is served by Alcantari Airport, situated 30 km to the South. Sucre has a subtropical highland climate, with mild temperatures year round; the highest record temperature was 34.7 °C while the lowest record temperature was −6 °C Each of the well known names represent a specific era of the city's history. Charcas was the indigenous name for the place upon. La Plata was the name given to the emerging Hispanic city of honor; the name Chuquisaca was bestowed upon the city during the independence era. Sucre honors the great marshal of the Battle of Antonio José de Sucre. "La Ciudad Blanca" is a nickname, bestowed upon the city because many of the colonial style houses and structures are painted white. Sucre has the most important sport facilities in Bolivia, the most practiced sport in the city is football. Sucre has the second-biggest football and Olympic stadium in the Estadio Patria.
It is the home ground of Sucre's first-division team in the Bolivian professional league, Universitario de Sucre, t
Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century; the oldest Latin texts with traces of Spanish come from mid-northern Iberia in the 9th century, the first systematic written use of the language happened in Toledo capital of the Kingdom of Castile, in the 13th century. Beginning in 1492, the Spanish language was taken to the viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire, most notably to the newly-discovered Americas, as well as territories in Africa and the Philippines. Around 75% of modern Spanish vocabulary is derived from Latin and, through Latin, Ancient Greek. Spanish vocabulary has been in contact with Arabic from an early date, having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula.
With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin. It has been influenced by Basque, Celtiberian, by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages. Additionally, it has absorbed vocabulary from other languages the Romance languages—French, Portuguese, Catalan and Sardinian—as well as from Quechua and other indigenous languages of the Americas. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, it is used as an official language by the European Union, the Organization of American States, the Union of South American Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the African Union and many other international organizations. Despite its large number of speakers, the Spanish language does not feature prominently in scientific writing, with the exception of the humanities, it is estimated that more than 437 million people speak Spanish as a native language, which qualifies it as second on the lists of languages by number of native speakers.
Instituto Cervantes claims that there are an estimated 477 million Spanish speakers with native competence and 572 million Spanish speakers as a first or second language—including speakers with limited competence—and more than 21 million students of Spanish as a foreign language. Spanish is the official or national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, 19 countries in the Americas. Speakers in the Americas total some 418 million, it is an optional language in the Philippines as it was a Spanish colony from 1569 to 1899. In the European Union, Spanish is the mother tongue of 8% of the population, with an additional 7% speaking it as a second language. Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States. In 2011 it was estimated by the American Community Survey that of the 55 million Hispanic United States residents who are five years of age and over, 38 million speak Spanish at home. According to a 2011 paper by U. S. Census Bureau Demographers Jennifer Ortman and Hyon B. Shin, the number of Spanish speakers is projected to rise through 2020 to anywhere between 39 million and 43 million, depending on the assumption one makes about immigration.
Most of these Spanish speakers will be Hispanic, with Ortman and Shin projecting between 37.5 million and 41 million Hispanic Spanish speakers by 2020. In Spain and in some other parts of the Spanish-speaking world, Spanish is called not only español but castellano, the language from the kingdom of Castile, contrasting it with other languages spoken in Spain such as Galician, Asturian, Catalan and Occitan; the Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the term castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State in contrast to las demás lenguas españolas. Article III reads as follows: El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado.... Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas... Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State.... The other Spanish languages shall be official in their respective Autonomous Communities... The Spanish Royal Academy, on the other hand uses the term español in its publications, but from 1713 to 1923 called the language castellano.
The Diccionario panhispánico de dudas states that, although the Spanish Royal Academy prefers to use the term español in its publications when referring to the Spanish language, both terms—español and castellano—are regarded as synonymous and valid. Two etymologies for español have been suggested; the Spanish Royal Academy Dictionary derives the term from the Provençal word espaignol, that in turn from the Medieval Latin word Hispaniolus,'from—or pertaining to—Hispania'. Other authorities attribute it to a supposed mediaeval Latin *hispaniōne, with the same meaning; the Spanish language evolved from Vulgar Latin, brought to the Iberian Peninsula by the Romans during the Second Punic War, beginning in 210 BC. Several pre-Roman languages —unrelated to Latin, some of them unrelated to Indo-European—were spoken in the Iberian Peninsula; these languages included Basque, Iberian and Gallaecian. The first documents to show traces of what is today regarded as the precursor of modern Spanish are from the 9th century.
Throughout the Middle Ages and into the modern era, the most important influences on the Spanish lexicon came from neighboring Romance languages—Mozarabic (Anda
Carlota Joaquina of Spain
Doña Carlota Joaquina of Spain, was by birth a member of the Spanish branch of the House of Bourbon and Infanta of Spain and by marriage Queen consort of Portugal and the Algarves. Eldest daughter of King Charles IV of Spain and Maria Luisa of Parma, she was married in May 1785 aged 10 with Infante John, Lord of the Infantado and Duke of Beja, second son of Queen Maria I of Portugal, in an attempt to cement ties between the Kingdoms of Spain and Portugal. Detested by the Portuguese court — where she was called "the Shrew of Queluz" — Carlota Joaquina gradually won the antipathy of the people, who accused her of promiscuity and influencing her husband in favor of the interests of the Spanish crown. After the escape of the Portuguese court to Brazil, Carlota Joaquina began conspiring against her husband, claiming that he had no mental capacity to govern Portugal and its possessions, thus wanting to establish a regency. Ambitious, she planned to usurp the Spanish crown, in the hands of Napoleon's brother Joseph Bonaparte.
After the marriage in 1817 of her son Pedro with the Archduchess Leopoldina of Austria and the return of the royal family to Portugal in 1821, Carlota Joaquina was confined in the Royal Palace of Queluz, where she died alone and abandoned by her children on 7 January 1830. After her death, Carlota Joaquina became part of popular culture and an important historical figure, being the subject of several books and other media; some scholars believe that she has had a rough and superficial behavior, attributing to her the fact that she hated Brazil. Born in the Royal Palace of Aranjuez on 25 April 1775 as the second child of Charles, Prince of Asturias and his wife Maria Luisa of Parma, she was baptized with the names of Carlota Joaquina Teresa Cayetana, but she was called only by her first name, Carlota, a name that honoured both her father and paternal grandfather, King Charles III of Spain —of whom Carlota was his favourite granddaughter—. Despite the rigidity of her education and court etiquette, the Infanta was described as mischievous and playful.
She received a rigid and Catholic education, with bases in the fields of study of religion, geography and riding. The closed and austere temperament of the Spanish monarchy imposed on the family and on the whole court rigid norms of behavior and etiquette. King Charles III, a man of reserved behaviour, devoted more time to his family than to the animations of the courtesan life, where his daughter-in-law Maria Luisa took an active part. Carlota's mother soon assumed the organization of entertainments at court, with luxurious parties, where morals were forgotten. Soon the Princess of Asturias' image would be linked to that of a promiscuous woman who betrayed her husband to other men. Among them was the Prime Minister Manuel Godoy, whose alleged love affair was explored by the press at the time. Not the successive pregnancies and long-hoped birth of a living male heir to the throne in 1784 saved Maria Luísa from the contempt of the population, she would go down in history as one of the most unpopular queens in Spain and her bad reputation affected her children Carlota, the firstborn daughter.
The subject of Carlota Joaquina's marriage was arranged by both King Charles III and his sister Mariana Victoria, Dowager Queen of Portugal in the late 1770s when Mariana went to Spain to encourage diplomatic relations between the estranged countries. Carlota Joaquina was to marry Infante John, Duke of Beja and Infante Gabriel of Spain was to marry Infanta Mariana Vitória of Portugal. Carlota's apprenticeship would be tested when she underwent a series of public examinations in front of the Spanish court and Portuguese ambassadors sent on behalf of Queen Maria I of Portugal to evaluate the qualities of the princess destined to marry her second son. In October 1785, the Gazeta of Lisbon published an account of the tests: "Everything has satisfied so that one can not express the admiration which such a vast instruction ought to cause at such a tender age: but...the decided talent with which God has endowed this most serene Lady, her prodigious memory and that everything is possible with the awakening and capacity with which the above-mentioned master promotes such useful and glorious applications."
Having proven the talent of the bride, there was therefore no impediment to the union with the Portuguese prince, so in 8 May 1785 was celebrated the proxy marriage. On the day she left the Spanish court, Carlota Joaquina asked her mother to make a painting of her in a red dress to place on the wall, instead of the painting of Infanta Margaret Theresa of Spain; as a part of the infanta cortege were Father Felipe Scio, famous Spanish theologian and scholar, Emília O'Dempsy, as lady-in-waiting, Anna Miquelina, personal maid of Carlota Joaquina. The official wedding ceremony between Infante John of Portugal and Carlota Joaquina took place on 9 June 1785. Due to the bride's young age, the consummation of the union was delayed until 9 January 1790, when Carlota Joaquina was be able to conceive and bear children; the climate in the Braganza court differed in many respects from that of the
Siege of Montevideo (1812–14)
The event known as Second Siege of Montevideo took place between 1812 and 1814, when the patriotic troops led by José Rondeau besieged the city of Montevideo, still held by Spanish loyalists under the leadership of Gaspar de Vigodet. The siege marked the end of the Spanish presence in present-day Uruguay. During this whole period and just like in the failed first siege of Montevideo, supplied from over the sea, the city held out, until May 17, 1814; the naval victories of Admiral William Brown, cut off the supply route and the city faced starvation. By the end of June, Vigodet was forced to surrender Montevideo to General Carlos María de Alvear. Battle of Cerrito Dissolution of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata Gaspar de Vigodet José Rondeau