Diocletian, born Diocles, was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in Dalmatia, Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become Roman cavalry commander to the Emperor Carus. After the deaths of Carus and his son Numerian on campaign in Persia, Diocletian was proclaimed emperor; the title was claimed by Carus' surviving son, but Diocletian defeated him in the Battle of the Margus. Diocletian's reign marks the end of the Crisis of the Third Century, he appointed fellow officer Maximian as Augustus, co-emperor, in 286. Diocletian reigned in the Eastern Empire, Maximian reigned in the Western Empire. Diocletian delegated further on 1 March 293, appointing Galerius and Constantius as Caesars, junior co-emperors, under himself and Maximian respectively. Under this'tetrarchy', or "rule of four", each emperor would rule over a quarter-division of the empire. Diocletian purged it of all threats to his power, he defeated the Sarmatians and Carpi during several campaigns between 285 and 299, the Alamanni in 288, usurpers in Egypt between 297 and 298.
Galerius, aided by Diocletian, campaigned against Sassanid Persia, the empire's traditional enemy. In 299 he sacked Ctesiphon. Diocletian achieved a lasting and favourable peace. Diocletian separated and enlarged the empire's civil and military services and reorganized the empire's provincial divisions, establishing the largest and most bureaucratic government in the history of the empire, he established new administrative centres in Nicomedia, Mediolanum and Trevorum, closer to the empire's frontiers than the traditional capital at Rome. Building on third-century trends towards absolutism, he styled himself an autocrat, elevating himself above the empire's masses with imposing forms of court ceremonies and architecture. Bureaucratic and military growth, constant campaigning, construction projects increased the state's expenditures and necessitated a comprehensive tax reform. From at least 297 on, imperial taxation was standardized, made more equitable, levied at higher rates. Not all of Diocletian's plans were successful: the Edict on Maximum Prices, his attempt to curb inflation via price controls, was counterproductive and ignored.
Although effective while he ruled, Diocletian's tetrarchic system collapsed after his abdication under the competing dynastic claims of Maxentius and Constantine, sons of Maximian and Constantius respectively. The Diocletianic Persecution, the empire's last and bloodiest official persecution of Christianity, failed to eliminate Christianity in the empire. Despite these failures and challenges, Diocletian's reforms fundamentally changed the structure of Roman imperial government and helped stabilize the empire economically and militarily, enabling the empire to remain intact for another 150 years despite being near the brink of collapse in Diocletian's youth. Weakened by illness, Diocletian left the imperial office on 1 May 305, became the first Roman emperor to abdicate the position voluntarily, he lived out his retirement in his palace on the Dalmatian coast. His palace became the core of the modern-day city of Split in Croatia. Diocletian was born near Salona in Dalmatia, some time around 244.
His parents gave him the Greek name Diocles, or Diocles Valerius. The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes his official birthday, 22 December, as his actual birthdate. Other historians are not so certain, his parents were of low status. The first forty years of his life are obscure; the Byzantine chronicler Joannes Zonaras states that he was Dux Moesiae, a commander of forces on the lower Danube. The often-unreliable Historia Augusta states that he served in Gaul, but this account is not corroborated by other sources and is ignored by modern historians of the period; the first time Diocletian's whereabouts are established, in 282, the Emperor Carus made him commander of the Protectores domestici, the elite cavalry force directly attached to the Imperial household – a post that earned him the honour of a consulship in 283. As such, he took part in Carus' subsequent Persian campaign. Carus's death, amid a successful war with Persia and in mysterious circumstances – he was believed to have been struck by lightning or killed by Persian soldiers – left his sons Numerian and Carinus as the new Augusti.
Carinus made his way to Rome from his post in Gaul as imperial commissioner and arrived there by January 284, becoming legitimate Emperor in the West. Numerian lingered in the East; the Roman withdrawal from Persia was unopposed. The Sassanid king Bahram II could not field an army against them as he was still struggling to establish his authority. By March 284, Numerian had only reached Emesa in Syria. In Emesa he was still alive and in good health: he issued the only extant rescript in his name there, but after he left the city, his staff, including the prefect Aper, reported that he suffered from an inflammation of the eyes, he travelled in a closed coach from on. When the army reached Bithynia, some of the soldiers smelled an odor emanating from the coach, they opened its curtains and inside
Sir Thomas More, venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author and noted Renaissance humanist. He was a councillor to Henry VIII, Lord High Chancellor of England from October 1529 to 16 May 1532, he wrote Utopia, published in 1516, about the political system of an ideal island nation. More opposed the Protestant Reformation, in particular the theology of Martin Luther, Henry VIII, John Calvin and William Tyndale. More opposed the king's separation from the Catholic Church, refusing to acknowledge Henry as Supreme Head of the Church of England and the annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. After refusing to take the Oath of Supremacy, he was executed. Of his execution, he was reported to have said: "I die the King's good servant, but God's first". Pope Pius XI canonised More in 1935 as a martyr. Pope John Paul II in 2000 declared him the patron saint "of Statesmen and Politicians". Since 1980, the Church of England has remembered More liturgically as a Reformation martyr.
The Soviet Union honoured him for the purportedly communist attitude toward property rights expressed in Utopia. Born on Milk Street in London, on 7 February 1478, Thomas More was the son of Sir John More, a successful lawyer and a judge, his wife Agnes, he was the second of six children. More was educated at St Anthony's School considered one of London's best schools. From 1490 to 1492, More served John Morton, the Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Chancellor of England, as a household page. Morton enthusiastically supported the "New Learning", thought of the young More. Believing that More had great potential, Morton nominated him for a place at the University of Oxford. More began his studies at Oxford in 1492, received a classical education. Studying under Thomas Linacre and William Grocyn, he became proficient in both Greek. More left Oxford after only two years—at his father's insistence—to begin legal training in London at New Inn, one of the Inns of Chancery. In 1496, More became a student at Lincoln's Inn, one of the Inns of Court, where he remained until 1502, when he was called to the Bar.
According to his friend, theologian Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, More once contemplated abandoning his legal career to become a monk. Between 1503 and 1504 More lived near the Carthusian monastery outside the walls of London and joined in the monks' spiritual exercises. Although he admired their piety, More decided to remain a layman, standing for election to Parliament in 1504 and marrying the following year. More continued ascetic practices for the rest of his life, such as wearing a hair shirt next to his skin and engaging in flagellation. A tradition of the Third Order of Saint Francis honours More as a member of that Order on their calendar of saints. More married Jane Colt in 1505. Erasmus reported that More wanted to give his young wife a better education than she had received at home, tutored her in music and literature; the couple had four children before Jane died in 1511: Margaret, Elizabeth and John. Going "against friends' advice and common custom," within thirty days More had married one of the many eligible women among his wide circle of friends.
He chose Alice Harpur Middleton to head his care for his small children. The speed of the marriage was so unusual that More had to get a dispensation of the banns of marriage, due to his good public reputation, he obtained. More had no children from his second marriage, although he raised Alice's daughter from her previous marriage as his own. More became the guardian of two young girls: Anne Cresacre would marry his son, John More. An affectionate father, More wrote letters to his children whenever he was away on legal or government business, encouraged them to write to him often. More insisted upon giving his daughters the same classical education as his son, a unusual attitude at the time, his eldest daughter, attracted much admiration for her erudition her fluency in Greek and Latin. More told his daughter of his pride in her academic accomplishment in September 1522, after he showed the bishop a letter she had written: When he saw from the signature that it was the letter of a lady, his surprise led him to read it more eagerly … he said he would never have believed it to be your work unless I had assured him of the fact, he began to praise it in the highest terms … for its pure Latinity, its correctness, its erudition, its expressions of tender affection.
He took out at once from his pocket a portague … to send to you as a pledge and token of his good will towards you. More's decision to educate his daughters set an example for other noble families. Erasmus became much more favourable once he witnessed their accomplishments. A portrait of More and his family, Sir Thomas More and Family, was painted by Holbein, but it was lost in a fire in the 18th century. More's grandson commissioned a copy. In 1504 More was elected to Parliament to represent Great Yarmouth, in 1510 began representing London. From 1510, More served as one of the two undersheriffs of the City of London, a position of considerable responsibility in which he earned a reputation as an honest and effective public servant. More became Maste
Early centers of Christianity
Early Christianity spread from the Eastern Mediterranean throughout the Roman Empire and beyond. This progression was connected to established Jewish centers in the Holy Land and the Jewish diaspora; the first followers of Christianity were Jews or proselytes referred to as Jewish Christians and God-fearers. The Apostolic sees claim to have been founded by one or more of the apostles of Jesus, who are said to have dispersed from Jerusalem sometime after the crucifixion of Jesus, c. 26–36 following the Great Commission. Early Christians gathered in small private homes, known as house churches, but a city's whole Christian community would be called a church – the Greek noun ἐκκλησία means assembly, gathering, or congregation but is translated as church in most English translations of the New Testament. Many of these Early Christians were merchants and others who had practical reasons for traveling to northern Africa, Asia Minor, Arabia and other places. Over 40 such communities were established by the year 100, many in Anatolia known as Asia Minor, such as the Seven churches of Asia.
By the end of the first century, Christianity had spread to Rome and major cities in Armenia and Syria, serving as foundations for the expansive spread of Christianity throughout the world. Jerusalem was the first center of the church, according to the Book of Acts, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the location of "the first Christian church"; the apostles taught there for some time after Pentecost. James, the brother of Jesus was a leader in the church, his other kinsmen held leadership positions in the surrounding area after the destruction of the city until its rebuilding as Aelia Capitolina, c. 130, when all Jews were banished from the city. In about 50, Barnabas and Paul went to Jerusalem to meet with the "pillars of the church", James and John. Called the Council of Jerusalem, this meeting, among other things, confirmed the legitimacy of the mission of Barnabas and Paul to the gentiles, the gentile converts' freedom from most Mosaic law circumcision, repulsive to the Hellenic mind.
Thus, the Apostolic Decree may be a major act of differentiation of the Church from its Jewish roots although the decree may parallel Jewish Noahide Law and thus be a commonality rather than a differential. In the same time period Rabbinic Judaism made their circumcision requirement of Jewish boys stricter; when Peter left Jerusalem after Herod Agrippa I tried to kill him, James appears as the principal authority. Clement of Alexandria called him Bishop of Jerusalem. A second-century church historian, wrote that the Sanhedrin martyred him in 62. In 66, the Jews revolted against Rome. Rome besieged Jerusalem for four years, the city fell in 70; the city, including the Temple, was destroyed and the population was killed or removed. According to a tradition recorded by Eusebius and Epiphanius of Salamis, the Jerusalem church fled to Pella at the outbreak of the First Jewish Revolt. According to Epiphanius of Salamis, the Cenacle survived at least to Hadrian's visit in 130. A scattered population survived.
The Sanhedrin relocated to Jamnia. Prophecies of the Second Temple's destruction are found in the synoptics in the Olivet Discourse. In the 2nd century, Hadrian rebuilt Jerusalem as a pagan city called Aelia Capitolina, erecting statues of Jupiter and himself on the site of the former Jewish Temple, the Temple Mount. Bar Cochba led an unsuccessful revolt as a Messiah, but Christians refused to acknowledge him as such; when Bar Cochba was defeated, Hadrian barred Jews from the city, except for the day of Tisha B'Av, thus the subsequent Jerusalem bishops were gentiles for the first time. The general significance of Jerusalem to Christians entered a period of decline during the Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, but resumed again with the pilgrimage of Helena to the Holy Land c. 326–28. According to the church historian Socrates of Constantinople, Helena claimed to have found the cross of Christ, after removing a Temple to Venus, built over the site. Jerusalem had received special recognition in Canon VII of Nicaea in 325.
The traditional founding date for the Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre is 313 which corresponds with the date of the Edict of Milan which legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire. Jerusalem was named as one of the Pentarchy, but this was never accepted by the church of Rome. See East–West Schism#Prospects for reconciliation. Antioch, a major center of Hellenistic Greece, the third-most important city of the Roman Empire part of Syria Province, today a ruin near Antakya, was where Christians were first called Christians and the location of the Incident at Antioch, it was the site of an early church, traditionally said to be founded by Peter, considered the first bishop. The Gospel of Matthew and the Apostolic Constitutions may have been written there; the church father Ignatius of Antioch was its third bishop. The School of Antioch, founded in 270, was one of two major centers of early church learning; the Curetonian Gospels and the Syriac Sinaiticus are two early New Testament text types associated with Syriac Christianity.
It was one of the three whose bishops were recognized at the First Council of Nicaea as exercising jur
Eusebius of Caesarea known as Eusebius Pamphili, was a historian of Christianity and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an learned Christian of his time, he wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History", he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335. Little is known about the life of Eusebius.
His successor at the See of Caesarea, wrote a Life of Eusebius, a work that has since been lost. Eusebius' own surviving works only represent a small portion of his total output. Beyond notices in his extant writings, the major sources are the 5th-century ecclesiastical historians Socrates and Theodoret, the 4th-century Christian author Jerome. There are assorted notices of his activities in the writings of his contemporaries Athanasius, Eusebius of Nicomedia, Alexander of Alexandria. Eusebius' pupil, Eusebius of Emesa, provides some incidental information. In his Ecclesiastical History, Eusebius writes of Dionysius of Alexandria as his contemporary. If this is true, Eusebius' birth must have been before Dionysius' death in autumn 264, he was born in the town in which he lived for most of his adult life, Caesarea Maritima. He was baptized and instructed in the city, lived in Syria Palaestina in 296, when Diocletian's army passed through the region. Eusebius was made presbyter by Agapius of Caesarea.
Some, like theologian and ecclesiastical historian John Henry Newman, understand Eusebius' statement that he had heard Dorotheus of Tyre "expound the Scriptures wisely in the Church" to indicate that Eusebius was Dorotheus' pupil while the priest was resident in Antioch. By the 3rd century, Caesarea had a population of about 100,000, it had been a pagan city since Pompey had given control of the city to the gentiles during his command of the eastern provinces in the 60s BC. The gentiles retained control of the city for the three centuries to follow, despite Jewish petitions for joint governorship. Gentile government was strengthened by the city's refoundation under Herod the Great, when it had taken on the name of Augustus Caesar. In addition to the gentile settlers, Caesarea had large Samaritan minorities. Eusebius was born into the Christian contingent of the city. Caesarea's Christian community had a history reaching back to apostolic times, but it is a common claim that no bishops are attested for the town before about 190 though the Apostolic Constitutions 7.46 states that Zacchaeus was the first bishop.
Through the activities of the theologian Origen and the school of his follower Pamphilus, Caesarea became a center of Christian learning. Origen was responsible for the collection of usage information, or which churches were using which gospels, regarding the texts which became the New Testament; the information used to create the late-fourth-century Easter Letter, which declared accepted Christian writings, was based on the Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius of Caesarea, wherein he uses the information passed on to him by Origen to create both his list at HE 3:25 and Origen's list at HE 6:25. Eusebius got his information about what texts were accepted by the third-century churches throughout the known world, a great deal of which Origen knew of firsthand from his extensive travels, from the library and writings of Origen. On his deathbed, Origen had made a bequest of his private library to the Christian community in the city. Together with the books of his patron Ambrosius, Origen's library formed the core of the collection that Pamphilus established.
Pamphilus managed a school, similar to that of Origen. Pamphilus was compared to Demetrius of Phalerum and Pisistratus, for he had gathered Bibles "from all parts of the world". Like his model Origen, Pamphilus maintained close contact with his students. Eusebius, in his history of the persecutions, alludes to the fact that many of the Caesarean martyrs lived together under Pamphilus. Soon after Pamphilus settled in Caesarea, he began teaching Eusebius, somewhere between twenty and twenty-five; because of his close relationship with his schoolmaster, Eusebius was sometimes called Eusebius Pamphili: "Eusebius, son of Pamphilus". The name may indicate that Eusebius was made Pamphilus' heir. Pamphilus gave Eusebius a strong admiration for the thought of Origen. Neither Pamphilus nor Eusebius knew Origen personally.
Matthew the Apostle
Matthew the Apostle was, according to the Christian Bible, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus and, according to Christian tradition, one of the four Evangelists. Among the early followers and apostles of Jesus, Matthew is mentioned in Matthew 9:9 and Matthew 10:3 as a publican or tax collector who, while sitting at the "receipt of custom" in Capernaum, was called to follow Jesus, he is listed among the twelve, but without identification of his background, in Mark 3:18, Luke 6:15 and Acts 1:13. In passages parallel to Matthew 9:9, both Mark 2:14 and Luke 5:27 describe Jesus' calling of the tax collector Levi, the son of Alphaeus, but Mark and Luke never explicitly equate this Levi with the Matthew named as one of the twelve. Levi was the son of Alphaeus; as a tax collector he would have been literate in Greek. His fellow Jews would have despised him for what was seen as collaborating with the Roman occupation force. After his call, Matthew invited Jesus home for a feast. On seeing this, the Scribes and the Pharisees criticized Jesus for eating with tax collectors and sinners.
This prompted Jesus to answer, "I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance." The New Testament records that as a disciple, he followed Jesus, was one of the witnesses of the Resurrection and the Ascension of Jesus. Afterwards, the disciples withdrew to an upper room in Jerusalem; the disciples proclaimed that Jesus was the promised Messiah. In the Babylonian Talmud "Mattai" is one of five disciples of "Jeshu". Church fathers such as Irenaeus and Clement of Alexandria claim that Matthew preached the Gospel to the Jewish community in Judea, before going to other countries. Ancient writers are not agreed as to; the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church each hold the tradition that Matthew died as a martyr, although this was rejected by the gnostic heretic Heracleon as early as the second century. The Gospel of Matthew is anonymous: the author is not named within the text, the superscription "according to Matthew" was added some time in the second century; the tradition that the author was the disciple Matthew begins with the early Christian bishop Papias of Hierapolis, cited by the Church historian Eusebius, as follows: "Matthew collected the oracles in the Hebrew language, each one interpreted them as best he could."On the surface, this has been taken to imply that Matthew's Gospel itself was written in Hebrew or Aramaic by the apostle Matthew and translated into Greek, but nowhere does the author claim to have been an eyewitness to events, Matthew's Greek "reveals none of the telltale marks of a translation".
Scholars have put forward several theories to explain Papias: Matthew wrote two gospels, now lost, in Hebrew, the other our Greek version. The consensus is that Papias does not describe the Gospel of Matthew as we know it, it is accepted that Matthew was written in Greek, not in Aramaic or Hebrew. In the 3rd-century Jewish–Christian gospels attributed to Matthew were used by Jewish–Christian groups such as the Nazarenes and Ebionites. Fragments of these gospels survive in quotations by Jerome and others. Most academic study follows the distinction of Gospel of the Nazarenes, Gospel of the Ebionites, Gospel of the Hebrews found in Schneemelcher's New Testament Apocrypha. Critical commentators regard these texts as having been composed in Greek and related to Greek Matthew. A minority of commentators consider them to be fragments of a lost Aramaic or Hebrew language original; the Infancy Gospel of Matthew is a 7th-century compilation of three other texts: the Protevangelium of James, the Flight into Egypt, the Infancy Gospel of Thomas.
Origen said. This Gospel was composed in Hebrew near Jerusalem for Hebrew Christians and translated into Greek, but the Greek copy was lost; the Hebrew original was kept at the Library of Caesarea. The Nazarene Community transcribed a copy for Jerome. Matthew's Gospel was called the Gospel according to the Hebrews or sometimes the Gospel of the Apostles and it was once believed that it was the original to the Greek Matthew found in the Bible. However, this has been challenged by modern biblical scholars such as Bart Ehrman and James R. Edwards. Jerome relates that Matthew was supposed by the Nazarenes to have composed their Gospel of the Hebrews though Irenaeus and Epiphanius of Salamis consider this a revised version canonical Gospel; this Gospel has been preserved in the writings of the Church Fathers, said to have been written by Matthew. Epiphanius does not make his own the claim about a Gospel of the Hebrews written by Matthew, a claim that he attributes to the heretical Ebionites. Matthew is recognized as a saint in the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Anglican churches.
His feast day is celebrated on 21 September in 16 November in the East. (For those churches which follow the traditional Julian
Carl Jacob Christoph Burckhardt was a Swiss historian of art and culture and an influential figure in the historiography of both fields. He is known as one of the major progenitors of cultural history. Sigfried Giedion described Burckhardt's achievement in the following terms: "The great discoverer of the age of the Renaissance, he first showed how a period should be treated in its entirety, with regard not only for its painting and architecture, but for the social institutions of its daily life as well." Burckhardt's best known work is The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy. The son of a Protestant clergyman, Burckhardt was born and died in Basel, where he studied theology in the hope of taking holy orders, he was a member of the patrician Burckhardt family. He finished his degree in 1839 and went to the University of Berlin to study history art history a new field. At Berlin, he attended lectures by Leopold von Ranke, the founder of history as a respectable academic discipline based on sources and records rather than personal opinions.
He spent part of 1841 at the University of Bonn, studying under the art historian Franz Theodor Kugler, to whom he dedicated his first book, Die Kunstwerke der belgischen Städte. He taught at the University of Basel from 1843 to 1855 at the Federal Polytechnic School. In 1858, he returned to Basel to assume the professorship he held until his retirement in 1893, he started to teach only art history in 1886. He twice declined offers of professorial chairs at German universities, at the University of Tübingen in 1867 and Ranke's chair at the University of Berlin in 1872. See Life by Hans Trog in the Basler Jahrbuch for 1898, pp. 1–172. Burckhardt is featured on the Swiss thousand franc banknote. Burckhardt's historical writings did much to establish the importance of art in the study of history. According to John Lukacs, he was the first master of cultural history, which seeks to describe the spirit and the forms of expression of a particular age, a particular people, or a particular place, his innovative approach to historical research stressed the importance of art and its inestimable value as a primary source for the study of history.
He was one of the first historians to rise above the narrow 19th-century notion that "history is past politics and politics current history." Burckhardt's unsystematic approach to history was opposed to the interpretations of Hegelianism, popular at the time. In 1838, Burckhardt made his first journey to Italy and published his first important article, "Bemerkungen über schweizerische Kathedralen". Burckhardt delivered a series of lectures at the University of Basel, which were published in 1943 by Pantheon Books Inc. under the title Force and Freedom: An Interpretation of History by Jacob Burckhardt. In 1847, he brought out new editions of Kugler's two great works, Geschichte der Malerei and Kunstgeschichte, in 1853, he published his own work, Die Zeit Constantins des Grossen, he spent the greater part of the years 1853 and 1854 in Italy, collecting material for his 1855 Der Cicerone: Eine Anleitung zum Genuss der Kunstwerke Italiens dedicated to Kugler. The work, "the finest travel guide, written" which covered sculpture and architecture, painting, became an indispensable guide to the art traveller in Italy.
About half of the original edition was devoted to the art of the Renaissance. Thus, Burckhardt was led to write the two books for which he is best known, his 1860 Die Cultur der Renaissance in Italien, his 1867 Geschichte der Renaissance in Italien; the Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy was the most influential interpretation of the Italian Renaissance in the 19th century and is still read. In connection with this work Burckhardt may have been the first historian to use the term "modernity" in a clearly-defined, academic context. Burckhardt developed an ambivalent interpretation of modernity and the effects of the Renaissance, praising the movement as introducing new forms of cultural and religious freedom but worrying about the potential feelings of alienation and disenchantment modern men might feel; these claims proved quite controversial, but the scholarly judgements of Burckhardt's History of the Renaissance are sometimes considered to be justified by subsequent research according to historians including Desmond Seward and art historians such as Kenneth Clark.
Burckhardt and the German historian Georg Voigt founded the historical study of the Renaissance. In contrast to Voigt, who confined his studies to early Italian humanism, Burckhardt dealt with all aspects of Renaissance society. Burckhardt considered the study of ancient history an intellectual necessity and was a respected scholar of Greek civilization. "The Greeks and Greek Civilization" sums up the relevant lectures, "Griechische Kulturgeschichte", which Burckhardt first gave in 1872 and which he repeated until 1885. At his death, he was working on a four-volume survey of Greek civilization. "Judgments on Hi
National Library of Russia
The National Library of Russia in Saint Petersburg, is not only the oldest public library in the nation, but the first national library in the country. The NLR is ranked among the world’s major libraries, it has the second richest library collection in the Russian Federation, a treasury of national heritage, is the All-Russian Information and Cultural Center. Over the course of its history, the Library has aimed for comprehensive acquisition of the national printed output and has provided free access to its collections, it should not be confused with the Russian State Library, located in Moscow. The Imperial Public Library was established in 1795 by Catherine the Great, it was based on the Załuski Library, the famous Polish national library built by Bishop Załuski in Warsaw, seized by the Russians in 1794 after the Partitions of Poland. The idea of a public library in Russia emerged in the early 18th century but did not take shape until the arrival of the Russian Enlightenment; the plan of a Russian public library was submitted to Catherine in 1766 but the Empress did not approve the project for the imperial library until 27 May 1795, eighteen months before her death.
A site for the building was found at the corner of Nevsky Avenue and Sadovaya Street, right in the center of the Russian Imperial capital. The construction work began and lasted for fifteen years; the building was designed in a Neoclassical style by architect Yegor Sokolov. The cornerstone of the foreign-language department came from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the form of Załuski's Library, seized in part by the Russian government at the time of the partitions, though many volumes were lost en route to theft by Russian soldiers who sold them for profit; the Polish-language books from the library were returned to Poland by the Russian SFSR in 1921. For five years after its foundation, the library was run by Comte Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier; the stocks were arranged according to a specially compiled manual of library classification. In 1810, Emperor Alexander I approved Russia’s first library law stipulating, among other things, that two legal copies of all printed matter in Russia be deposited in the Library.
The Library was to be opened for the public in 1812 but, as the more valuable collections had to be evacuated because of Napoleon’s invasion, the inauguration was postponed for two years. Under Count Alexander Stroganov, who managed the library during the first decade of the 19th century, the Rossica project was inaugurated, a vast collection of foreign books touching on Russia, it was Stroganov who secured for the library some of its most invaluable treasures, namely the Ostromir Gospel, the earliest book written in the Old East Slavic dialect of Church Slavonic, the Hypatian Codex of the Russian Primary Chronicle. He, along with other bibliophiles reviewed the collection of manuscripts and letters brought by Peter P. Dubrowsky who had stayed in the diplomatic service for more than 20 years outside the fatherland. Based on the review, Stroganov recommended to Alexander I the creation of a manuscript depot. Alexander decreed the creation of such a department on February 27, 1805, named Dubrowsky as the first keeper of the depot of manuscripts.
The Imperial Public Library was inaugurated on 14 January 1814 in the presence of Gavrila Derzhavin and Ivan Krylov. Over 100 thousand titles were issued to the visitors in the first three decades, the second Library building facing the Catherine Garden was erected between 1832-1835 to accommodate the growing collections; the library's third, arguably most famous, director was Aleksey Olenin. His 32-year tenure at the helm, with Sergey Uvarov serving as his deputy, raised the profile of the library among Russian intellectuals; the library staff included prominent men of letters and scholars like Ivan Krylov, Konstantin Batyushkov, Nikolay Gnedich, Anton Delvig, Mikhail Zagoskin, Alexander Vostokov, Father Ioakinf, to name but a few. Librarianship progressed to a new level in the 1850s; the reader community grew several times. At the same time, many gifts of books were offered to the library. Collection growth rates in the 1850s were five times higher than the annual growth rate of five thousand new acquired during the first part of the century.
In 1859, Vasily Sobolshchikov prepared the first national manual of library science for the library entitled Public Library Facilities and Cataloguing. By 1864, the Public Library held 90 per cent of all Russian printed output; the influx of new visitors required a larger reading room in the new building closing the library court along the perimeter. The visitors were offered such novelties as continuous reading room service by library staff members, a reference desk, printed catalogues and guide books, lists of new acquisitions, longer hours of service in the reading room. An avalanche-like growth of attendance persisted in the second part of the 19th century. Library cards and attendance grew tenfold between 1860 and 1913; the public principle triumphed when the class barriers maintained until the mid-19th century were abolished and the petty bourgeois and women were seen among the visitors. Women were employed by the Library but only as volunteer members rather than formal staf