Varvara Alexeyevna Yakovleva, called Nun Barbara, was a Russian Orthodox nun in the convent of Grand Duchess Elizabeth Fyodorovna. She was killed by the Bolsheviks along with the grand duchess and Prince Ioann Konstantinovich of Russia, Prince Konstantin Konstantinovich of Russia, Prince Igor Konstantinovich of Russia, Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich of Russia, Fyodor Remez, Grand Duke Sergei's secretary, Prince Vladimir Pavlovich Paley at Alapaevsk, she was canonized as a martyr by both the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia and the Russian Orthodox Church within Russia. Varvara Alexeyevna Yakovleva, small in stature and pious, served as Grand Duchess Elizabeth's maid before taking the veil, her nickname was Varya. On April 15, 1910, she took; the Grand Duchess and other women took vows on that date. As sisters of Grand Duchess Elizabeth's convent, the women were well known throughout Moscow for performing acts of charity, they took food to the homes of the poor, set up a home for women suffering from tuberculosis, established a hospital to care for the sick, established homes for the physically disabled, pregnant women and the elderly.
They established an orphanage. Their charitable efforts spread to other cities in Russia. Yakovleva voluntarily accompanied Grand Duchess Elizabeth when she was arrested following the Russian Revolution of 1917 and sent into exile; the group was confined at Yekaterinburg and at Alapaevsk. On the afternoon of July 18, 1918 they were herded into the woods outside Alapaevsk at gunpoint, clubbed on the back of the head, thrown one by one into a mineshaft in the woods. All but Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich, shot in the head, survived the fall, they could be heard singing hymns from the bottom of the shaft. One by one they died. Yakovleva was canonized as a martyr by the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad as a victim of Soviet oppression along with the other members of the group, she was also canonized as a martyr by the Russian Orthodox Church inside Russia. Romanov sainthood Mager, Hugo. Elizabeth: Grand Duchess of Russia. Carroll and Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-0678-3
East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem is the sector of Jerusalem, occupied by Jordan during the Arab–Israeli War, as opposed to the western sector of the city, West Jerusalem, occupied by Israel. Since the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, East Jerusalem has been, along with the rest of the West Bank, occupied by Israel; this area includes Jerusalem's Old City and some of the holiest sites of Judaism and Islam, such as the Temple Mount, Western Wall, Al-Aqsa Mosque, Dome of the Rock and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, as well as a number of adjacent neighbourhoods. Israeli and Palestinian definitions of it differ; the Palestinian official position is based on the 1949 Armistice Agreements, while the Israeli position is based on the current municipality boundaries of Jerusalem. These were determined by a series of administrative enlargements decided by Israeli municipal authorities since the June 1967 Six-Day War. Despite its name, East Jerusalem includes neighborhoods to the north and south of the Old City and, in the wider definition of the term on all these sides of West Jerusalem.
The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, to be illegal under international law. Israel disputes this interpretation. During the 1948 Arab -- Israeli War, Jerusalem was contested between Israel. At the cessation of hostilities, the two countries secretly negotiated a division of the city, with the eastern sector coming under Jordanian rule; this arrangement was formalized in the Rhodes Agreement in March 1949. David Ben-Gurion presented his party's assertion that "Jewish Jerusalem is an organic, inseparable part of the State of Israel" in December 1949, the following year, Jordan annexed East Jerusalem; these decisions were confirmed in the Knesset in January 1950 and the Jordanian Parliament in April 1950. When occupied by Israel after the 1967 Six-Day War, East Jerusalem, with expanded borders, came under direct Israeli rule, according to Ian Lustick, never formally annexed. In a unanimous General Assembly resolution, the UN declared the measures trying to change the status of the city to be invalid.
In the Palestine Liberation Organization's Palestinian Declaration of Independence of 1988, Jerusalem is stated to be the capital of the State of Palestine. In 2000, the Palestinian Authority passed a law proclaiming Jerusalem as its capital, in October 2002, this law was approved by chairman Yasser Arafat. Since that time Israel has shut down all offices and NGO organisations connected to the PLO in East Jerusalem, saying that the Oslo Accords do not permit the Palestinian National Authority to operate in Jerusalem; the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation recognised East Jerusalem as capital of the State of Palestine on 13 December 2017. East Jerusalem is a term. Arabs use the term Arab Jerusalem for this area in official English-language documents, emphasizing the predominance of the Arabic-speaking Palestinian population and distinguishing it from the Hebrew-speaking parts of Jerusalem. Israelis call the Arab-populated part of the city East Jerusalem because of its geographic location in the eastern part of the single larger Jerusalem city unit.
The term East Jerusalem is ambiguous and may be used to refer to either of the following: From 1948 to 1967 it referred to the 6.4 km2 Jordanian-ruled part of the city the predominantly Arab business district, the Old City and surrounding neighborhoods. It may be applied to the area that Israel annexed and included in municipal Jerusalem following its occupation by Israel from Jordan in 1967, which lies north and south of the former East Jerusalem; this area includes an additional approximate 64 km2 of the West Bank, including territory which included 28 villages and areas of the Bethlehem and Beit Jala municipalities under Jordanian rule. The area of East Jerusalem has been inhabited since 5,000 BCE, with settlement beginning in the Chalcolithic period. Tombs are attested by the Early Bronze Age, around 3,200 BCE. In the late second millennium BCE Settlement concentrated around the City of David, chosen because of its proximity to the Gihon Spring. Massive Canaanite constructions were undertaken, with a water channel excavated through rock drawing water to a pool inside the citadel, whose wall was a massive 23 feet thick, built from rocks some weighing up to 3 tons.
In 1934, the British Mandatory authorities divided Jerusalem into 12 wards for electoral purposes. The mapping was criticized by those who believed it was drawn to ensure a Palestinian majority on the Jerusalem city council; the actual mapping suggests otherwise, according to Michael Dumper, who states that the peculiar "hook" on the western electoral borders was a gerrymander made to include as many new Jewish neighbourhoods on that side as possible, while keeping outside of the boundaries Arab villages. To the east, the city's border ended at the Old City walls, in order to exclude the contiguous Arab neighbourhood of Silwan, Ras al-Amud and At-Tur and Abu Tor; these boundaries defined the municipality down to 1948. By 1947 Palestinian Arabs constituted a majority overall in the Jerusalem district, but Jews predominated within the British municipal boundaries, 99,000 to 65,100 Arabs; the Jewish presence in eastern Jerusalem was concentrated to the Old Quarter, with a scattering present in Silwan and Sheikh Jarrah.
Of the 30 holy places in Jerusalem, only 3 were located in Western Jerusalem, with the overwhelming bulk lying within the eastern sector. During the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War, a large number of Je
Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia
The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, or ROCOR until 2007 part of True Orthodoxy's Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, ROCA also referred to as Karlovatsky Synod, or "Karlovatsky group", or the Synod of Karlovci, is since 2007 a semi-autonomous part of the Russian Orthodox Church. The ROCOR was established in the early 1920s as a de facto independent ecclesiastical jurisdiction of Eastern Orthodoxy as a result of some of the Russian bishops having lost regular liaison with the central church authority in Moscow due to the Russian Civil War and subsequent exile, a situation, effectively institutionalised by their rejection of the Moscow Patriarchate′s unconditional political loyalty to the Bolshevik regime in the USSR formally promulgated by the Declaration of 20 July 1927 of Metropolitan Sergius, deputy Patriarchal locum tenens. Metropolitan Antony, of Kiev and Galicia, was the founding First Hierarch of the ROCOR. After decades of separation, the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia signed the Act of Canonical Communion with the Moscow Patriarchate on 17 May 2007, restoring the canonical link between the churches effecting a split with the much diminished Russian Orthodox Church Abroad which remained within the True Orthodoxy movement.
The jurisdiction has around 400 parishes worldwide and an estimated membership of over 400,000 people. Of these, 232 parishes and 10 monasteries are in the United States, with 92,000 adherents and over 9,000 regular church attendees. ROCOR has 13 hierarchs, with male and female monasteries in the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Western Europe and South America. In May 1919, at the peak of the military success of the White forces under Gen Anton Denikin, in the Russian city of Stavropol, controlled by the White Army a group of Russian bishops organised an ecclesiastical administration body, the Temporary Higher Church Administration in South–East Russia. On 7 November 1920, Patriarch of Moscow, his Synod, the Supreme Church Council in Moscow issued a joint resolution No. 362 instructing all Russian Orthodox Christian bishops, should they be unable to maintain liaison with the Supreme Church Administration in Moscow, to seek protection and guidance by organizing among themselves. In November 1920, after the final defeat of the Russian Army in South Russia, a number of Russian bishops evacuated from Crimea to Constantinople occupied by British and Italian forces.
After learning of the decision of Gen Pyotr Wrangel to keep his army, it was decided to keep the Russian ecclesiastical organisation as a separate entity abroad as well. The Temporary Church Authority met on 19 November 1920, aboard the ship Grand Duke Alexader Mikhailovich, presided over by Metropolitan Antony. Metropolitan Antony and Bishop Benjamin were appointed to examine the canonicity of the organization. On 2 December 1920, they received permission from Metropolitan Dorotheos of Prussia, Locum Tenens of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, to establish "for the purpose of the service of the population and to oversee the ecclesiastic life of Russian colonies in Orthodox countries a temporary committee under the authority of the Ecumenical Patriarchate". On 14 February 1921, Metropolitan Antony settled down in the town of Sremski Karlovci, where he was given the palace of former Patriarchs of Karlovci. In the course of the subsequent few months, at the invitation of Patriarch Dimitrije of Serbia, the other eight bishops of the THCAA, including Anastasius and Benjamin, as well as numerous priests and monks, relocated to Serbia.
On 31 August 1921, the Council of Bishops of the Serbian Church passed a resolution, effective from 3 October, that recognised the THCAA as an administratively independent jurisdiction for exiled Russian clergy outside the Kingdom of SHS as well as those Russian clergy in the Kingdom of SHS who were not in parish or state educational service. With the agreement of Patriarch Dimitrije of Serbia, between 21 November and 2 December 1921, the "General assembly of representatives of the Russian Church abroad" took place in Sremski Karlovci, it was renamed the First All-Diaspora Council and was presided over by Metropolitan Anthony. The Council established the "Supreme Ecclesiastic Administration Abroad", composed of a patriarchal Locum Tenens, a Synod of Bishops, a Church Council; the Council decided to appoint Metropolitan Anthony the Locum Tenens, but he declined to accept the position without permission from Moscow and instead called himself the President of the SEAA. The Council adopted a number of resolutions and appeals, the two notable ones being addressed to the flock of the Russian Orthodox Church ″in diaspora and exile″ and to the International Conference in Genoa.
The former, adopted with a majority of votes (but not unanimously, Metropolitan Eulogius Georgiyevsky being the most prom
Alexander III of Russia
Alexander III was the Emperor of Russia, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Finland from 13 March 1881 until his death on 1 November 1894. He was conservative and reversed some of the liberal reforms of his father, Alexander II. During Alexander's reign Russia fought no major wars, he was therefore styled "The Peacemaker". Grand Duke Alexander Alexandrovich was born on 10 March 1845 at the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire, the second son and third child of Emperor Alexander II and his first wife Maria Alexandrovna. In disposition Alexander bore little resemblance to his soft-hearted, liberal father, still less to his refined, sentimental, yet cunning great-uncle, Emperor Alexander I, who could have been given the title of "the first gentleman of Europe". Although an enthusiastic amateur musician and patron of the ballet, Alexander was seen as lacking refinement and elegance. Indeed, he rather relished the idea of being of the same rough texture as some of his subjects, his straightforward, abrupt manner savoured sometimes of gruffness, while his direct, unadorned method of expressing himself harmonized well with his rough-hewn, immobile features and somewhat sluggish movements.
His education was not such as to soften these peculiarities. More than six feet tall, he was noted for his immense physical strength. A sebaceous cyst on the left side of his nose caused him to be mocked by some of his contemporaries, he sat for photographs and portraits with the right side of his face most prominent. An account from the memoirs of the artist Alexander Benois gives one impression of Alexander III: After a performance of the ballet Tsar Kandavl at the Mariinsky Theatre, I first caught sight of the Emperor. I was struck by the size of the man, although cumbersome and heavy, he was still a mighty figure. There was indeed something of the muzhik about him; the look of his bright eyes made quite an impression on me. As he passed where I was standing, he raised his head for a second, to this day I can remember what I felt as our eyes met, it was a look as cold as steel, in which there was something threatening frightening, it struck me like a blow. The Tsar's gaze! The look of a man who stood above all others, but who carried a monstrous burden and who every minute had to fear for his life and the lives of those closest to him.
In years I came into contact with the Emperor on several occasions, I felt not the slightest bit timid. In more ordinary cases Tsar Alexander III could be at once kind and almost homely. Though he was destined to be a counter-reforming emperor, Alexander had little prospect of succeeding to the throne during the first two decades of his life, as he had an elder brother, who seemed of robust constitution; when Nicholas first displayed symptoms of delicate health, the notion that he might die young was never taken and he was betrothed to Princess Dagmar of Denmark, daughter of King Christian IX of Denmark and Queen Louise of Denmark, whose siblings included King Frederick VIII of Denmark, Queen of the United Kingdom and King George I of Greece. Great solicitude was devoted to the education of Nicholas as tsesarevich, whereas Alexander received only the training of an ordinary Grand Duke of that period; this included acquaintance with French and German, military drill. Alexander became Tsesarevich upon Nicholas's sudden death in 1865.
Pobedonostsev instilled into the young man's mind the belief that zeal for Russian Orthodox thought was an essential factor of Russian patriotism to be cultivated by every right-minded emperor. While he was heir apparent from 1865 to 1881 Alexander did not play a prominent part in public affairs, but allowed it to become known that he had ideas which did not coincide with the principles of the existing government. On his deathbed the previous tsesarevich was said to have expressed the wish that his fiancée, Princess Dagmar of Denmark, should marry his successor; this wish was swiftly realized when on 9 November 1866 in the Grand Church of the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, Alexander wed Dagmar, who converted to Orthodox Christianity and took the name Maria Feodorovna; the union proved a happy one to the end. The couple spent their wedding night at the Tsesarevich's private dacha known as "My Property". On the Tsesarevich became estranged from his father. To the scandal of many at court, including the Tsesarevich himself, Alexander II married Catherine a mere month after Marie Alexandrovna's death in 1880.
On 1 March 1881 Alexander's father, Alexander II, was assassinated by members of the terrorist organization Narodnaya Volya. As a result, he ascended to the Russian imperial throne in Nennal on 13 March 1881, he and Maria Feodorovna were crowned and anointed at the Assumption Cathedral in Moscow on 27 May 1883. Alexander's ascension to the throne was followed b
David Grimm (architect)
David Ivanovich Grimm was a Russian architect and historian of art of Byzantine Empire and Armenia. Grimm belonged to the second generation of Russian neo-Byzantine architects and was the author of orthodox cathedrals in Tbilisi and smaller churches in Russia and Western Europe. Grimm was a long-term professor at the Imperial Academy of Arts and chaired its Department of Architecture in 1887-1892. David Grimm was born in a Lutheran family and attended the German Saint Peter's School in Saint Petersburg, he completed the class of Alexander Brullov at the Imperial Academy of Arts in 1841-1848. His graduation honours entitled Grimm to take an Academy-sponsored study tour of Italy and France, but it was cancelled due to the revolutions of 1848 in Europe. Rather than waiting until the end of hostilities, Grimm opted for a study tour of the Caucasus that exposed him to the wealth of vernacular Georgian and Armenian architecture. In 1852–1855 Grimm travelled to Asia Minor and Greece, studying the Byzantine relics.
These studies were summarized in Grimm's 12-volume Monuments of Byzantine architecture in Georgia and Armenia and subsequent works. Grimm became a professor of the Institute of Civil Engineers in 1856 and at the Academy in 1859. In 1858 empress Maria Alexandrovna commissioned Grimm to design the cathedral in Chersonesos, on the site of a Greek church where Vladimir I of Kiev was baptized in 988. Construction of the cathedral commenced before the Crimean War to the design by Konstantin Thon. Maria's choice was influenced by Grigory Gagarin. Grimm's design was displayed to the public the next year. Unlike contemporary Byzantine architects, Grimm based his draft on Georgian legacy, employing polygonal surfaces instead of Byzantine cylinders and domes. Construction started in 1861 and, despite royal sponsorship, proceeded slowly: the structure was completed in 1876, the interiors in 1897; the Chersonesus Cathedral remained a sole example of the Georgian line in Byzantine revival until it reappeared shortly before World War I.
The other commission of the Romanovs, a Byzantine chapel in Nice, commemorating the late Nicholas Alexandrovich, was completed in less than two years, 1866–1868). In the next twenty years Grimm designed numerous Orthodox "embassy churches", including the Russian Church, the Alexander Nevsky Church and the Church of Mary Magdalene in Jerusalem. In 1865 Grimm and Robert Gedike jointly took part in the contest to design a new cathedral in Tbilisi but lost to Victor Schroeter and Alexander Huhn. Schroeter-Huhn proposal, if executed, would have been the largest Neo-Byzantine structure of its time; the client - viceroy of the Caucasus Mikhail Nikolayevich - dismissed the Schroeter-Huhn proposal as too expensive. The building, completed in 1871-1897 followed the original Russian scheme of a single dome with four symmetrical apses created by Roman Kuzmin in 1861, yet Grimm changed his proportions to create a tall, vertical silhouette. Grimm's draft, publicised in the 1860s, paved the road to numerous variations of the same single-dome layout and was perfected by Vasily Kosyakov in the 1880s.
Grimm's last design, the burial vault of Grand Dukes in Peter and Paul Fortress, remained on paper: after Grimm's death, the project was taken over by Antony Tomischko, who died soon, the Vault was redesigned and completed by Leon Benois in Baroque style. David Grimm was buried at Smolenskoe Lutheran Cemetery in Saint Petersburg, his son, Hermann Grimm, was a successful architect. Cathedral of Saint Vladimir in Chersonesos Grand Ducal Burial Vault at the Peter and Paul Cathedral Church of Saint Olga in the grand ducal manor of Mikhailovka, Strelna Completion of German Refomist church in Saint Petersburg Chapel to the memory of late Nicholas Alexandrovich, Nice Cathedral of Saint Alexander Nevsky, Tbilisi Moika Embankment, 42, 1867–1870 Church of Protection in Gatchina, completed 1883 Church of Saint Alexander Nevsky, Copenhagen Savelyev, Yu. R. Vizantiysky stil v architecture Rossii Saint Petersburg, 2005. ISBN 5-87417-207-6, pp. 36–56, 245 Savelyev, Yu. R. Iskusstvo istorizma i gosudarstvernny zakaz Moscow, 2008.
Russian Orthodox Church
The Russian Orthodox Church, alternatively known as the Moscow Patriarchate, is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian churches. The Primate of the ROC is the Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus'; the ROC, as well as the primate thereof ranks fifth in the Orthodox order of precedence below the four ancient patriarchates of the Greek Orthodox Church, those of Constantinople, Alexandria and Jerusalem. Since 15 October 2018, the ROC is not in communion with the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, having unilaterally severed ties in reaction to the establishment of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine, finalised by the Ecumenical Patriarchate on 5 January 2019; the Christianization of Kievan Rus' seen as the birth of the ROC, is believed to have occurred in 988 through the baptism of the Kievan prince Vladimir and his people by the clergy of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, whose constituent part the ROC remained for the next six centuries, while the Kievan see remained in the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate until 1686.
The ROC claims its exclusive jurisdiction over the Orthodox Christians, irrespective of their ethnic background, who reside in the former member republics of the Soviet Union, excluding Georgia and Armenia, although this claim is disputed in such countries as Estonia and Ukraine and parallel canonical Orthodox jurisdictions exist in those: the Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church, the Metropolis of Bessarabia, the Orthodox Church of Ukraine, respectively. It exercises ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the autonomous Church of Japan and the Orthodox Christians resident in the People's Republic of China; the ROC branches in Belarus, Latvia and Ukraine since the 1990s enjoy various degrees of self-government, albeit short of the status of formal ecclesiastical autonomy. The ROC should not be confused with the Orthodox Church in America, another autocephalous Orthodox church, that traces its existence in North America to the time of the Russian missionaries in Alaska in the late 18th century; the ROC should not be confused with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, headquartered in the United States.
The ROCOR was instituted in the 1920s by Russian communities outside Communist Russia, which refused to recognize the authority of the Moscow Patriarchate de facto headed by Metropolitan Sergius Stragorodsky. The two churches reconciled on May 17, 2007; the Christian community that developed into what is now known as the Russian Orthodox Church is traditionally said to have been founded by the Apostle Andrew, thought to have visited Scythia and Greek colonies along the northern coast of the Black Sea. According to one of the legends, Andrew reached the future location of Kiev and foretold the foundation of a great Christian city; the spot where he erected a cross is now marked by St. Andrew's Cathedral. By the end of the first millennium AD, eastern Slavic lands started to come under the cultural influence of the Eastern Roman Empire. In 863–69, the Byzantine monks Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius, both from the region of Macedonia in the Eastern Roman Empire translated parts of the Bible into the Old Church Slavonic language for the first time, paving the way for the Christianization of the Slavs and Slavicized peoples of Eastern Europe, the Balkans and Southern Russia.
There is evidence that the first Christian bishop was sent to Novgorod from Constantinople either by Patriarch Photius or Patriarch Ignatios, c. 866–867. By the mid-10th century, there was a Christian community among Kievan nobility, under the leadership of Bulgarian and Byzantine priests, although paganism remained the dominant religion. Princess Olga of Kiev was the first ruler of Kievan Rus′, born a Christian, her grandson, Vladimir of Kiev, made Rus' a Christian state. The official Christianization of Kievan Rus' is believed to have occurred in 988 AD, when Prince Vladimir was baptised himself and ordered his people to be baptised by the priests from the Eastern Roman Empire; the Kievan church was a junior metropolitanate of the Patriarchate of Constantinople and the Ecumenical Patriarch appointed the metropolitan, a Greek, who governed the Church of Rus'. The Kiev Metropolitan's residence was located in Kiev itself, the capital of the medieval Rus' state; as Kiev was losing its political and economical significance due to the Mongol invasion, Metropolitan Maximus moved to Vladimir in 1299.
Following the tribulations of the Mongol invasion, the Russian Church was pivotal in the survival and life of the Russian state. Despite the politically motivated murders of Mikhail of Chernigov and Mikhail of Tver, the Mongols were tolerant and granted tax exemption to the church; such holy figures as Sergius of Radonezh and Metropolitan Alexis helped the country to withstand years of Mongol rule, to expand both economically and spiritually. The Trinity monastery founded by Sergius of Radonezh became the setting for the flourishing of spiritual art, exemplified by the work of Andrey Rublev, among others; the followers of Sergius founded four hundred monasteries, thus extending the geographical extent of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In 1439, at t
Princess Alice of Battenberg
Princess Alice of Battenberg was the mother of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, mother-in-law of Queen Elizabeth II. A great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria, she grew up in the United Kingdom, the German Empire, the Mediterranean, she was congenitally deaf. After marrying Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark in 1903, she adopted the style of her husband, becoming Princess Andrew of Greece and Denmark, she lived in Greece until the exile of most of the Greek royal family in 1917. On returning to Greece a few years her husband was blamed in part for the country's defeat in the Greco-Turkish War, the family was once again forced into exile until the restoration of the Greek monarchy in 1935. In 1930, she was committed to a sanatorium in Switzerland. After her recovery, she devoted most of her remaining years to charity work in Greece, she stayed in Athens during the Second World War, sheltering Jewish refugees, for which she is recognised as "Righteous Among the Nations" by Israel's Holocaust memorial institution, Yad Vashem.
After the war, she stayed in Greece and founded an Orthodox nursing order of nuns known as the Christian Sisterhood of Martha and Mary. After the fall of King Constantine II of Greece and the imposition of military rule in Greece in 1967, she was invited by her son and daughter-in-law to live at Buckingham Palace in London, where she died two years later, her remains were transferred from a vault in her birthplace, Windsor Castle, to a Russian Orthodox convent on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem in 1988. Alice was born in the Tapestry Room at Windsor Castle in Berkshire in the presence of her great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, she was the eldest child of Prince Louis of Battenberg and his wife Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine. Her mother was the eldest daughter of Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, the Queen's second daughter, her father was the eldest son of Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine through his morganatic marriage to Countess Julia Hauke, created Princess of Battenberg in 1858 by Louis III, Grand Duke of Hesse.
Her three younger siblings, Louise and Louis became Queen of Sweden, Marquess of Milford Haven, Earl Mountbatten of Burma, respectively. She was christened Victoria Alice Elizabeth Julia Marie in Darmstadt on 25 April 1885, she had six godparents: her three surviving grandparents, Grand Duke Louis IV of Hesse, Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine, Julia, Princess of Battenberg. Alice spent her childhood between Darmstadt, London and Malta, her mother noticed that she was slow in learning to talk, became concerned by her indistinct pronunciation. She was diagnosed with congenital deafness after her grandmother, Princess Battenberg, identified the problem and took her to see an ear specialist. With encouragement from her mother, Alice speak in English and German. Educated she studied French, after her engagement, she learned Greek, her early years were spent in the company of her royal relatives, she was a bridesmaid at the marriage of the Duke of York and Mary of Teck in 1893. A few weeks before her sixteenth birthday she attended the funeral of Queen Victoria in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, shortly afterward she was confirmed in the Anglican faith.
Princess Alice met Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark, the fourth son of King George I of Greece and Olga Constantinovna of Russia, while in London for King Edward VII's coronation in 1902. They married in a civil ceremony on 6 October 1903 at Darmstadt; the following day, there were two religious marriage ceremonies. She adopted the style of her husband, becoming "Princess Andrew"; the bride and groom were related to the ruling houses of the United Kingdom, Russia and Greece, their wedding was one of the great gatherings of the descendants of Queen Victoria and Christian IX of Denmark held before World War I. Prince and Princess Andrew had five children, all of whom had children of their own. After their wedding, Prince Andrew continued his career in the military and Princess Andrew became involved in charity work. In 1908, she visited Russia for the wedding of Grand Duchess Marie of Russia and Prince William of Sweden. While there, she talked with her aunt, Grand Duchess Elizabeth Fyodorovna, formulating plans for the foundation of a religious order of nurses.
Princess Andrew attended the laying of the foundation stone for her aunt's new church. In the year, the Grand Duchess began giving away all her possessions in preparation for a more spiritual life. On their return to Greece and Princess Andrew found the political situation worsening, as the Athens government had refused to support the Cretan parliament, which had called for the union of Crete with the Greek mainland. A group of dissatisfied officers formed a Greek nationalist Military League that led to Prince Andrew's resignation from the army and the rise to power of Eleftherios Venizelos. With the advent of the Balkan Wars, Prince Andrew was reinstated in the army and Princess Andrew acted as a nurse, assisting at operations and setting up field hospitals, work for which King George V awarded her the Royal Re