The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning administration. When now used in a sense, it refers to a territorial unit of administration. This structure of governance is known as episcopal polity. The word diocesan means relating or pertaining to a diocese and it can be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese. An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese, an archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or have had importance due to size or historical significance. The archbishop may have authority over any other suffragan bishops. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the bishopric is used to describe the bishop himself. Especially in the Middle Ages, some bishops held political as well as religious authority within their dioceses, in the organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. With the adoption of Christianity as the Empires official religion in the 4th century, a formal church hierarchy was set up, parallel to the civil administration, whose areas of responsibility often coincided.
With the collapse of the Western Empire in the 5th century, a similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was largely retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division, modern usage of diocese tends to refer to the sphere of a bishops jurisdiction. As of January 2015, in the Catholic Church there are 2,851 regular dioceses,1 papal see,641 archdioceses and 2,209 dioceses in the world, in the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy. Eastern Orthodoxy calls dioceses metropoleis in the Greek tradition or eparchies in the Slavic tradition, after the Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as provinces and this usage is relatively common in the Anglican Communion.
Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics and these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory. The Lutheran Church-International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure and its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes. The Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States, in the COGIC, each state is divided up into at least three dioceses that are all led by a bishop, but some states as many as seven dioceses
Cologne is the largest city in the German federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth-largest city in Germany. It is located within the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region, one of the major European metropolitan areas, and with more than ten million inhabitants, Cologne is located on both sides of the Rhine River, less than eighty kilometres from Belgium. The citys famous Cologne Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne, the University of Cologne is one of Europes oldest and largest universities. Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory in the first century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, the French version of the citys name, has become standard in English as well. The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior, during the Middle Ages it flourished on one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. Cologne was one of the members of the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval.
Up until World War II the city had several occupations by the French. Cologne was one of the most heavily bombed cities in Germany during World War II, the bombing reduced the population by 95%, mainly due to evacuation, and destroyed almost the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many buildings as possible. Cologne is a cultural centre for the Rhineland, it hosts more than thirty museums. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics, the Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne and the Photokina. The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, in 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia on the Rhine and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 AD. The city was named Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium in 50 AD, considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne, especially near the wharf area, where a notable discovery of a 1900-year-old Roman boat was made in late 2007.
From 260 to 271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus, Marius, in 310 under Constantine a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it one of the most important trade. Cologne is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map, who was elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne. The city was the capital of a Roman province until occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in 462, parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in 1890. Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire, Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period, under Charlemagne, in 795, bishop Hildebold was promoted to archbishop
The wars resulted from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and the Revolutionary Wars, which had raged on for years before concluding with the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. Napoleon became the First Consul of France in 1799, Emperor five years later, inheriting the political and military struggles of the Revolution, he created a state with stable finances, a strong central bureaucracy, and a well-trained army. The British frequently financed the European coalitions intended to thwart French ambitions, by 1805, they had managed to convince the Austrians and the Russians to wage another war against France. At sea, the Royal Navy destroyed a combined Franco-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in October 1805, Prussian worries about increasing French power led to the formation of the Fourth Coalition in 1806. France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July, although Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire, it did not bring a lasting peace for Europe.
Hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, Napoleon invaded Iberia, the Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, the Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia. Unwilling to bear the consequences of reduced trade, the Russians routinely violated the Continental System. The French launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the collapse and retreat of the Grand Army along with the destruction of Russian lands. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France, a lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813. The Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814 and he was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power.
However, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again, the Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June. The Congress of Vienna, which started in 1814 and concluded in 1815, established the new borders of Europe and laid out the terms, Napoleon seized power in 1799, creating a de facto military dictatorship. The Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleons assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs, for its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers. The British quickly enforced a blockade of France to starve it of resources. Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, and sought to eliminate Britains Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him, the so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France
The Rundetaarn, or Rundetårn, is a 17th-century tower located in central Copenhagen, Denmark. One of the architectural projects of Christian IV, it was built as an astronomical observatory. It is most noted for its equestrian staircase, a 7. 5-turn helical corridor leading to the top, today the Round Tower serves as an observation tower for expansive views of Copenhagen, a public astronomical observatory and a historical monument. In the same time the Library Hall, located above the church, astronomy had grown in importance in 17th-century Europe. Countries had begun competing with other in establishing colonies, creating a need for accurate navigation across the oceans. Many national observatories were established, the first in 1632 at Leiden in the Dutch Republic. Only five years the Round Tower Observatory, first referred to as STELLÆBURGI REGII HAUNIENSIS, after Tycho Brahe had fallen out of favour and left Denmark, Christian Longomontanus had become Christian IVs new astronomer and the first professor of astronomy at the University of Copenhagen.
In 1625 he suggested the king build a tower as a replacement for Brahes Stjerneborg which had been demolished after his death in 1601. Longomontanus initial proposal was to erect the new observatory on the top of the hill Solbjerget, but since there were plans for the construction of a new students church and a library for the university, the idea of merging the three buildings into one grand complex emerged. Already in 1622, Christian IV had bought the land where it was decided to build the Trinitatis Complex. His original plans for the site are not known but as it was located next to the Regensen dormitories. From 24 November 1636, stones were brought to the site for the foundation, first from the citys ramparts, bricks were ordered from the Netherlands since local manufacturers could not meet the high quality standards requested. In February 1637, a contract was signed with a Henrik van Dingklage in Emden for the supply of bricks for the construction, the first three ship loads were to be delivered in May, the next three loads the following month and the remainder on demand.
The Trinitatis Complex was set for construction in a neighbourhood of narrow streets. The area first had to be cleared, on 18 April 1637,200 men and personnel from Bremerholm began to demolish the half-timbered houses occupying the site. The foundation stone was laid on 7 July 1637, when Hans van Steenwinckel died on 6 August 1639, Leonhard Blasius was brought to Denmark from the Netherlands as new Royal Building Master. On several occasions construction work came to a due to shortage of funds. Churches in Denmark and Norway were therefore ordered to contribute a share of their earnings during the construction years, in 1642, the tower was finally completed, though the church was completed only in 1657 and the library in 1657
St Martin-in-the-Fields is an English Anglican church at the north-east corner of Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, London. It is dedicated to Saint Martin of Tours, there has been a church on the site since the medieval period. The present building was constructed in a Neoclassical design by James Gibbs in 1722–1726, excavations at the site in 2006 led to the discovery of a grave from about 410 AD. The site is outside the city limits of Roman London but is particularly interesting for being so far outside, the burial is thought by some to mark a Christian centre of that time. The earliest extant reference to the church is from 1222, with a dispute between the Abbot of Westminster and the Bishop of London as to who had control over it. The Archbishop of Canterbury decided in favour of Westminster, and the monks of Westminster Abbey began to use it, Henry VIII rebuilt the church in 1542 to keep plague victims in the area from having to pass through his Palace of Whitehall. At this time, it was literally in the fields, a position between the cities of Westminster and London.
By the beginning of the reign of James I, the church had become inadequate for the size of its congregation, at the same time the church was, in the phrase of the time, thoroughly repaired and beautified. Later in the 17th century capacity was increased with the addition of galleries. The creation of the new parishes of St Anne, and St James, Piccadilly, as it stood at the beginning of the 18th century, the church was built of brick, rendered over, with stone facings. The roof was tiled, and there was a stone tower, the ceiling was slightly arched, supported with what Edward Hatton described as Pillars of the Tuscan and Modern Gothick orders. The interior was wainscotted in oak to a height of 6 ft, while the galleries, on the north, the church was about 84 ft long and 62 ft wide. The tower was about 90 ft high, a number of notables were buried in this phase of the church, including Robert Boyle, Nell Gwynne, John Parkinson and Sir John Birkenhead. A survey of 1710 found that the walls and roof were in a state of decay, in 1720, Parliament passed an act for the rebuilding of the church allowing for a sum of up to £22,000, to be raised by a rate on the parishioners.
A temporary church was erected partly on the churchyard and partly on ground in Lancaster Court, advertisements were placed in the newspapers that bodies and monuments of those buried in the church or churchyard could be taken away for reinterment by relatives. The rebuilding commissioners selected James Gibbs to design the new church and his first suggestion was for a church with a circular nave and domed ceiling, but the commissioners considered this scheme too expensive. Gibbs produced a simpler, rectilinear plan, which they accepted, the foundation stone was laid on 19 March 1722, and the last stone of the spire was placed into position in December 1724. The total cost was £33,661 including the architects fees, the west front of St Martins has a portico with a pediment supported by a giant order of Corinthian columns, six wide
Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg
Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg was a Danish painter. He was born in Blåkrog in the Duchy of Schleswig, to Henrik Vilhelm Eckersberg and carpenter and he went on to lay the foundation for the period of art known as the Golden Age of Danish Painting, and is referred to as the Father of Danish painting. In 1786 his family moved to Blans, a village near the picturesque Alssund, where he enjoyed drawing pictures of the surrounding countryside, after confirmation he began his training as a painter under church- and portrait painter, Jes Jessen of Aabenraa. He continued his training at 17 years of age under Josiah Jacob Jessen in Flensborg and he, had his sights set on being accepted at the Royal Danish Academy of Art in Copenhagen. Still under apprenticeship he produced proficient drawings and paintings, having amassed some money, including financial support from local well-wishers, he arrived at Copenhagens Tollbooth on 23 May 1803. He was accepted into the Academy without payment in 1803 where he studied with Nikolaj Abraham Abildgaard and he made good progress, painting historical paintings and landscapes.
However, friction between him and Abildgaard impeded his advancement, and he did not win the Academys big gold medal until 1809 and he worked to earn living money as a hand laborer, and he made drawings for copperplate etchings. Although he received promise of a stipend in conjunction with the gold medal. On 1 July 1810, he married E. Christine Rebecca Hyssing against his wishes, in order to legitimize a son, Erling Carl Vilhelm Eckersberg and his son, eventually followed in his fathers footsteps with an Academy education, and a career as a copperplate engraver. On 3 July, a few days after the wedding, he began his travels out of the country, along with Tønnes Christian Bruun de Neergaard, enthusiastic art lover and financial supporter, he made his way over Germany to Paris. Here he studied under neoclassicist Jacques-Louis David from 1811-1812 and he improved his skills in painting the human form, and followed his teachers admonition to paint after Nature and the Antique in order to find Truth.
It was here that he developed a friendship with Paris roommate, fellow artist Jens Peter Møller. After two years he traveled further via Florence to Rome where he continued his studies between 1813-1816 and he worked on improving his skills as a history painter, and enjoyed painting smaller studies of the local life and area. He lived there three years among a group of artists, with Bertel Thorvaldsen as the cultural head. Eckersberg and Thorvaldsen developed a lasting relationship, and the master served the younger Eckersberg as both loyal friend and advisor. Eckersberg painted one of his best portraits, a portrait of Thorvaldsen, in Rome 1814, life in Rome agreed with him, and he was greatly affected by the bright southern light he experienced there. He produced a body of work during those years, including a number of exceptional landscape studies. His divorce from Hyssing was finalized during his stay out of the country, shortly after his return to Denmark he arranged for his admission into the Academy, and received as the subject of his admissions painting the Norse legend, the Death of Baldur
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Christus is a 19th-century Carrara marble statue of the resurrected Jesus by Bertel Thorvaldsen. Since its completion in 1838, the statue has been located in the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark. In the 20th century and replicas of the statue were adopted by the leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to emphasize the centrality of Jesus Christ in church teachings. Thorvaldsen was commissioned to sculpt statues of Jesus and the apostles for the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, the statue of Jesus was completed in 1821. The Christus was not well known outside of Denmark until 1896, the statue is 3.2 metres high. The inscription at the base of the sculpture reads Kommer til mig with a reference to the Bible verse, in the 1950s, LDS Church leader Stephen L Richards purchased a 3. 4-metre replica of the Christus and presented it to Church President David O. McKay. In 1966, the statue was placed in the churchs Temple Square in Salt Lake City, the churchs second Christus replica was created to be displayed in the churchs pavilion at the 1964 New York Worlds Fair.
The display of the replica was intended to help visitors understand that Latter-day Saints are Christians, Utah, Washington, D. C. and Provo, Utah. Replicas are on display at LDS Church visitors centers at the Hill Cumorah and in Independence, the LDS Church uses the image of the Christus on its webpages and in other official publications. A full-size replica of the Christus is located in The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, in 2009, a six-foot Christus replica was built out of 30,000 white Lego pieces by parishioners of a Swedish Protestant church in Västerås. Another copy of the statue is in front of the Friedenskirche in Potsdam, which was built from 1845-1854
Church of Denmark
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark or National Church, sometimes called Church of Denmark, is the established, state-supported church in Denmark. The reigning monarch is the secular authority in the church. As of 1 January 2017,75. 9% of the population of Denmark are members, Christianity was introduced to Denmark in the 9th century by Ansgar, Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen. In the 10th century, King Harald Bluetooth became a Christian and began organizing the church, since the Reformation in Denmark, the Church has been Evangelical Lutheran, while retaining much of its pre-Reformation liturgical traditions. The 1849 Constitution of Denmark designated the church the Danish peoples church, the Church of Denmark continues to maintain the historical episcopate. Theological authority is vested in bishops, ten bishops in mainland Denmark and one in Greenland, there is no archbishop, the Bishop of Copenhagen acts as a primus inter pares. The Church of Denmark is organized in dioceses, each led by a bishop.
There are no archbishops, the most senior bishop is the Bishop of Copenhagen, the further subdivision includes 111 deaneries and 2,200 parishes. Each parish has a council, elected by church members in four-year terms. The parochial council leads the business of the local church and decides employment of personnel. The vicar is subordinate to the council, except in matters such as conducting church services. Both parochial councils and vicars are, subordinate to bishops, a special feature is the possibility of creating voluntary congregations within the Church. These account for a few percent of church members and they are voluntary associations, electing their own parochial council and vicar, whom they agree to pay from their own pockets. In return, they are exempt from church tax, the voluntary congregation and its vicar are subordinate to bishops, and members remain full members of the Church. Historically, when a parish was dominated by a fundamentalist majority and rector, today the voluntary congregations are often a solution for people who find the idea of a free church appealing, but wish to keep some bonds to the church.
Another, less commonly used feature is parish optionality, according to official statistics from January 2017,75. 9% of Danes are members of the Church of Denmark. Membership rates vary from 58. 1% in the Diocese of Copenhagen to 85. 2% in the Diocese of Viborg, any person who is baptised into the Church of Denmark automatically becomes a member. Members may renounce their membership and if they wish
Divine Service (Lutheran)
The Divine Service is a title given to the Eucharistic liturgy as used in the various Lutheran churches. It has its roots in the pre-Tridentine Mass as revised by Martin Luther in his Formula missae of 1523 and it was further developed through the Kirchenordnungen of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries that followed in Luthers tradition. The term Divine Service is popularly used among the more conservative Lutheran churches and organizations of the United States, in the more progressive denominations, such as The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the terms Holy Communion or the Eucharist are much more commonly used. In the parts of North American Lutheranism that use it, the term Divine Service supplants more usual English-speaking Lutheran names for the Mass, the term is a calque of the German word Gottesdienst, the standard German word for worship. As in the English phrase service of God, the genitive in Gottesdienst is arguably ambiguous and it can be read as an objective genitive or a subjective genitive.
While the objective genitive is etymologically more plausible, Lutheran writers frequently highlight the ambiguity, the Lutheran liturgy currently used in the United States traces its development back to the work of Beale M. Schmucker, George Wenner and Edward Horn. Their work took place in the context of a wider North American confessional revival, between 1876 and 1883, various Lutheran synods expressed an interest in creating a common worship service. This led to the creation of a Joint Committee in 1884 which included representatives of the General Synod and General Council and this committee appointed Schmucker and Horn who began their work in April 1884. In 1887, the three men presented their final draft to the Joint Committee and this final draft used the King James Version language and Anglican translations of the Kyrie, Creeds, Lord’s Prayer, and Collects. It included the Nunc Dimittis as an option, during this hymn, the pastor and those assisting him process into the sanctuary from the narthex.
The Invocation begins the Divine Service, for the Invocation and the Preparatory Service, the pastor is to stand at the foot of the altar steps, advancing to the altar at the Introit. He speaks the Trinitarian formula, as the Sign of the Cross is made by all, the Confession follows In the Confession, we kneel humbly before our God, acknowledging our sin and seeking purification of our Spirit. In the Declaration of Grace that follows, we receive from God Himself the assurance of Gods mercy and grace that enables us to focus on our loving God. Both the congregation and the pastor kneel as the following is said, Pastor, If we say we have no sin, we ourselves. Congregation, But if we confess our sins, God who is faithful and just will forgive our sins, Let us confess our sins to God our Father. All, Most merciful God, we confess that we are by nature sinful and we have sinned against you in thought and deed, by what we have done and by what we have left undone. We have not loved You with our whole heart, we have not loved our neighbors as ourselves and we justly deserve Your present and eternal punishment.
For the sake of Your Son, Jesus Christ, have mercy on us, forgive us, renew us, and lead us, so that we may delight in Your will and walk in Your ways to the glory of your Holy Name
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdoms naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the medieval period. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century, from the middle decades of the 17th century and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century it was the worlds most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War. The Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the world power during the 19th. Due to this historical prominence, it is common, even among non-Britons, following World War I, the Royal Navy was significantly reduced in size, although at the onset of the Second World War it was still the worlds largest. By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the worlds largest, during the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a primarily anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines, mostly active in the GIUK gap.
The Royal Navy is part of Her Majestys Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the power in the 10th century. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Medieval fleets, in England as elsewhere, were almost entirely composed of merchant ships enlisted into service in time of war. Englands naval organisation was haphazard and the mobilisation of fleets when war broke out was slow, early in the war French plans for an invasion of England failed when Edward III of England destroyed the French fleet in the Battle of Sluys in 1340. Major fighting was confined to French soil and Englands naval capabilities sufficed to transport armies and supplies safely to their continental destinations. Such raids halted finally only with the occupation of northern France by Henry V.
Henry VII deserves a large share of credit in the establishment of a standing navy and he embarked on a program of building ships larger than heretofore. He invested in dockyards, and commissioned the oldest surviving dry dock in 1495 at Portsmouth, a standing Navy Royal, with its own secretariat, dockyards and a permanent core of purpose-built warships, emerged during the reign of Henry VIII. Under Elizabeth I England became involved in a war with Spain, the new regimes introduction of Navigation Acts, providing that all merchant shipping to and from England or her colonies should be carried out by English ships, led to war with the Dutch Republic. In the early stages of this First Anglo-Dutch War, the superiority of the large, heavily armed English ships was offset by superior Dutch tactical organisation and the fighting was inconclusive